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UIC / Biology / BIOS 230 / Define embryology.

Define embryology.

Define embryology.

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology and Evolution
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Studyguide and outline notes
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 study guide, chapter outlines
Description: Module outlines and summary
Uploaded: 02/03/2017
30 Pages 58 Views 2 Unlocks
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Ecology - BIOS 230If you want to learn more check out Define decision.

June 11, 2017

Module 1


If you want to learn more check out What is population growth?

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION:

Don't forget about the age old question of How does patriarchy create a division in labour between gender?

Fossils:

  • Evidence that organisms in the past differ from those of today
  • Show progression of evolution
  • Scientists determine the age of the fossils to see if those organisms are relative to each other.

Examples:

  • Fossils that show the evolution of horses and humans
  • Flipper of a whale has similar morphology to appendages of birds

If you want to learn more check out What do you call the body of a drum?

Homology

  • Presence of structures in organisms that show the basic form.

Example:

  • Bones in the appendages of humans, dogs, horses….are all the same, meaning they come from a common ancestor.

  • Evolution changed their shapes and sizes but maintained some overall layout. (Homologous structures)

If you want to learn more check out How are chromosomes shaped?

Convergence of form: 

Many unrelated species, such as arctic fox and ptarmigan, live in similar environments, such as the arctic regions and have seasonal white phenotypes to help them blend in with the snow. [Similar selection pressure]We also discuss several other topics like What are the subshells of thee nucleus called?

Embryology

  • The study of the development of the anatomy of an organism to its adult form.
  • Provides evidence that some groups are related
  • Some absent structures appear in embryos and disappear when they reach adulthood.

Examples: tails in human embryos lost by the time of birth.

Molecular Homology

  • Reflect descent with modification
  • The universality of DNA or new universality of the genetic code show evidence of common ancestry in life.
  • The three domains of life have structured differences such as components of ribosomes and membrane structure.

---Geography

  • Organisms are geographically distributed in certain patterns following the movement of tectonic plates over time.
  • Groups that evolved before the breakup of Pangaea are distributed worldwide
  • Groups that evolved after the breakup appears in unique regions.

Examples: the flora and fauna from northern continents and from the southern continent.

Australian:

  • Many diverse marsupials and lack of other mammals
  • Contains endemic species found nowhere else
  • Over time, these species evolved to look different from their ancestors on the mainland.
  • Evidence of isolation


Direct observation:

  • Observation of natural selection in lab or nature. Example: How antibiotics work in the medical field.
  • Natural selection and common descent are both related and equal in organisms’ diversity by long term occurrence and selection pressure.

Lactose Intolerance:

Inability to metabolize lactose due to a lack of lactase enzyme in the digestive tract.

  • Normal mammalian infants have reduced lactose production at the end of the weaning period.
  • Humans living in non-dairy consuming societies experience a 90% drop in lactase production during the first 4 years of life.
  • Some humans experience a mutation on chromosome 2 that prevents the shut down of lactase production.


Selective Breeding [Artificial Selection]:

The process by which humans use animal and plant breeding and choosing which animal or plant will sexually reproduce and develop certain desired phenotypes.

  • Domesticated animals -> breeds
  • Domesticated plants -> varieties or cultigens or cultivars
  • Crossbreds -> Hybrids

Types of Selective Breeding:

  1. Traditional breeders approach: the breeder chooses the trait that exhibits extreme value and applies a known amount of the chosen trait to a single phenotype trait.
  2. Controlled natural selection: natural selection but in a controlled environment
  • The breeder does not choose the tested individuals
  1. Selection experiments: determines the strength of natural selection in the wild
  • More observational than experimental.


Vestigial Traits

  • Genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost their ancestral function in a species
  • Evidence of common descent
  • Vestigial Organs: rudimentary body parts that are smaller and simpler than corresponding parts.
  • Examples: pelvic girdles of whales

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