SPTE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE
∙ 4 exams – 25% each
o An excused absence for an examination will result in your final examination counting 50% of your final exam.
∙ University policy requires that you miss no more than 10% of scheduled classes (3 for this class, whether excused or unexcused). Excessive absences (more than 3) will result in a reduction in your grade or failure for the class. Quizzes (whose scores may be applied to the next test) may be given to check attendance and student understanding. Missed quizzes will not be made up and will count as zero. If you are serious about doing well in this class, you need to attend regularly.
∙ Grading: A = 360 points and above
B+ = 340 – 359.99 points
∙ Types of Sport and Work:
o Amateurs play for the love of the game and for hobby Don't forget about the age old question of What are the functions of the skin?
o Professionals play for compensation (salary & possible scholarship), they use sport to make a living, or as a stepping stone
o Recreational play is for fitness, fun, and socializing
o High Performance is aimed at developing skill to the highest level
∙ Varda Burstyn, “The feelings and identification engendered by sport “approximate the experience of religion more than any other form of human cultural practice.” ∙ Sport is a microcosm of society; our sports are organized similar to our society and vice versa.
∙ Why Study Sport?
o Sport builds connections between people
o A team gives a city or school an identity
o Athletes are seen as societal role models
o Sports affects cultures, traditions, and values
o Sport offers insight into societal issues (e.g., racial and gender equality) ∙ Definition of Sport in North America:
o Institutionalized competitive activity
o Physical skill and specialized facilities or equipment
o Accepted rules to determine a winner If you want to learn more check out In geography, what is a transmission?
o Changeable definition based on cultural beliefs an attitudes
∙ Play Group vs. Organized Teams:
o Spontaneous play groups competitive physical Activities with no formal organization
o Organized Teams competitive organized activities on a sponsored competitive team in an organized league
o Spontaneous Play Group:
Good deal of time spent organizing
Usually no adult supervision
Goal is to continue to play
More play for the fun of it
Experience is an end in itself
o Organized Teams
Organization is complete before gathering
Supervised and controlled by adults
Goal is victory or improvement in standings Don't forget about the age old question of What is globalization in ancient times?
Fun may not be a part
Game is the means to an end
∙ Sport Pyramid: Play, Games, Sport and Work
Physical activity of childhood
Free activity to explore environment, express oneself, dream and pretend No firm rules or set location
Pleasure as the only object
Specialized form of play with more structure
Mental or physical form (inactive or active) If you want to learn more check out What is the neutral equilibrium?
Informal or formal rules
Outcome determined by luck, strategy, and skill
Physical activity and skill
Competition – outcome important and not predetermined
Specialized facilities and equipment
Work is the physical or mental effort needed to perform a task
It is often connected to earning a living
Professional athletes work when they are paid to play a sport We also discuss several other topics like What are the aspects of culture?
Highperformance athletes may experience sport as work even if they are not paid
∙ How we study sport? : Two main research methods
o Quantifiable: Collects or studies data that can be counted and analyzed statistically (n = numbers)
o Qualitative: Collects information through interviews or observation of individuals, groups, societal characteristics, and trends Don't forget about the age old question of What are the hormones on muscle?
∙ Different Research Methods:
o Survey Research : Quantifiable
Pros: Quickly collects much data for trend analysis; random sampling permits generalization to larger population.
Cons: Relies on selfreports; may not account for personal differences; may mislead if data are not discreet enough.
o Interviewing : Qualitative
Methodology: questioning individuals or small (focus) groups
Pros: Can be in depth; can prompt unexpected answers.
Cons: Can be time consuming, expensive, and limited to small samples. o Content Research (Analysis) : Qualitative
Methodology: collecting information or pictures from media and assigning themes
Pros: Can assess much data; can analyze societal priorities and biases. Con: Uses inferences from others’ reporting rather than from selfreports. o Ethnography : Qualitative
Methodology: notes and conversations obtained by personal observation and immersion in an environment or group
Pro: Provides an insider view.
Cons: Can be costly and time intensive.
o Historical Research : Qualitative
Methodology: examining primary documents, interviewing primary sources and experts, and analyzing historians’ interpretations
Pros: Examines sport trends over time; can make comparisons with society at large.
Con: Addresses only large societal trends.
o Societal Analysis : Qualitative
Methodology: analyzing data obtained through various methods already described
Pro: Applies social theories and models to examine life from a social point of view.
Con: If only one theory or model is used, it may ignore salient facts or skew analysis.
o An example of how each of the 6 research methods could be used by the NFL to study domestic violence committed by NFL players and staff – Survey (figure out statistically)
∙ Social Theories
o Social Theories
Used to examine sport trends and learn how sport reinforces, reflects culture, or acts as a change agent.
Help organize how we look at an issue.
Used to describe, analyze, formulate beliefs, and make predictions. o Functionalist Theory
Sport helps maintain societal status quo and equilibrium by building character and teaching values.
Sport reinforces society’s value system.
Example: Little League baseball teaches teamwork and fair play.
Weaknesses: Overemphasizes positive consequences of sport; downplays disenfranchised populations.
o Conflict Theory
Economic interests shape the world, and sport reinforces existing power structures.
Focuses on forces that produce instability, disruption, and disorganization. Example: College football resists eliminating bowl games because they generate much revenue.
Weakness: Relies too heavily on economics.
o Critical Theory
Studies the power or authority that a group wields over others (i.e., hegemony).
Sport does not simply mirror society but can change beliefs and
Example: Coaches may think athletes must play certain positions based on their race.
Weaknesses: Can be confusing; may be useful only in specific cases. o Feminist Theory
Society is patriarchal and ignores or undervalues female virtues.
Objectively analyzes the status of women in sport.
Example: Media focus on male sport can teach society to undervalue female sport.
Weakness: Can overlook other factors.
o Interactionist Theory
Focuses on social interactions and relationships (bottomup approach). Assumes choices are deliberate, conscious, and based on their effect on self and others.
Example: Consider needs of youth athletes in defining youth sport structure.
Weakness: Focuses on the individual, ignoring the role of overall power structure.
o Figurational Theory
Emphasizes people’s connections and interdependence.
Examines historical changes of networks of people over time.
Example: Analyzes how athletes of different ages view sport involvement. Weaknesses: Reduces the urgency for change.
∙ Sport Journals are out there…
o International Review for the Sociology of Sport
o Sociology of Sport Journal
∙ Why is it important to understand research in the sociology of sport? o To better understand/predict what could happen in the future Chapter Three