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USC / Linguistics / LING 440 / hybridity pronunciation

hybridity pronunciation

hybridity pronunciation

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Linguistics
Course: Language in Society
Professor: Elaine chun
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Linguistics, sociolinguistics, consonants, vowels, Language, ipa, International, phonetic, phonetics, and sounds
Cost: 25
Name: Ling 440, week 3
Description: These notes cover the linguistic analysis of phonetics, or the sound blocks of language. They specifically reference the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and how it's used by sociolinguistics to closely transcribe conversations. There is an emphasis placed on how consonants and vowels are categorized and organized on the IPA chart.
Uploaded: 02/03/2017
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▪ How is the airstream modified?




▪ Where is the sound being made?




Why do sounds matter in sociolinguistics?



Phonetics & Sounds Tuesday,  January 24, 2017 4:28 PMWhy do sounds matter in sociolinguistics? • Our accent can provide clues about our social background ○ Linguistic profiling (John Baugh) ▪ Using language to profile race Most people can identify whether someone is black, Latino, or what  ▪ simply by the word "hello" on the telephone □ Certain accentsIf you want to learn more check out ∙ Given that the cytoplasmic membrane has a fluid dynamic nature, with phospholipids and proteins able to move about within the bilayer structure, what force or structure keeps the membrane from falling apart?
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are favored and received a meeting  depending on the location of the call □ 80-90% of the time people could identify a person's race on a  single word ○ Accent discrimination and preferential treatment (Lippi-Green) ▪ We tend to think certain accents are more beautiful than others □ Associate positive or negative feelings ◆ Come from media depictions, television and radio □ Based on regions ▪ Our feelings/beliefs about  • What is an accent? ○ Linguistic ▪ How a person pronounces their words □ The typical sound patterns a person uses ▪ "Everyone has an accent." ○ Lay-person ▪ When someone sounds "different" from some kind of norm □ Not everyone is perceived as having an accent □ Other groups have accents ◆ Usually a marginalized group ▪ Often dependent on what society things of as normal ○ Attitudes about accents ▪ Articulate vs. Inarticulate ▪ Precise vs. Not Precise ▪ Laid Back vs. Uptight ▪ Friendly vs. Unfriendly ▪ Babyish vs. Not Babyish ▪ "Asian", "black", "brown", "white" • L2 Accent as Hybridity When someone moves from one place to a new place, they adopt an L2  ○  ▪ Friendly vs. Unfriendly ▪ Babyish vs. Not Babyish ▪ "Asian", "black", "brown", "white" • L2 Accent as Hybridity When someone moves from one place to a new place, they adopt an L2  ○ accent From the day you're born, you're trained to speak and hear certain  ▪ sounds □ When you move to a new place, you don't here or make all  the sounds ▪ Forms a hybrid accent of the old and new language □ Moving from one to the other, you still hold on to the syllable  system ◆ The "r" and "l" sounds in Chinese ◆ In Spanish, you never start with "sk", so they say "esk" ○ International Phonetic Alphabet ▪ English orthography doesn't always represent pronunciation □ ghoti = [enou]gh + [w]o[men] + [mo]ti[on] = fish ▪ Each symbol is associated with a single pronunciation Consonants• Three consonant articulatory features: ○ Voicing (referring to the state of the glottis) ▪ Bernoulli's Effect □ When you squeeze your vocal chords together, they create a  voiced sound ◆ Vocal fry □ When your vocal chords open up, they have a voiceless sound ▪ When it's vibrating, it's a voice sound.  □ "p" from pit □ "t" from to □ "k" from cot □ "f" from few □ "θ" from thigh □ "s" from sue □ "ʃ" from Haitian □ "tʃ" from chew □ "ʍ" from which ▪ When it's still, it's a voiceless sound. □ "b" from bit □ "d" from do □ "g" from got □ "v" from view □ "z" from zoo    ,    . □ "b" from bit □ "d" from do □ "g" from got □ "v" from view □ "z" from zoo □ All the nasal sounds ▪ Timing of articulation and vocal cord vibrations for stops □ Aspiration: a puff of breath that comes out for "p" "t" "k" ○ Place of articulation ▪ Where is the sound being made? □ Some require you to purse your lips, some occur in the back  of your mouth □ Sounds that come from just your lips ◆ "p", "b", "m" ○ Manner of articulation ▪ How is the airstream modified? □ How do you compress the articulators so the air comes out a  specific way? ◆ Fricatives are tightly squeezed sounds from your throat Oral Stops & Plosives are when you completely stop or  ◆ release ◆ Nasals are ones that go through your nose ◆ Stop + fricative = affricate ◆ Retroflix liquids are when you Lateral liquids are when you squeeze your mouth so the  ◆ sound pushes out the side ◆ Glide • Examples ○ "thin" ○ "this: ○ "shoe" ○ "mirage" ○ "chew" ○ "hodge-podge" ○ "uh-oh" Vowels• 4 Dimensions of Distinctions: ○ Height ▪ The height of your tongue when you make the sound ○ Front-ness or Back-ness ▪ Where you make the sound  ○ Tense vs. Lax Tense is when you have to stretch your mouth to the most extreme  ▪ ○ eg ▪ The height of your tongue when you make the sound ○ Front-ness or Back-ness ▪ Where you make the sound  ○ Tense vs. Lax Tense is when you have to stretch your mouth to the most extreme  ▪ position ▪ Lax is the most relaxed and more centrally located sound ○ Rounded Vowels ▪ Your lips are rounded • The vowels are on a continuum ○ Everybody has a different placement of the vowels ▪ Setting of the vowel in the word ▪ Dialect of the speaker □ Californians vs. New Yorkers ○ You can continue through all the vowels Other• Prosity ○ Intonation ▪ Pitch, contour ○ Timing ▪ Rhythm, how quickly you say things ○ Amplitute ▪ Volume, loudness • Voice Quality ○ Creaky voice ▪ Vocal Fry ○ Falsetto ▪ Higher ○ Modal Voice ▪ Normal voice ○ Harsh voice ▪ Strained vocal cords ○ Breathy voice ▪ Marilyn Monroe • Syllable Structure ○ Parts ▪ Nucleus, or core vowel ▪ Onset, or the consonant(s) before the vowel ▪ Coda, or the consonant(s) that follow the vowel □ The nucleus and the coda form the rhyme ○ Can influence social information When you switch from one language to the other, you bring your  ▪ syllable structures to the new language ▪ nse, or e consonans eore e vowe ▪ Coda, or the consonant(s) that follow the vowel □ The nucleus and the coda form the rhyme ○ Can influence social information ▪ •When you switch from one language to the other, you bring your  syllable structures to the new language ○ Interactive Sound Chart

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