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ECU / Biology / BIOL 1200 / What is the meaning of typological theories concept in natural selecti

What is the meaning of typological theories concept in natural selecti

What is the meaning of typological theories concept in natural selecti

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School: East Carolina University
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology II
Professor: Susan mcrae
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology, Studyguide, and Exam 1
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 1200 Study Guide Exam 1
Description: These are the answers to Dr. Trip Lamb's study guide!
Uploaded: 02/03/2017
8 Pages 67 Views 2 Unlocks
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BIOL 1200 Exam 1 Study Guide


What is the meaning of typological theories concept in natural selection?



Scientific method (Chap 1)

∙ Deductive reasoning starts out with a general  

statement, or hypothesis, and examines the  

possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.  

∙ Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive,  

inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations  

from specific observations. You make many  

observations, discern a pattern, make a  

generalization, an infer an explanation or a theory. We also discuss several other topics like When does the anarchist wave happen?

∙ A theory is an assumption based on limited  

information or knowledge; conjecture.  

∙ A hypothesis is a testable explanation for a set of  


What is the meaning of scala nature in natural selection?



observations based on available data.

∙ In terms of science, theories are explanations for  

natural phenomena that have been repeatedly tested

and, as a result, exceptionally well supported by  

empirical data.

∙ Make observations

∙ Formulate a hypothesis

∙ Devise a testable prediction

∙ Conduct a critical experiment

∙ Draw conclusions

o The scientific method tells us when we should  

change our minds. It was used to provide  If you want to learn more check out What are scatterplots?

support for the cell theory, Lewis Pasteur’s  

experimental test of spontaneous generation.


What is evolution according to carlos linnaeus?



Introduction to Evolution and Natural Selection (Chap 19) ∙ Typological Theories Concept- Every species was a  perfect type and, therefore, unchanging  We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates to disease?
We also discuss several other topics like Which philosophic view sees human beings as machines which can be understood as a collection of their individual parts?

∙ Scala Nature- Although species are “fixed”, they had an organization sequence from small and simple  If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between civil right and civil liberty?

(bottom of the ladder) to large and complex (top of  

the ladder)

∙ Evolution did NOT occur according to Greek  

Philosophers. Swedish musician/botanist Carlos  

Linnaeus (1707-1778) “for the greater glory of god”

develop the two-part, binomial format of naming  species

∙ Georges Cuvier- Sometimes referred to as the  father of Paleontology, documented fossil animals  unlike any living species; he concluded that they had gone extinct

∙ Charles Lyell- The leading geologist during  Darwin’s time, he incorporated Hutton’s thinking  (that earth’s geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms, such as valleys being formed  by rivers wearing through the rocks) into his  proposal that the same geologic processes are  operating today as in the past, at the same rate.  We also discuss several other topics like Who wrote "studies in the psychology of sex"?

∙ Jean Baptiste Lamarck- he proposed a mechanism for how life changes overtime. He proposed species  change over time through the inheritance of traits  acquired from use or disuse. The idea was that if a  species uses that part of the body it becomes larger  and stronger. If it is not used it will deteriorate.

∙ Thomas Malthus- he contended that much of  human suffering—disease, famine, and war—was  resulted from the human populations potential to  increase faster than food supplies and other  resources. “The power of the human population is  infinitely greater than the power on the earth to  produce subsistence for man. Populations grow  geometrically but their food supply grow  arithmetically.  

∙ Alfred Russel Wallace- A British naturalist working in the South Pacific islands of the Malay  

Archipelago. Wallace developed a hypothesis of  natural selection nearly identical to Darwin’s.  

∙ It was developed by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, it  stated that an organism can pass these  

modifications to its offspring

∙ Malthus wrote “Essay on the Principle of  Population” (1798), which Darwin read and was  inspired by. The central theme of Malthus’ work was that population growth would always overpower  food supply growth, creating perpetual states of  hunger, disease, and struggle. Population growth

grows at an exponential rate while food supplies  grow at an arithmetic growth

∙ Geometric Progression- When things increase by a  nonfluctuating factor (ex. 2,4,8,16,32,64) the factor  here is 2

∙ Arithmetic progression- When things increase by a  constant number (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) here is  a constant +2

∙ Fossils give us insight into how prehistoric plants  and animals obtained food, reproduced and even  how they behaved. At times fossils can also provide  evidence for how or why the fossil organism died.  Fossils aren’t only used to understand individual  organisms. Geologists also use fossils for what’s  called biostratigraphic correlation, which allows  researchers to match layers of rock in different  locations by age based on how similar the fossils in  each rock layer are. This information can be used to  help understand when different layers of rock were  formed even when large distances separated them.

∙ Fossils or organisms that show the intermediate  states between an ancestral form and that of its  descendants. (the hind limbs of whales)

∙ A remnant of a trait that is used to exit in an  organism’s ancestors. The present organism carries  some form of this trait but no longer serves a  purpose in the present. An example is some snakes  retain vestiges of the pelvis and leg bones of walking ancestors, the coccyx, or the tailbone in humans.

∙ Phylogeny- the evolutionary history of a species or  a group of species

∙ Homology- similarity in characteristics resulting  from a shared ancestry

∙ Developmental Homology- it is recognized in  embryos. Two different organisms can have a  common embryonic trait, say gill pouches or a tail,  but in some of those organisms those gills or tails  are lost. Gills pouches or tails are vestigial traits in  humans, cats, chickens, etc. These organisms share  genetic homologies, but are structurally different.

∙ Structural Homology- an example of an organ or a bone that appears in different animals, underlying  anatomical commonalities demonstrating descent  from common ancestor. In other words, it’s when  very different animals have bones that appear very  similar in form or function and seem to be related.

∙ Evolution- A change in the frequency of alleles in a  gene pool in a given population over time,  evolutionary change takes place in populations.  “Evolution is NOT progressive”. The pattern of  evolution= Descent with modification

∙ Adaption- An inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a  specific environment.

∙ Natural selection- the result of natural factors,  which favor certain variations

∙ Artificial Selection- The deliberate selection of  certain traits (by humans), for example, a poodle is  the result of artificial selection

∙ Population Variation

∙ Variation is heritable

∙ More offspring produced than can survive ∙ Survival and reproduction are nonrandom

∙ Natural selection sorts existing variants; it does  NOT create new traits or change existing traits in  individuals. It is the process by which individuals  with certain heritable traits produce more surviving  offspring than individuals lacking those traits.  Natural selection acts on individuals.

∙ Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural  selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on  a population. Once such a gene is generated,  bacteria can the transfer the genetic information in  a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by  plasmid exchange. The agent of selection is natural  selection

∙ The idea of descent is that similar organisms came  from one prehistoric/ancient organism. This common

ancestor encompasses the idea of the unity of life.  

But with this came adaption and evolution, species  

began to differentiate based on their environment  

and need to survive. This created diversity as  

organisms developed modifications to the original  

ancestor.  

o Darwin published the origin of species in 1859

Genetic terminology review

∙ Allele- any of the alternative versions of a gene that  may produce distinguishable polygenic effects

∙ Gene- A discrete unit of heredity information  

consisting of specific nucleotide sequences in DNA  

(RNA in viruses)

∙ Homozygous- having 2 identical alleles for a given  gene

∙ Heterozygous- having 2 different alleles for a given  gene

∙ Codominance- the situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote  

because both alleles effect the phenotype in  

separate , distinguishable ways

∙ Replication- the process of duplicating or producing  an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as  

DNA

∙ Transcription- the synthesis of RNA using a DNA  

template (nucleus)

∙ Translation- The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule;  

a change from nucleotides to amino acids  

(cytoplasm)

∙ Proofreading- used in genetics to refer to the error correcting processes. DNA POLYMERASE is an  

enzyme the elongation for new DNA (for example at  

a replication fork) by addition of the nucleotides at  

the 3’ end. It is the DNA proofreader

∙ Point mutation- a change in a singular nucleotide  

pair of a gene

∙ Silent mutations- has no observable effect on the  

phenotype

∙ Missense mutations- changes the amino acid

∙ Nonsense mutations- codes for a stop codon

Evolution of populations (Chap 21)

∙ Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over  

generations

∙ Mutation- a change in the nucleotides sequence of  an organism’s DNA

∙ Gene duplication- due to errors in meiosis

∙ Rapid sexual reproduction- includes crossing over,  independent assortment of homologous  

chromosomes, and fertilization

∙ All of the copies of every type of allele at every locus in all the members of the population

∙ The Hardy Weinberg principal states that allele and  genotypic frequencies in a population will remain  

constant from generation to generation in the  

absence of other evolutionary influences.  

∙ No, Hardy and Weinberg did not work as a team.  

Weinberg developed develop the principle of genetic

equilibrium independently of British mathematician  

G.H. Hardy about 6 months before Hardy’s paper  

was published in English. His lecture was printed  

later that year in the societies yearbook.

∙ No mutations

∙ Random mating

∙ No Natural selection

∙ Extremely large population size

∙ No gene flow

∙ When mating is random in a large population with  no disruptive circumstances, the law predicts that  

both genotype and allele frequencies will remain  

constant because they are in equilibrium.

∙ The H-W equilibrium can be used as a null  hypothesis, compared to values from a real  population, to describe statistically significant  deviations from the Equilibrium. If the deviation is  significant, then the gene frequencies are changing  and thus, evolution is occurring.

∙ 1 generation

∙ They remain constant

∙ By using the H-W equation and looking at the  expected and observed frequencies.

∙ Natural selection, mutation, gene flow, or genetic  drift

∙ Mutation can be spontaneous and completely  creates new variation  

∙ The contribution an individual makes to the gene  pool of the next generation relative to the  contributions of other individuals

∙ Directional Selection- natural selection in which  individuals at one end of the phenotypic range  survive and reproduce more successfully than other  individuals do

∙ Stabilizing selection- natural selection in which the  intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more  than extreme phenotypes

∙ Disruptive Selection- natural selection in which  indivuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range  survive and reproduce more successfully than do  individuals with intermediate phenotypes

∙ A process which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.

∙ Regarding to fitness, it can cause a decrease in fitness because it is not selective and better fit organisms can die out.

∙ The effect of founder effect and bottle neck  are pretty much the same genetically, but the way  they happen are where they differ. In founder effect  and few alleles migrate, in bottleneck a large  population of alleles die. 

∙ The loss of an allele in when one is completely gone. When the allelic frequency in a population reaches  1.0, the allele is the only one left in the population,  and it becomes fixed for that allele. The other allele  is permanently lost. The loss of an allele can happen  in something such as the bottleneck, if a forest fire  happens and one allele is killed off, it is gone. 

∙ The transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their  gametes

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