NUTR 2040 Nutrition Across the Life Cycle Exam 1 Study Guide Introductory Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 1) ∙ Know the 8 stages of the life cycle – names and age ranges included in each. o Pre-conception o PreDon't forget about the age old question of What is a Tenure of Office Act 1867?
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gnancy/lactation o Infancy (<1 YO) o Toddlerhood (1-3) o Childhood (4-9) o Adolescence (10-19) o Adulthood (20-64) o Older adulthood (65+) ∙ Why is the life cycle called the life cycle? o It’s the circle of life man ∙ Why do we begin with the preconception period when looking at individual’s life cycle? o The mother’s choices before pregnancy can influence the child’s, so it begins there because that is the first influence that determines the babe’s life ∙ What is it essential to consider nutrition at each point of the lifecycle rather than grouping everyone together? What are some points of increased nutrients and why? What are some points of decreased nutrients and why? o Food intake needs to be different according to the person’s age o Older people need more protein and less calories than a baby would ∙ Know the definition of nutrition and how nutrition relates to the concept of health. o The science of foods and their nutrients and other substances they contain; their actions within the body o The study of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of foods and nutrients and their effect on health of an individual o Emphasis on HOW the body utilizes nutrients and how these nutrients affect health and well-being ∙ Know the definition of health including the 5 components of health. Know these well enough to be able to describe them in your own words on the exam. o A state of physical, mental, social well-being and not merely absence of disease o Physical health—efficient body functioning o Intellectual health—use of intellectual abilities o Emotional health—ability to control emotions o Social health—interactions; relationships with others o Spiritual health—belief in existence of life and faith ∙ What is quality of life? Be able to describe this and provide an example. o A quality of life involving social, emotional, mental, spiritual, and biological fitness on the part of the individual, which results from adaptations to the environment ∙ Know the stages of prevention (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary) and be knowledgeable enough to be able to identify examples of each stage of prevention.o Primary: preventing disease by controlling related risk factors You don't have anything wrong, but want to keep it that way o Secondary: detecting disease early through screening and other forms of risk appraisal Find out family member has _____, so you are at risk for it o Tertiary: treat and rehabilitate people who have experienced an illness or injury You have ____ but don't want it to get any worse ∙ What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates to disease? o Morbidity: state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population; an incidence of ill health in a population o Mortality: number of people who died in a population; incidence of death or number of deaths in a population ∙ Be able to explain differences and similarities in the main causes of death within the U.S. and worldwide. How do these causes of death relate to nutrition? o Heart disease, cancer vs. ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (stroke) o Health is important to not die ∙ Based on the generational characteristics discussed in class (specifically values, focus, learning styles, communication), what would be an advised approach to providing nutrition counseling, education, or similar intervention to a person from said generation? Be able to match examples with the appropriate generation. o Traditionalists—personal contact; lectures, classrooms o Baby boomers—telephone; participation, critical reflection o Gen-X baby busters—email; self-directed, stimulating, relevant, accessible o Millennial—email/IM/text; informal, brevity, hands-on, collaboration Nutrition Assessment Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 2) ∙ Be able to explain differences and similarities between undernutrition and overnutrition as they relate to defining an individual with malnutrition. o Deficiency: depletion of tissue; decreased blood nutrient levels; insufficient nutrients for cells; impaired cellular functions; physical signs and symptoms; long-term impairment to health o Toxicity: saturation of tissue reserves; increased blood nutrient levels; excessive nutrients for cells; impaired cellular functions; physical signs and symptoms; long-term impairment to health ∙ Is overweight/obesity a condition of malnutrition? Explain. o Yes o Malnutrition: lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat ∙ Know key concepts related to the DRIs—What are they? What do they include? Whom do they apply to? How should they be used to assess a person’s nutrient intake? Consider key points for the DRI practice paper article posted to BB and principles discussed in class. o Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 50% of peopleo Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 98% of people and most common o Adequate Intake (AI): used if not enough research to determine RDA o Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): highest level to consume w/o health risks o Estimated Energy Requirements (EER): average energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR): range intakes for energy sources to reduce risk of disease and maintain nutrient adequacy ∙ In general what are some factors that can affect a person’s nutrition status? Which could be changed? Which cannot be changed? o Age, height, weight, gender, genetics o Activity, diet ∙ What is the Nutrition Care Process (NCP)? o To assess, evaluate, and monitor someone ∙ What are the four steps of the NCP? o Assessment: nutrition assessment: gather/analyze data o Diagnosis o Intervention: develop/implement plan o Monitoring & Evaluation ∙ What is nutrition screening? o Asks a series of questions to identify those at nutrition risk o Promote health prevention to reverse or halt progress of disease by detecting it as soon as possible ∙ What is a nutrition diagnosis? How does a nutrition diagnosis differ from a medical diagnosis? o A nutrition diagnosis is the identification and labeling of an existing nutrition problem that the nutrition professional is responsible for “treating” independently o A medical diagnosis deals with disease or medical condition ∙ What are the three categories of a nutrition diagnosis? What are the three elements of a nutrition diagnostic statement? o Categories Intake—too much/little of a food or nutrient Clinical—nutrition problems related to medical/physical conditions Behavioral/environmental—knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, physical environment, access to food, food safety o Statement includes Problem (diagnostic label) Etiology (cause/contributing factor) Signs/symptoms ∙ What is a nutrition intervention? What are the 4 categories of nutrition interventions? o Purposefully planned actions designed with intent of changing a nutrition-related behavior, risk factor, environmental conditions, or aspect of health status for an individual, target group, or community at large Food/delivery—approach for food/nutrient provision including meals and snacks, enteral and parenteral feeding and supplements Nutrition education—formal process to instruct/train a patient in a skill; to impart knowledge to help them voluntarily manage or modify food choices and eating behavior to maintain or improve health Nutrition counseling—collaborative counselor-patient relationship to set priorities, create plans, establish goals that foster responsibility to self-care and promote health Coordination of nutrition care—consultation with coordination of care with other health providers, institutions, or agencies that can assist in treating or managing nutrition-related problems ∙ What is nutrition monitoring and evaluation? How are they related? How do they differ? o Monitoring—review & measurement of the patient’s status at a scheduled) pre-planned) follow-up point with regard to the nutrition diagnosis, intervention plan/goals, and outcomes o Evaluation—systematic comparison of current findings with previous status, intervention goals, or a reference standard ∙ Be able to calculate and classify the following: BMI for an adult. o Weight in pounds/(height in inches squared) multiply by 703 ∙ Know the four dietary intake assessment methods, including pros & cons of each. o Anthropometric (height, weight, waist circumference) Weight: scale calibration and time of day Height: direct vs. indirect (arm span) BMI o Biochemical (laboratory values) Hydration status, age, medication usage, current medical condition o Clinical (physical examination) Rapidly proliferating tissues—hairs, nails, skin, eyes could indicate deficiency/toxicity Social history o Dietary (diet history) Food record/diary Food frequency questionnaire 24 hour recall Nutrient intake analysis/calorie count Research Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 3) ∙ What is epidemiological or observational research? What conclusions may be drawn from this method of research? o Generates data that defines the state of nature at a particular point in time based on a subject’s behavioro No intervention or manipulation by the researcher o Generates hypotheses and relates ways by which associations can be made but does not allow casual relationships to be determined nor evaluate hypotheses ∙ What is cohort? o A cluster or population ∙ What is the difference between a cross-sectional vs. longitudinal study? o Longitudinal: repeated over time o Cross-sectional: data taken at one point in time ∙ What is the difference between a prospective vs. retrospective study? o Prospective: looking forward o Retrospective: looking backward ∙ What is a primary distinction between an observational study and a RCT? o RCT has an intervention that you are actually changing ∙ What is experimental research? What conclusions may be drawn from this method of research? o Involves intervention or manipulation by the researcher o Tests a cause-effect relationship/hypothesis ∙ With experimental research, what is meant by randomization? control? blinding? o Randomization: subjects are picked randomly per group (blind, double blind, cross-over) o Control: all factors are held constant except for those manipulated by the researcher o Blinding: subjects are blind to their group; double-blind: researchers and subjects are blind ∙ How can observational and experimental research relate to each other? o Observational research does not interfere with the subjects like experimental research does o Observational can lead to an inquiry that is then tested through experimental research ∙ What is a correlation, and what are other terms used to refer to the same thing? o The relationship between two variables o Association ∙ What is causation? o Relationship between cause and effect o Result of one thing or another ∙ What is the difference between effectiveness and efficacy? o Effective: real life; what could really happen o Efficacy: under controlled lab circumstances that may not happen in the real world ∙ What is meant by hierarchy of research? Is hierarchy of research something that should be held to firmly, or is the same in all situations? Why or why not? o Ranking study designs o Mostly the same, because the more randomized and controlled the trial, the more effective the process ∙ What is a systematic review? Meta-analysis? How can these be used by clinicians in clinical practice? o Literature review that collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies or paperso Meta analysis—method designed to increase reliability of research by combining and analyzing the results of all known trials of the same product/experiments on the same subject ∙ What do various systematic review grading systems indicate to the reader? Know general concept, not specific ones. Remember, I provided examples of some, but it is essential to understand the concept and how to “read” or “recognize” these rating systems. o A—service is recommended w high certainty that the net benefit is substantial o B—service is recommended with moderate benefit/certainty o C—service is recommended for selected patients depending on circumstances o D—service is discouraged o I—evidence is insufficient ∙ What is meant by the term evidence-based medicine (EBM)? From where is EBM derived? o The use of clinical methods and decision-making that have been thoroughly tested by properly controlled, peer reviewed medical research ∙ What is FFP? o Falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism ∙ What is a population? Intervention? Outcome? o Population: group of individuals being tested o Intervention: placebo or actual change being introduced o Outcome: result of the intervention ∙ What is a database, and how is this used related to conducting a literature search? o Structured set of data held in a computer o Used to provide all information from previous studies ∙ When conducting a database search, what does use of “AND” do? What does use of “OR” do? o AND—narrows results, tells database ALL search terms must be present in records o OR—connects two or more similar concepts (synonyms), broaden results by searching for ANY of terms ∙ What does the order of author names on a scientific publication mean? o No real way to tell