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CLEMSON / Nutrition / NUTR 2040 / What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates t

What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates t

What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates t

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School: Clemson University
Department: Nutrition
Course: Nutrition Across The Life Cycle
Professor: Lacey durrance
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: nutrition, life, and cycle
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 study guide
Description: This has the answered questions for exam 1 study guide.
Uploaded: 02/03/2017
6 Pages 30 Views 1 Unlocks
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NUTR 2040 Nutrition Across the Life Cycle


What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates to disease?



Exam 1 Study Guide  

Introductory Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 1)

∙ Know the 8 stages of the life cycle – names and age ranges included in each. o Pre-conception  

o Pregnancy/lactation

o Infancy (<1 YO)

o Toddlerhood (1-3)

o Childhood (4-9)

o Adolescence (10-19)

o Adulthood (20-64)

o Older adulthood (65+)

∙ Why is the life cycle called the life cycle?

o It’s the circle of life man

∙ Why do we begin with the preconception period when looking at individual’s life  cycle?


What is meant by the term evidence-based medicine (ebm)?



o The mother’s choices before pregnancy can influence the child’s, so it  begins there because that is the first influence that determines the  babe’s life

∙ What is it essential to consider nutrition at each point of the lifecycle rather than  grouping everyone together? What are some points of increased nutrients and  why? What are some points of decreased nutrients and why?

o Food intake needs to be different according to the person’s age  o Older people need more protein and less calories than a baby would ∙ Know the definition of nutrition and how nutrition relates to the concept of  health.

o The science of foods and their nutrients and other substances they  contain; their actions within the body  


What are the 4 categories of nutrition interventions?



If you want to learn more check out Which philosophic view sees human beings as machines which can be understood as a collection of their individual parts?

o The study of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of foods  and nutrients and their effect on health of an individual

o Emphasis on HOW the body utilizes nutrients and how these nutrients  affect health and well-being

∙ Know the definition of health including the 5 components of health. Know these  well enough to be able to describe them in your own words on the exam. o A state of physical, mental, social well-being and not merely absence  of disease We also discuss several other topics like Where in the constitution are the civil liberties listed?

o Physical health—efficient body functioning

o Intellectual health—use of intellectual abilities

o Emotional health—ability to control emotions

o Social health—interactions; relationships with others

o Spiritual health—belief in existence of life and faith

∙ What is quality of life? Be able to describe this and provide an example. o A quality of life involving social, emotional, mental, spiritual, and  biological fitness on the part of the individual, which results from  adaptations to the environment We also discuss several other topics like Who was the first guy to do sexual research on a large scale?

∙ Know the stages of prevention (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary) and be  knowledgeable enough to be able to identify examples of each stage of  prevention.

o Primary: preventing disease by controlling related risk factors  You don't have anything wrong, but want to keep it that way o Secondary: detecting disease early through screening and other forms  of risk appraisal

 Find out family member has _____, so you are at risk for it

o Tertiary: treat and rehabilitate people who have experienced an illness  or injury

 You have ____ but don't want it to get any worse

∙ What is the difference between morbidity and mortality as it relates to disease? o Morbidity: state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population; an  incidence of ill health in a population

o Mortality: number of people who died in a population; incidence of  death or number of deaths in a population  If you want to learn more check out What are the fallacious arguments from ignorance?

∙ Be able to explain differences and similarities in the main causes of death within  the U.S. and worldwide. How do these causes of death relate to nutrition? o Heart disease, cancer vs. ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular  disease (stroke)

o Health is important to not die

∙ Based on the generational characteristics discussed in class (specifically values,  focus, learning styles, communication), what would be an advised approach to  providing nutrition counseling, education, or similar intervention to a person  from said generation? Be able to match examples with the appropriate  generation.  

o Traditionalists—personal contact; lectures, classrooms

o Baby boomers—telephone; participation, critical reflection

o Gen-X baby busters—email; self-directed, stimulating, relevant,  accessible

o Millennial—email/IM/text; informal, brevity, hands-on, collaboration  

Nutrition Assessment Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 2)

∙ Be able to explain differences and similarities between undernutrition and  overnutrition as they relate to defining an individual with malnutrition.  o Deficiency: depletion of tissue; decreased blood nutrient levels;  insufficient nutrients for cells; impaired cellular functions; physical  signs and symptoms; long-term impairment to health If you want to learn more check out Can hades leave the underworld?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does the plasma membrane stay attached to the rest of the cell?

o Toxicity: saturation of tissue reserves; increased blood nutrient levels;  excessive nutrients for cells; impaired cellular functions; physical signs  and symptoms; long-term impairment to health

∙ Is overweight/obesity a condition of malnutrition? Explain.

o Yes

o Malnutrition: lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to  eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the  food that one does eat

∙ Know key concepts related to the DRIs—What are they? What do they include?  Whom do they apply to? How should they be used to assess a person’s nutrient  intake? Consider key points for the DRI practice paper article posted to BB and  principles discussed in class.

o Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): 50% of people

o Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 98% of people and most  common

o Adequate Intake (AI): used if not enough research to determine RDA o Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): highest level to consume w/o health  risks

o Estimated Energy Requirements (EER): average energy intake  predicted to maintain energy balance

o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR): range intakes for energy sources to reduce risk of disease and maintain nutrient  adequacy

∙ In general what are some factors that can affect a person’s nutrition status?  Which could be changed? Which cannot be changed?

o Age, height, weight, gender, genetics

o Activity, diet

∙ What is the Nutrition Care Process (NCP)?

o To assess, evaluate, and monitor someone

∙ What are the four steps of the NCP?

o Assessment: nutrition assessment: gather/analyze data

o Diagnosis

o Intervention: develop/implement plan

o Monitoring & Evaluation

∙ What is nutrition screening?

o Asks a series of questions to identify those at nutrition risk

o Promote health prevention to reverse or halt progress of disease by  detecting it as soon as possible

∙ What is a nutrition diagnosis? How does a nutrition diagnosis differ from a  medical diagnosis?  

o A nutrition diagnosis is the identification and labeling of an existing  nutrition problem that the nutrition professional is responsible for  “treating” independently

o A medical diagnosis deals with disease or medical condition

∙ What are the three categories of a nutrition diagnosis? What are the three  elements of a nutrition diagnostic statement?

o Categories

 Intake—too much/little of a food or nutrient

 Clinical—nutrition problems related to medical/physical  

conditions

 Behavioral/environmental—knowledge, attitudes, beliefs,  

physical environment, access to food, food safety

o Statement includes

 Problem (diagnostic label)

 Etiology (cause/contributing factor)

 Signs/symptoms

∙ What is a nutrition intervention? What are the 4 categories of nutrition  interventions?

o Purposefully planned actions designed with intent of changing a  nutrition-related behavior, risk factor, environmental conditions, or  aspect of health status for an individual, target group, or community at large

 Food/delivery—approach for food/nutrient provision including  meals and snacks, enteral and parenteral feeding and  

supplements

 Nutrition education—formal process to instruct/train a patient in  a skill; to impart knowledge to help them voluntarily manage or  modify food choices and eating behavior to maintain or improve  health

 Nutrition counseling—collaborative counselor-patient  

relationship to set priorities, create plans, establish goals that  

foster responsibility to self-care and promote health

 Coordination of nutrition care—consultation with coordination of  care with other health providers, institutions, or agencies that  

can assist in treating or managing nutrition-related problems

∙ What is nutrition monitoring and evaluation? How are they related? How do they  differ?

o Monitoring—review & measurement of the patient’s status at a  scheduled) pre-planned) follow-up point with regard to the nutrition  diagnosis, intervention plan/goals, and outcomes

o Evaluation—systematic comparison of current findings with previous  status, intervention goals, or a reference standard

∙ Be able to calculate and classify the following: BMI for an adult. o Weight in pounds/(height in inches squared) multiply by 703 ∙ Know the four dietary intake assessment methods, including pros & cons of  each.

o Anthropometric (height, weight, waist circumference)

 Weight: scale calibration and time of day

 Height: direct vs. indirect (arm span)

 BMI

o Biochemical (laboratory values)

 Hydration status, age, medication usage, current medical  

condition

o Clinical (physical examination)

 Rapidly proliferating tissues—hairs, nails, skin, eyes could  

indicate deficiency/toxicity

 Social history

o Dietary (diet history)

 Food record/diary

 Food frequency questionnaire

 24 hour recall

 Nutrient intake analysis/calorie count

Research Lecture Material (Lecture Topic 3)

∙ What is epidemiological or observational research? What conclusions may be  drawn from this method of research?

o Generates data that defines the state of nature at a particular point in  time based on a subject’s behavior

o No intervention or manipulation by the researcher

o Generates hypotheses and relates ways by which associations can be  made but does not allow casual relationships to be determined nor  evaluate hypotheses

∙ What is cohort?

o A cluster or population

∙ What is the difference between a cross-sectional vs. longitudinal study? o Longitudinal: repeated over time

o Cross-sectional: data taken at one point in time

∙ What is the difference between a prospective vs. retrospective study? o Prospective: looking forward

o Retrospective: looking backward

∙ What is a primary distinction between an observational study and a RCT? o RCT has an intervention that you are actually changing

∙ What is experimental research? What conclusions may be drawn from this  method of research?

o Involves intervention or manipulation by the researcher

o Tests a cause-effect relationship/hypothesis

∙ With experimental research, what is meant by randomization? control? blinding? o Randomization: subjects are picked randomly per group (blind, double blind, cross-over)

o Control: all factors are held constant except for those manipulated by  the researcher

o Blinding: subjects are blind to their group; double-blind: researchers  and subjects are blind

∙ How can observational and experimental research relate to each other? o Observational research does not interfere with the subjects like  experimental research does

o Observational can lead to an inquiry that is then tested through  experimental research

∙ What is a correlation, and what are other terms used to refer to the same thing? o The relationship between two variables

o Association  

∙ What is causation?

o Relationship between cause and effect

o Result of one thing or another

∙ What is the difference between effectiveness and efficacy?

o Effective: real life; what could really happen

o Efficacy: under controlled lab circumstances that may not happen in  the real world

∙ What is meant by hierarchy of research? Is hierarchy of research something that  should be held to firmly, or is the same in all situations? Why or why not? o Ranking study designs

o Mostly the same, because the more randomized and controlled the  trial, the more effective the process

∙ What is a systematic review? Meta-analysis? How can these be used by clinicians in clinical practice?

o Literature review that collects and critically analyzes multiple research  studies or papers

o Meta analysis—method designed to increase reliability of research by  combining and analyzing the results of all known trials of the same  product/experiments on the same subject

∙ What do various systematic review grading systems indicate to the reader?  Know general concept, not specific ones. Remember, I provided examples of  some, but it is essential to understand the concept and how to “read” or  “recognize” these rating systems.

o A—service is recommended w high certainty that the net benefit is  substantial

o B—service is recommended with moderate benefit/certainty o C—service is recommended for selected patients depending on  circumstances

o D—service is discouraged

o I—evidence is insufficient

∙ What is meant by the term evidence-based medicine (EBM)? From where is EBM  derived?

o The use of clinical methods and decision-making that have been  thoroughly tested by properly controlled, peer reviewed medical  research

∙ What is FFP?

o Falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism  

∙ What is a population? Intervention? Outcome?

o Population: group of individuals being tested

o Intervention: placebo or actual change being introduced

o Outcome: result of the intervention

∙ What is a database, and how is this used related to conducting a literature  search?

o Structured set of data held in a computer

o Used to provide all information from previous studies

∙ When conducting a database search, what does use of “AND” do? What does use of “OR” do?

o AND—narrows results, tells database ALL search terms must be  present in records

o OR—connects two or more similar concepts (synonyms), broaden  results by searching for ANY of terms

∙ What does the order of author names on a scientific publication mean? o No real way to tell

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