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UMB / Statistics and Probability / STAT 400 / What is any characteristic whose value may change from one object to a

What is any characteristic whose value may change from one object to a

What is any characteristic whose value may change from one object to a

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STAT 400 Overview and Description of StatisticsWe also discuss several other topics like Who are the authors of ethnographies?

  • Statistics - body of principles and methods for designing the process of data collection, summarizing and interpreting the data and drawing conclusions / percentiles.

If you want to learn more check out jingoism ww1

Population, units and characteristics

  • Population - data of collection of objects or subjects
  • Studies involve the investigation of certain characteristics of members (units) of populations.
  • Sample - is any subset of population
  • Quantitative variables = numeral characteristics
  • Qualitative (categorical) variables = can not be expressed in numbers
  • Variable = any characteristic whose value may change from one object to another in a population
  • Univariate - only one characteristic
  • Bivariate - pair of characteristics
  • Multivariate - more than two characteristics

  • Body of statistics
  • Experimental design - planning of data collection
  • Descriptive statistics -  is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features from a collection of information
  • Inferential Statistics - evaluation of info present in data to make conclusions

  • Types of data
  • Categorical data - summarized by categories, not numbers (i.e blood type)
  • Numerical data - variable is / are assigned numerical values
  • it can take any value in an interval, with no gaps, the variables are called continuous  

We also discuss several other topics like the complete set of developmental instructions for creating proteins that initiate the making of a human organism is the

Frequency table

Relative frequency = If you want to learn more check out Why does marriage is a kind of death?

 *typically use unit less dataDon't forget about the age old question of which form of fat poses high risks for heart disease and cardiac-related death?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is voltage polarities?

Frequency distribution for a continuous variables

  • Find min and max
  • Decide interval of equal length called class interval. Their end points are called boundaries
  • Count the number of observations in each class and find relative frequency

Populations averages and sample averages

  • Consider a population of N units with data
  • Population average / mean:

  • Expected value of x (mean value is denoted
  • Sample of size n with data
  • Sample average / mean :

  • Sample random sampling allows  to approximate  but is generally different from the  which we often can not know for sure

  • Median - sample of n with data  the median is the middle value when arranged from smallest to largest and is denoted ~

  • Difference between mean and median - mean is easily affected by outliers, or asymmetrical distributions where median is more resistant

  • For a normal distribution, mean and median should be very close to one another, but if the distribution is skewed or otherwise non-normal then the mean and median are further apart.
  • Percentiles
  •  Percentile = (100)p % of the values are at or below this value and 100(1-p) % are at or above this value
  • First quartile () = 25th percentile
  • Second quartile (median) = 50th percentile
  • Third quartile () = 75th percentile
  • Variance - average deviation from mean
  • Population variance  

  • Population standard deviation is the square root of variance
  • standard deviation

Sample variance :

Sample standard deviation is the square root of sample variance

 and is generally different from population standard deviation

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