Chapter 1: What are Governments and What do They Do? According to the textbook, what are the defining features of “government”? Make sure to know the basic definitions of these types of governing institutions: legislature, executive branch, bureaucratic ageDon't forget about the age old question of ttu pfp
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ncies, judicial branch, and courts. What is the name of the legislature of the government of the State of Georgia? What is the name of the legislature of the federal government of the United States? What are the names of the two chambers of the legislature of the government of the State of Georgia? What are the names of the two chambers of the legislature of the federal government of the United States? Make sure to know and understand these two distinctive features of the American form of government: federalism and separation of powers. Make sure to know and understand the definition of these concepts provided by the textbook: Authority (as in A having authority over B) Legitimate claim to authority Power (as in A having power over B) How are the following three kinds of laws different from one another: ordinances, statutes, regulations? Why, according to the textbook, is Max Weber’s definition of government (as that which has “a monopoly over the legitimate use of force over a territory”) misleading? What does it mean to be “sovereign”? Whom (or what) is considered to be sovereign in the United States? Make sure to know and understand the various ways governments exercise power over people. And make sure to understand how the following concepts relate to the government’s use of power over people: positive incentives, negative incentives, carrots, sticks, power of the sword, and the power of the purse. What do “the power of the sword” and “the power of the purse” have to do with the “separation of powers” in American government? According to the textbook, one reason governments exercise power is in order to provide “public goods.” What are public goods? How do they differ from socalled “private goods”? What does the provision of public goods have to do with collective action problems and free riding? Chapter 2: Introduction to the American Way of Government What is meant by the word “ideology”? According to the textbook, what are two government purposes that most Americans consider to be legitimate? What is “limited government”? What does it have to do with “securing rights”? What is the difference between a legal right and a natural right? Which natural rights are listed in the Declaration of Independence? Do Americans tend to agree or disagree that those rights listed in the Declaration are actual moral rights that government has a responsibility to secure? What are socioeconomic rights? In which document are they listed: The Declaration of Independence or the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Do Americans agree or disagree over whether socioeconomic rights are actual moral rights that government has a responsibility to secure? According to the textbook, three government purposes the mainstream of American politics considers to be illegitimate are theocracy, racial supremacy, and state socialism (also known as communism or MarxistLeninist socialism).Make sure to know and understand the definitions of those three terms. Which of those three purposes was accepted as legitimate by parts of the mainstream of American politics in the past? According to the textbook, what is market capitalism and how does it differ from state socialism? In addition to federalism and the separation of powers, two distinctive features of the American form of government are constitutional government and democratic government. Make sure to know and understand how each of those concepts are defined by the textbook. What does it mean to say that in a constitutional government “ordinary laws can be unlawful”? According to the textbook, a government can be a “constitutional government” even if it doesn’t have a single written constitutional document like the U.S. Constitution. Furthermore, due to the existence of “sham constitutions,” a government can have a single written constitutional document and still not be a true constitutional government (as defined by the textbook). Make sure to understand this discussion. According to the textbook, what is the most basic aspiration Americans strive for by binding their government to fundamental laws? What, according to James Madison, is the “great difficulty” one must confront when “framing a government which is to be administered by men over men”? What, according to the textbook, did Madison mean by saying “a dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government.” What, according to the textbook, did Madison mean by saying “auxiliary precautions” are also needed for controlling government? Make sure to know and understand the three general ways and ten specific ways (discussed in section 2.2.1. of the textbook) that American citizens are legally and institutionally enabled to exert control over government. Make sure to know and understand the following terms introduced in Section 2.2.1.: free elections, political parties, constituents, petition, interest groups, lobbying, jury, civil disobedience. Make sure to understand the four freedoms necessary for democracy discussed in Section 2.2.3. Make sure to know and understand the advantages democratic governments have over non democratic (“authoritarian”) governments (as discussed in Section 2.2.4.). Chapter 3: Introduction to the American Way of Politics How does the textbook define “politics”? According to this account, is politics more or less likely to be found in a stable democratic government or in an unstable and/or authoritarian government? According to the textbook, what are “two (sometimes overlapping) sources of disagreement …. [that] are constant objects of political contention in the United States.” Be able to identify someone as “liberal” (i.e., “to the left”) or “conservative” (i.e., “to the right”) based on how they stand on the following five dimensions of policy discussed in Section 2.1.1. of the textbook: (1) Regulating the Market Capitalist Economy; (2) Programs Promoting Economic Security, Welfare and Equality; (3) Promoting Social Equality of Historically Oppressed or Underprivileged Groups; (4) Upholding and Promoting Traditional Moral Values; (5) Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice System. How are liberals and social democrats (or “progressives”) similar to and different from each other? How are libertarians similar to and different from liberals? How are libertarians similar to and different from conservatives? How were state socialism and fascism similar to and different from each other? What is the difference between “principled politics” and “the politics of interest”? Make sure to know and understand the four political scientific models of American politics discussed in Section 3. Chapter 4: Constitutional Origins, Principles, and Development The Declaration of Independence expressed philosophical principles that are sometimes referred to as “America’s Creed.” What does that creed say about the legitimate ends (i.e., purpose) of government? According to that creed, what is the source of government’s legitimate authority? According to that creed, what do the people have the right to do when confronted with a government that is destructive of the ends which governments should serve? You will not be expected to remember precise dates and/or years. However, you should know the order in which the following events/activities transpired: ratification of the Bill of Rights, ratification of the Articles of Confederation, first round of revolutionaryera state constitution making, Critical Period, Shays Rebellion, signing and ratification of the original U.S. Constitution, signing of the Declaration of Independence. Make sure to know and understand the first five design principles of the Articles of Confederation discussed in the textbook and how these contributed to the weakness of the central government. Make sure to know and understand the sixth design principle of the Articles of Confederation discussed in the textbook. What was “the great and radical vice” in the design of the Articles of Confederation according to Alexander Hamilton? Why did this “vice” contribute so greatly to the weakness of the Articles of Confederation? What was the Critical Period? What did it have to do with the weaknesses of the central government created by the Articles of Confederation? How did the Critical Period lead to the Constitutional Convention in 1787? How did the principle of popular sovereignty help the Founders to get away with “unconstitutionally establishing an entirely new constitution”? Relatedly, why does Article VII of the Constitution call for ratification through state conventions instead of through state legislatures? Make sure to know and understand the six design principles of the original U.S. Constitution (as discussed in the textbook chapter). Which institution (House, Senate, President, or Supreme Court) was designed to be held the most closely accountable to the people? Which was designed to be the least accountable to the people? For how long are terms for .. members of the U.S. House of Representatives? U.S. senators? U.S. presidents? What is the difference between a direct democracy and representative democracy? What kind of democracy did the Founders create? Why did the Founders choose a bicameral legislature instead of a unicameral one? What purposes were served by the system of checks and balances? What was “the Great Compromise”? Why was the Constitutional Convention in a stalemate before it? Make sure to know and understand the four ways discussed in the textbook that the Original Constitution protected slavery. Why did antislavery delegates want slaves to NOT be counted at all for purposes of calculating each state’s number of representatives? Why did slavestate delegates want each slave to be counted as at least threefifths of a person (if not as a whole person)? How did the Electoral College give slave states extra voice in the selection of the President? What did the Original Constitution establish about the Atlantic Slave Trade? What did the Fugitive Slave Clause do? Which group—the Federalists or the Antifederalists—supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution? Which opposed ratification? Why, according to Section 3.3. of Chapter 4, were the Federalists and Antifederalists “co founders of the Constitution”? Make sure to know the basic subject areas covered by the seven articles of the Original Constitution. (Article I) Which amendments make up the Bill of Rights? What was the last amendment in the Founders’ Constitution? Which three amendments are referred to as the Reconstruction Amendments? What did each of those amendments declare? In what ways did these transform the Founders’ Constitution—particularly with respect to slavery and white supremacist views of American citizenship?