TEXTBOOK READINGS Study Guide for TEST TWO Chapter 1: Assessing Your Health In the early 1900s, what largely determined a person’s life expectancy? 3 What is the term for the number of years a person is anticipated to liWe also discuss several other topics like How to identify a species?
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ve based on conditions at their time of birth? 3 What is the leading cause of death for all age groups? What are young adults (15-24) most likely to die from? (chart, 3) Define “health” and “wellness.” 6 What type of behaviors increase one’s susceptibility to negative health outcomes? 6 Define determinants of health. 7 What type of causes of death are not linked to preventable lifestyle behaviors? 8 What are some examples of modifiable determinants of health? 8 Define “health disparities.” 11 Briefly describe each of the stages of the Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change Model). 14 What stage of change is someone in if they have no intention of making an immediate change? 14 “Readiness” is the state of being that precedes behavior change. People who are ready to change possess the _______, ________ and the external and internal _________ that make change possible. 17? What are some characteristics of a person with self-efficacy?: 17 Someone with an external locus of control believes that events turn out as they do based on what? 17 Why are Federal student loans preferable to private student loans? 30 What is a “credit score” and what is it based on? Why is a low credit score a problem? 32 If your credit card is stolen, what charges are you held responsible for? 32 Why is identify fraud more common among users of social media? 33-34 Chapter 9: Eating for a Healthier You _____________ is the physiological need to eat to sustain life. 260 ______________ is the psychological desire to eat. 260 Name some substances that help the body break down nutrients into a smaller usable form? 261 What percentage of a person’s body weight is water? 261 Define “complete protein” and give some examples. 262 Define “complex carbohydrates” and give some examples of sources. 262 What does the body use complex carbohydrates for? 264 What is a form of fat circulating in the blood that can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries and restrict blood flow? 266 Saturated fats are dietary fats that are solid at _______ _________. 266 About __________ of total body fat is made up of triglycerides. 266 Which form of fat poses high risk for heart disease and cardiac-related death? 267 What mineral is necessary for the regulation of blood and body fluids? 272 What is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world? 275 What is the difference between a “portion” and a “serving?”277 What are foods that contain mainly fat an/or sugar and have little or no nutritional value called? 277 A ____________, is a vegetarian who eats dairy products and eggs. 279 A _______ avoids ALL food and food products of animal origin. 279 What are the sugars found in dairy products that some people can’t properly digest? 283-84 How long is it safe to eat leftovers that have been properly wrapped and refrigerated? 284 Chapter 10: Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight __________% of American adults are overweight or obese. 292Define basal metabolic rate. 295 _________ is referred to as the “hunger hormone.” 296 Define satiety. 296 Which weight loss theory holds that our bodies fight to maintain our weight within a particular narrow range? 296 Which type of dieting involves a cycle of restriction and weight loss followed by a period of weight gain? 296 Over the last 20 years, the calorie intake of Americans has increased. Why? 297 Approximately ____ in _____ American children are obese. 298 What is the increasingly high rate of overweight/obesity among Americans primarily due to? 298 An individual _____% above his or her ideal weight would be classified as obese. 300 What is BMI (body mass index)? A person with a BMI of ________ would be classified as obese. 300 You have to expend an additional ___________ calories (or cut back on that many calories) to lose one pound. 305 Which type of dieting involves a restriction of total food intake to a small amount or the exclusive use of powder or liquid formulas as the source of nourishment? 308 What are some problems associated with severe caloric restriction? 309 Define “body image,” “negative body image” 319 What are some symptoms of “body dysmorphic disorder?” 321 People with anorexia are at risk from dying from _____________. 324 Chapter 11: Improving Your Personal Fitness The U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services’ recommendation for the minimum about of moderate-intensity exercise for adults is ________ minutes per week. 331 Exercise helps with weight control by increasing the body’s ________. 333 Define “physical fitness.” 334 How is exercise able to improve mental health and help to relieve stress? 334 A muscle’s ability to perform contractions for a length of time is muscle __________. 335 The amount of force that a muscle can exert in one contraction is muscle ___________. 335 The range of motion that a joint or series of joints can achieve is _________. 335 The relative proportions and distribution of fat and lean tissue throughout the body is _________. 335 The amount of force that a muscle is capable of exerting is ______. 335 What is the SMART system designed to help? 338 What are the components of the FITT principle that apply to all types of exercise? 339 What are the different ways of measuring cardiovascular fitness? 340 What muscles comprise the body’s CORE muscles? 345 What are some examples of an exercise that would build core strength? 346 ______ is a potentially fatal condition resulting form abnormally low body core temperature. 349 What is the most serious form of heat-stress illness? 349 Chapter 12: Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer How many adult Americans suffer from some type of cardiovascular disease? 355 Avoiding what substance will greatly decrease your risk of cardiovascular disease? 355 Name 4 key behaviors that will improve your “ideal cardiovascular health.” 355 Name 3 “health factors” that will improve your “ideal cardiovascular health.” 355 Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart are called ________; vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called ___________; and the smallest vessels are called __________. 356 ____________ is consistently elevated blood pressure. 358 Which blood pressure measurement is the lower number that represents the pressure on the walls of the arteries during the relaxation phase of heart activity? 358 Which blood pressure measurement is the upper number that represents the pressure on the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts? 358 _____________ is the common name for a myocardial infarction. 359What happens during a heart attack? 359 What happens during a stroke? 361 What are the characteristics of metabolic syndrome? 362 Name 6 MODIFIABLE risk factors for cardiovascular disease. 362-64 Why does obesity put a strain on the heart? 364 A person with a ________ body shape has a higher risk of CVD? 364 Name 4 NON-MODIFIABLE risk factors for cardiovascular disease. 364-365 What is metastasis? 368 What is the most deadly form of skin cancer? 376 Regarding the warning signs of melanoma, what do A, B, C, and D stand for? 376 A woman who began to sex at an early age and has had multiple partners may be a risk for _______ cancer. 378 A pap test is used to screen women for ____________. 378 When is the best time for a man to perform a testicular self-exam? 379 Approximately ________ Americans have diabetes. 386 Which body organ secretes insulin? 388 When does Type 1 diabetes most often first appear? 388 What are some common symptoms of diabetes? 391 True or False: Uncontrolled diabetes can increase the risk of blindness. 392 The cluster of six conditions that strongly increases a person’s risk of developing Type 2 diabetes is called __________ ________ 390. Chapter 13: Protecting Against Infectious Diseases and STIs (PP. 396-409) ___________ are microscopic organisms that are disease-causing agents. 397 When invaded by antigens, the body forms substances called ______________. 399 What is a reason for the resurgence of measles and mumps infections? (405 Box) What does it mean if a disease is described as “endemic?” 407 Hepatitis B can lead to ____________. 408 Chapter 16: Making Smart Health Care Choices Conventional medical practice is known as ______________. 476 What is the term that means “the amount that most private health insurance plans require the patient to pay towards health care expenses before the plan’s benefits begin.” 480 __________ is a set fee that insurance plans require a patient to pay at the time of service. 480 What is the difference between Medicare and Medicaid? 482 What percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP) does the US spend on health care? 484