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USC / Biology / BIOL 250 / usc microbiology

usc microbiology

usc microbiology

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Mathew endres
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Microbiology
Cost: 50
Name: Microbiology Study Guide Exam 1
Description: Study guide for first exam
Uploaded: 02/03/2017
7 Pages 173 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews



Where is the earliest evidence of what would become microbiology?




Microbes could not be seen before what date?




Microbiology comes from what Greek words?



Study Guide Microbiology: 1. Microbiology comes from what Greek words? Mikros, Bios, Logos 2. Microbes could not be seen before what date? Late 1500’s early 1600s 3. Where is the earliest evidence of what would become microbiology? First seen in drawings 4. What word descirbes the brewing of cold beverages? SDon't forget about the age old question of -4x 3 y 2(7xy 4)
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alubrious  Sumeria 5. What types of evidence from the middle east indicates beer brewing? Cuneiform and pictorial tablets 6. Word for first microbiology studied? Protomicrobiology 7. Greek word protus means? First 8. What did people in South-Asia believe? Good to keep water in copper  vessels and direct sunlight exposure (filters) 9. Who took note of diseases and how they transferred? Hippocrates 10. What were the four bodily humors and the disease that came  with each? a. Yellow bile – spleen b. Black bile – Gallbladder c. Phlegm – Brain and lungs d. Blood – liver  11. Summer of 430 B.C. there was a plague that killed 33% of  Athenian population, what disease did __________ believe it was?  Thucydides, typhoid fever 12. Ancient Roman that discovered that there are minted bred  creatures which cannot be seen that cause serious diseases? Marcus  Varro 13. Another name for the Black death? Bubonic Plague 14. First record of outbreak of Black death and original name? 542  A.D. and Plague of Justinian 15. Who first coined the term cell? Robert Hooke 16. Development of what type of technology allowed a leap forward? Optical technology 17. Who spent time observing animalcules? Anton van Leeuwenhock 18. Theory that was developed meaning the spontaneous  generation? Abiogenesis 19. What theory was known as the bad air theory? Miasmic theory  20. What is biogenesis? Living things come from other living things 21. What experiment did Francisco Redi? Meat in a jar, flies did not  show up 22. Who was Louis Pasteur’s main opponent in the French Academy  of Sciences? Felix-Archimedes Pouchet 23. Which one of the opponents believed in spontaneous generation? Pouchet24. Who made the experiment with the goose neck/swan flasks? Louis Pasteur 25. Who created the settling box? John Tyndall 26. What are Robert Koch’s postulates for? Linking specific  organisms to a specific disease 27. What does working in vitro mean? In glass 28. Name of person who gave Koch the idea to use agar-ager?  Angela Hess 29. What did Ignaz Phillipp Semmelweis discover? Frequency of  puerperal fever (septic infection) in doctor or midwife birthing wards 30. Big user of phenol for organics and pioneered the use of  antiseptics? Sir Joseph Lister  31. Who described phagocytes and how did it come about?  Mechnikov and starfish fell on floor  32. Who developed humoral (antibody) immunity? Paul Ehrlich 33. What does Virus mean in Latin? Slime or poison 34. First known chemotherapist? Greek Pedanius Dioscordies 35. What percent of earth’s biomass is microbes? 60% 36. What are the characteristics of Archaea? Single celled, no  nucleus, found in extreme enviornments  37. What Greek word was bacteria derived from? Backterion  meaning “little stick” 38. True or False All Bacteria are heterotrophic? False but most are 39. What disease does the bacteria Prototheca cause? Mastitis in  dairy cows 40. What disease does Karenia cause? Bloom and cause red tides 41. What disease does Dinoflagellates/cyanobacteria? Saxitoxin  concentrates in shellfish and can sicken or kill 42. Why is important to properly harvest wheat and make sure it is  dry? Improper storage causes moisture which microbes need to  survive, can cause mold called ergot  43. What type or shape is a cyanobacterium? Spirulina 44. What is the source of antibiotics? All sourced from microbes 45. Last resort antibiotics are known as? Carbapenems 46. The air, water, minerals, organisms and all other external factors  surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time is? Environment 47. What is ecology? How organisms interact with one another and  their environment 48. Who makes up most oxygen in the oceans? Microbes 49. Where can all major microbes be found? Air and soil 50. What causes sewage treatment? Microbes 51. Name an example of bioremediation using microbes? Oil spills,  use microbes to eat crude oil, spray on top of spill 52. What is the earliest precursor we have to chemistry? Ancient  Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad (The Eightfold)53. Argued for the four elements and two forces? Empedocles 54. Greeks Leucippus and Democritus proposed the idea of? The  atom 55. What element did Aristotle add to the four elements? Ether 56. Who put down the fifth element theory? Anton Laurent de  Lavoisier 57. Why do ions want to lose or gain electrons? Fill their orbital shell  58. Type of bonding that shares electrons? Transfers electrons?  Covalent; ionic 59. The breakdown of substances the releases energy is?  Catabolism; exergonic  60. The p in pH stands for? –log 61. Use of energy to create substances? Anabolic  62. Acids donate or accept H+? Acid donates 63. Proteins are made up of…? Amino acids 64. A subset of proteins that allow reactions to occur at life  temperatures? Enzymes 65. What is the polymer of nucleotides? Nucleic acids 66. What were the two school of thoughts on how we see things?  Intromission, Emission 67. A series of events in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s gave rise  to? A Galileo style telescope: spy glasses (military invention) and  microscopes (Thomas hooke style) 68. How many m are in a micrometer? 10-6 69. How many m are in a nanometer? 10-9 70. What type of microscopy is made to take advantage of refraction  of light? Phase Contract Microscopy 71. Uses properties to visualize cells using special dyes? Fluorescence Microscopy 72. Difference between simple and differential staining? 73. What does prokaryotic mean? Pro- before nucleus  74. What type of cells are multicellular? Eukaryotic 75. Eukaryotes that are NOT multicellular? Protists 76. What is a coccus shape? Spherical 77. What is a vibrio shape? Comma shaped 78. What is a baccilus shape? Rodlike 79. What is a spirochete shape? Cork screw 80. Major difference between gram negative or gram positive?  Grand positive – thick, only one layer of membrane  Grand negative – multiple layers pepitomic glycen, thinner, include  plasmic space  81. What type of bacteria is similar to grand negative? Acid fast  82. How do flagella move? Rotate spin 83. What parent do you get the mitochondria? Mother 84. All eukaryotic cells have chloroplast? Not all do but many (plants) (SIMILAR to mitochondria)85. Process that uses light energy to synthesize carbohydrates?  Photosynthesis 86. What are ribosomes composed of? 60% RNA, 40% protein  87. What is the role of a lysosome? Digest pathogens 88. What type of external factor of cells are more abundant: cilia or  flagella? Cilia 89. What is endosymbiosis? One of the symbiotic organism lives  inside the other 90. What is the movement of water known as? Osmosis 91. What type of concentration does Active Transport move? Low to  high concentration 92. Sum of all chemical processes carried out by living things and  breakdown of things to create energy? Metabolism 93. What role do enzymes have on reactions? Lower the activation  energy  94. Humans are…Chemoheterotrophs 95. What are two ways to inhibit an enzyme? Allosteric and  competitive 96. What is competitive inhibition? Acts as fake substrate, not  permanent 97. What is allosteric inhibition? Changes the shape where the active site binds, permanent 98. What is a way to denature an enzyme? High fevers (usually over  104) 99. What converts glucose to pyruvic acid? Glycolosis 100. What is another name for the Kreb Cycle? TCA 101. What is the purpose of fermentation? Oxidizes NADH to make it into  NAD+ to use in glycolosis 102. What is the process of Chemiosmosis? Pumping out hydrogens and  using energy as they flow back in causes the pH to go down 103. Is there more NADH or FADH2 in chemiosmosis? More NADH 104. What type of respiration does not need oxygen? Anaerobic but can  use NO3, SO4, CO2 (other inorganic molecules) 105. The notion that disease could be prevented by proper disposal of  human waste was developed? Early biblical times 106. What type of reaction: The formation of glucose molecules from  starch? Catabolic  107. The prokaryotic aerobic metabolism of glucose produces a total (net) of _____ molecules of ATP? 38 108. How is ATP formed by chemiosmosis? A charge difference of outer  and inner membrane gives motive force to generate ATP 109. What is the function of mitochondria?  A) Store the cell’s primary genetic information B) Site of protein synthesis C) Carry out reductive reactions that provide power for the cellD) Help maintain the structure of the cell during division E) None of these is a function of mitochondria  110. What do the CoA attachments link to? Fatty acid chains  111. Two types of photoautotrophy? Noncyclic and cyclic  112. Which is more common? Cyclic  113. What does noncyclic and cyclic have in common? Both use  chlorophyll and light  114. Where does photoautotrophy occur? On the membranes in the  chloroplast  115. What is the following name of chains of sphere shaped bacteria?  Streptococcus 116. What is phototaxis? Movement away or toward the light  117. What can bind to a enzymes active site? Competitive inhibitors and  substrates 118. If you want to look at the surface of a virus what type would you use? Scanning Electron Microscopy Textbook: 1. What is the most important job of a microbe? Producing antibiotics 2. What does the term strepto refer to? Divide in only one plane and  form chains  3. What does the term staphylococci ? Divide in multiple planes and  create clusters of cell  4. True or False: Do bacteria cells have a nucleus? False; have a  nucleoid (no membrane) 5. What is essential in converting CO2 into glucose? Carboxyasomes 6. Tiny hair like structures found on the outside of bacteria? Pili  7. How does glycolysis and Kreb cycle generate ATP? Substrate  phosphorylation (produce NADH FADH2) a. NAD+ used in glycolysis and FAD used in Krebs cycle 8. What way does the electron transport chain work? High to low  9. What are examples of inorganic molecules used for cycles? NO4,  CO2, SO4 10. How many lenses does a compound microscope have? Two  lenses 11. How did Robert Hooke get the term cell from? Reminded him of  the cells of monks 12. Who worked with silkworms to identify different dieases? Pasteur 13. Who created vaccines following tragedy of the death of his three  daughters? Pasteur 14. What type of bonds hold together a protein? Polymer of amino  acids joined by peptide bonds15. Enzymes are made up of … Proteins 16. Substances that control the rate of reaction? Enzymes 17. What can you raise/lower to denature enzymes? Extremes of  temperature and pH  18. What categories are thymine, cytosine and uracil in? Pyrimidines 19. As a microbiologist, when looking at organisms do you need  shorter or larger wavelengths to get a better resolution? Shorter  20. What type of microscopy method as a student will you be most  likely utilizing? Transmission electron microscopy 21. Compound microscope incorporates? More than one lenses 22. What is a bacteriophage? A specific virus that attacks a specific  kind of bacteria 23. What cell structures is made primarily of phospholipids? Cell  membrane  24. What best describes a carbohydrate? Chain or rings of carbons,  most of which possess an alcohol group  25. The joining of nucleotides to form a nucleic acid requires the  breaking of high energy triphosphate bonds. This is an example of  what type of chemical reaction? Anabolic 26. What is the typical size for a bacterial cell? 4 -6 micrometers 27. While attempting to use oil immersion technique using the  proper objective, you accidently used water instead of oil , what  would happen? Less light would enter the object  28. What type of microscopy would be the most appropriate for  looking at the surface of a virus? Scanning electron microscopy  29. When performing a Gram stain, which of the following results are expected? Gram – will be pink, Gram + purple, Acid fast purple and  sporeless colors  30. The term basic dyes refers to the fact that these dyes are?  Positively charged  31. What is the difference between a capsule and slime layer?  Capsule protects cells from phagocytosis and a slime layer helps  keep nutrients trapped in the cell 32. Process used by WBC to engulf and destroy bacteria?  Endocytosis 33. Process most associated with the stripping of high-energy  electrons from substrates with a production of CO2? Krebs Cycle 34. Coenzymes are organic molecules while cofactors are inorganic  TRUE OR FALSE? True 35. When was it commonly believed that microbes existed and cause disease? 1800’s A.D. 36. What is an apoenzyme? Protein portion that attaches to enzyme  a. Becomes holoenzyme with its cofactor b. Non protein organic – coenzyme  37. COFACTOR – INORGANIC  38. COENZYME – ORGANIC 39. Most important factor of bacterial cell wall? Peptidoglycan  40. Body producing lactic acid instead of  41. What is the role of Acetyl CoA? Removal of one CO2 and transfers electron to NAD

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