Study Guide Microbiology: 1. Microbiology comes from what Greek words? Mikros, Bios, Logos 2. Microbes could not be seen before what date? Late 1500’s early 1600s 3. Where is the earliest evidence of what would become microbiology? First seen in drawings 4. What word descirbes the brewing of cold beverages? SDon't forget about the age old question of -4x 3 y 2(7xy 4)
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alubrious Sumeria 5. What types of evidence from the middle east indicates beer brewing? Cuneiform and pictorial tablets 6. Word for first microbiology studied? Protomicrobiology 7. Greek word protus means? First 8. What did people in South-Asia believe? Good to keep water in copper vessels and direct sunlight exposure (filters) 9. Who took note of diseases and how they transferred? Hippocrates 10. What were the four bodily humors and the disease that came with each? a. Yellow bile – spleen b. Black bile – Gallbladder c. Phlegm – Brain and lungs d. Blood – liver 11. Summer of 430 B.C. there was a plague that killed 33% of Athenian population, what disease did __________ believe it was? Thucydides, typhoid fever 12. Ancient Roman that discovered that there are minted bred creatures which cannot be seen that cause serious diseases? Marcus Varro 13. Another name for the Black death? Bubonic Plague 14. First record of outbreak of Black death and original name? 542 A.D. and Plague of Justinian 15. Who first coined the term cell? Robert Hooke 16. Development of what type of technology allowed a leap forward? Optical technology 17. Who spent time observing animalcules? Anton van Leeuwenhock 18. Theory that was developed meaning the spontaneous generation? Abiogenesis 19. What theory was known as the bad air theory? Miasmic theory 20. What is biogenesis? Living things come from other living things 21. What experiment did Francisco Redi? Meat in a jar, flies did not show up 22. Who was Louis Pasteur’s main opponent in the French Academy of Sciences? Felix-Archimedes Pouchet 23. Which one of the opponents believed in spontaneous generation? Pouchet24. Who made the experiment with the goose neck/swan flasks? Louis Pasteur 25. Who created the settling box? John Tyndall 26. What are Robert Koch’s postulates for? Linking specific organisms to a specific disease 27. What does working in vitro mean? In glass 28. Name of person who gave Koch the idea to use agar-ager? Angela Hess 29. What did Ignaz Phillipp Semmelweis discover? Frequency of puerperal fever (septic infection) in doctor or midwife birthing wards 30. Big user of phenol for organics and pioneered the use of antiseptics? Sir Joseph Lister 31. Who described phagocytes and how did it come about? Mechnikov and starfish fell on floor 32. Who developed humoral (antibody) immunity? Paul Ehrlich 33. What does Virus mean in Latin? Slime or poison 34. First known chemotherapist? Greek Pedanius Dioscordies 35. What percent of earth’s biomass is microbes? 60% 36. What are the characteristics of Archaea? Single celled, no nucleus, found in extreme enviornments 37. What Greek word was bacteria derived from? Backterion meaning “little stick” 38. True or False All Bacteria are heterotrophic? False but most are 39. What disease does the bacteria Prototheca cause? Mastitis in dairy cows 40. What disease does Karenia cause? Bloom and cause red tides 41. What disease does Dinoflagellates/cyanobacteria? Saxitoxin concentrates in shellfish and can sicken or kill 42. Why is important to properly harvest wheat and make sure it is dry? Improper storage causes moisture which microbes need to survive, can cause mold called ergot 43. What type or shape is a cyanobacterium? Spirulina 44. What is the source of antibiotics? All sourced from microbes 45. Last resort antibiotics are known as? Carbapenems 46. The air, water, minerals, organisms and all other external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time is? Environment 47. What is ecology? How organisms interact with one another and their environment 48. Who makes up most oxygen in the oceans? Microbes 49. Where can all major microbes be found? Air and soil 50. What causes sewage treatment? Microbes 51. Name an example of bioremediation using microbes? Oil spills, use microbes to eat crude oil, spray on top of spill 52. What is the earliest precursor we have to chemistry? Ancient Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad (The Eightfold)53. Argued for the four elements and two forces? Empedocles 54. Greeks Leucippus and Democritus proposed the idea of? The atom 55. What element did Aristotle add to the four elements? Ether 56. Who put down the fifth element theory? Anton Laurent de Lavoisier 57. Why do ions want to lose or gain electrons? Fill their orbital shell 58. Type of bonding that shares electrons? Transfers electrons? Covalent; ionic 59. The breakdown of substances the releases energy is? Catabolism; exergonic 60. The p in pH stands for? –log 61. Use of energy to create substances? Anabolic 62. Acids donate or accept H+? Acid donates 63. Proteins are made up of…? Amino acids 64. A subset of proteins that allow reactions to occur at life temperatures? Enzymes 65. What is the polymer of nucleotides? Nucleic acids 66. What were the two school of thoughts on how we see things? Intromission, Emission 67. A series of events in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s gave rise to? A Galileo style telescope: spy glasses (military invention) and microscopes (Thomas hooke style) 68. How many m are in a micrometer? 10-6 69. How many m are in a nanometer? 10-9 70. What type of microscopy is made to take advantage of refraction of light? Phase Contract Microscopy 71. Uses properties to visualize cells using special dyes? Fluorescence Microscopy 72. Difference between simple and differential staining? 73. What does prokaryotic mean? Pro- before nucleus 74. What type of cells are multicellular? Eukaryotic 75. Eukaryotes that are NOT multicellular? Protists 76. What is a coccus shape? Spherical 77. What is a vibrio shape? Comma shaped 78. What is a baccilus shape? Rodlike 79. What is a spirochete shape? Cork screw 80. Major difference between gram negative or gram positive? Grand positive – thick, only one layer of membrane Grand negative – multiple layers pepitomic glycen, thinner, include plasmic space 81. What type of bacteria is similar to grand negative? Acid fast 82. How do flagella move? Rotate spin 83. What parent do you get the mitochondria? Mother 84. All eukaryotic cells have chloroplast? Not all do but many (plants) (SIMILAR to mitochondria)85. Process that uses light energy to synthesize carbohydrates? Photosynthesis 86. What are ribosomes composed of? 60% RNA, 40% protein 87. What is the role of a lysosome? Digest pathogens 88. What type of external factor of cells are more abundant: cilia or flagella? Cilia 89. What is endosymbiosis? One of the symbiotic organism lives inside the other 90. What is the movement of water known as? Osmosis 91. What type of concentration does Active Transport move? Low to high concentration 92. Sum of all chemical processes carried out by living things and breakdown of things to create energy? Metabolism 93. What role do enzymes have on reactions? Lower the activation energy 94. Humans are…Chemoheterotrophs 95. What are two ways to inhibit an enzyme? Allosteric and competitive 96. What is competitive inhibition? Acts as fake substrate, not permanent 97. What is allosteric inhibition? Changes the shape where the active site binds, permanent 98. What is a way to denature an enzyme? High fevers (usually over 104) 99. What converts glucose to pyruvic acid? Glycolosis 100. What is another name for the Kreb Cycle? TCA 101. What is the purpose of fermentation? Oxidizes NADH to make it into NAD+ to use in glycolosis 102. What is the process of Chemiosmosis? Pumping out hydrogens and using energy as they flow back in causes the pH to go down 103. Is there more NADH or FADH2 in chemiosmosis? More NADH 104. What type of respiration does not need oxygen? Anaerobic but can use NO3, SO4, CO2 (other inorganic molecules) 105. The notion that disease could be prevented by proper disposal of human waste was developed? Early biblical times 106. What type of reaction: The formation of glucose molecules from starch? Catabolic 107. The prokaryotic aerobic metabolism of glucose produces a total (net) of _____ molecules of ATP? 38 108. How is ATP formed by chemiosmosis? A charge difference of outer and inner membrane gives motive force to generate ATP 109. What is the function of mitochondria? A) Store the cell’s primary genetic information B) Site of protein synthesis C) Carry out reductive reactions that provide power for the cellD) Help maintain the structure of the cell during division E) None of these is a function of mitochondria 110. What do the CoA attachments link to? Fatty acid chains 111. Two types of photoautotrophy? Noncyclic and cyclic 112. Which is more common? Cyclic 113. What does noncyclic and cyclic have in common? Both use chlorophyll and light 114. Where does photoautotrophy occur? On the membranes in the chloroplast 115. What is the following name of chains of sphere shaped bacteria? Streptococcus 116. What is phototaxis? Movement away or toward the light 117. What can bind to a enzymes active site? Competitive inhibitors and substrates 118. If you want to look at the surface of a virus what type would you use? Scanning Electron Microscopy Textbook: 1. What is the most important job of a microbe? Producing antibiotics 2. What does the term strepto refer to? Divide in only one plane and form chains 3. What does the term staphylococci ? Divide in multiple planes and create clusters of cell 4. True or False: Do bacteria cells have a nucleus? False; have a nucleoid (no membrane) 5. What is essential in converting CO2 into glucose? Carboxyasomes 6. Tiny hair like structures found on the outside of bacteria? Pili 7. How does glycolysis and Kreb cycle generate ATP? Substrate phosphorylation (produce NADH FADH2) a. NAD+ used in glycolysis and FAD used in Krebs cycle 8. What way does the electron transport chain work? High to low 9. What are examples of inorganic molecules used for cycles? NO4, CO2, SO4 10. How many lenses does a compound microscope have? Two lenses 11. How did Robert Hooke get the term cell from? Reminded him of the cells of monks 12. Who worked with silkworms to identify different dieases? Pasteur 13. Who created vaccines following tragedy of the death of his three daughters? Pasteur 14. What type of bonds hold together a protein? Polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds15. Enzymes are made up of … Proteins 16. Substances that control the rate of reaction? Enzymes 17. What can you raise/lower to denature enzymes? Extremes of temperature and pH 18. What categories are thymine, cytosine and uracil in? Pyrimidines 19. As a microbiologist, when looking at organisms do you need shorter or larger wavelengths to get a better resolution? Shorter 20. What type of microscopy method as a student will you be most likely utilizing? Transmission electron microscopy 21. Compound microscope incorporates? More than one lenses 22. What is a bacteriophage? A specific virus that attacks a specific kind of bacteria 23. What cell structures is made primarily of phospholipids? Cell membrane 24. What best describes a carbohydrate? Chain or rings of carbons, most of which possess an alcohol group 25. The joining of nucleotides to form a nucleic acid requires the breaking of high energy triphosphate bonds. This is an example of what type of chemical reaction? Anabolic 26. What is the typical size for a bacterial cell? 4 -6 micrometers 27. While attempting to use oil immersion technique using the proper objective, you accidently used water instead of oil , what would happen? Less light would enter the object 28. What type of microscopy would be the most appropriate for looking at the surface of a virus? Scanning electron microscopy 29. When performing a Gram stain, which of the following results are expected? Gram – will be pink, Gram + purple, Acid fast purple and sporeless colors 30. The term basic dyes refers to the fact that these dyes are? Positively charged 31. What is the difference between a capsule and slime layer? Capsule protects cells from phagocytosis and a slime layer helps keep nutrients trapped in the cell 32. Process used by WBC to engulf and destroy bacteria? Endocytosis 33. Process most associated with the stripping of high-energy electrons from substrates with a production of CO2? Krebs Cycle 34. Coenzymes are organic molecules while cofactors are inorganic TRUE OR FALSE? True 35. When was it commonly believed that microbes existed and cause disease? 1800’s A.D. 36. What is an apoenzyme? Protein portion that attaches to enzyme a. Becomes holoenzyme with its cofactor b. Non protein organic – coenzyme 37. COFACTOR – INORGANIC 38. COENZYME – ORGANIC 39. Most important factor of bacterial cell wall? Peptidoglycan 40. Body producing lactic acid instead of 41. What is the role of Acetyl CoA? Removal of one CO2 and transfers electron to NAD