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IndoEuropean Folktales Final Exam Study Guide

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by: Meghan Rixey

IndoEuropean Folktales Final Exam Study Guide Ger1502

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > Ger1502 > IndoEuropean Folktales Final Exam Study Guide
Meghan Rixey
GPA 2.75
Indo-European Folktales
Dr. E.Wylie-Ernst

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About this Document

Extensive study guide for the material that will be covered on the final exam, according to the review sheet. Includes short summaries of all the readings as well as terms and definitions
Indo-European Folktales
Dr. E.Wylie-Ernst
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Rixey on Thursday April 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Ger1502 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. E.Wylie-Ernst in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 418 views.


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Date Created: 04/16/15
Stories lndoEuropean Folktales Final Exam Study Guide Admann and His Wife 0 A man sends his wife out to weed the ax eld She debates whether to weed or eat and decides to eat Then whether to weed or sleep and decides to sleep One day her husband follows her out there and cuts off her skirts when she is asleep She wakes up confused wondering who she is She goes to the house and asks the man quotis your wife homequot When he replies yes she decides it is not her and wanders off never to be seen again The Willful Child 0 There was a stubborn child who never did as his mother wanted so God was displeased with him and made him sick He died soon after and buried in the ground but kept reaching his arm back out through the dirt The mother herself had to go back to the grave and beat the arm with a switch until he nally laid still in his grave Habitrot o Young girl couldn t spin but she nds a fairy who spins for her Her mother bragged about her and found a husband who wanted to marry a good spinner She tells him about Habitrot who tells the husband her lips would become deformed if she spun so he continues to allow Habitrot to do it all 0 The Pancake o A mother was making pancakes for her 7 children and the children were all begging for their pancakes when it became so scared the pancake ipped itself over in the pan and then ipped out and rolled out the door and down the road The family runs out the door to chase after it and the pancake meets many people on the road who keep asking it to stop so they can eat it but the pancake explains it is running from the family and keeps rolling away Eventually the pancake comes to a pig and is about to keep rolling but the pig says it is dangerous out here and they should travel together They do and eventually come to a river and the pig says for the pancake to sit on its nose so he can swin over with it and the pancake does and then the pig eats the pancake whole 0 The Treasure 0 A poor peasant was tilling a eld when he struck a chest full of gold and silver He took a bag home with him but didn t want to tell anyone in fear that the landowner would claim it should be his He only tells his wife but she could not keep a secret and tells people until eventually the landowner nds out So the husband takes his wife and the money into town to exchange the old coins for new money On their way back he does many weird thing such as toss bread rolls into the air so it appears to be raining rolls and convinces his wife to hide in the cellar because there is an enemy coming to attack their land When the landowner comes back and asks the wife where the money is she tells him they went to town to exchange it But when he asks the husband the husband replies that he had no money and his wife is crazy just ask her what happened So the wife starts talking about raining bread rolls and being under enemy re and the landowner assumes she is crazy and leaves them alone 0 The Death of the Little Hen 0 Little Hen and Little Rooster were together on Nut Mountain and when little hen found a large nut she could not swallow it and began to choke so she called out to Rooster to go to the well and grab water so she does not die Rooster went to the well but the well tells her to run to the bride and get some red silk rst so the rooster but the bride tells the rooster to rst go get her wreath so he does and when he gets each one the things they asked for he arrives back to little hen with the water but Little Hen is already dead He cried a lot and all the animals in the forest came to mourn Little Hen and bury him When they were taking Little Hen in the carriage to give him a proper burial they all try and cross the river but cannot and fall into the water and drown and Little Rooster and Little Hen are the only ones that make it across Little Rooster cried at the loss of his friends and buried little Hen and mourned him at his grace until he died as well 0 The Parable of the Mustard Seed 0 A young girl married the son of a wealthy man and had a beautiful son but when he got a little older he died The mother carried him to every house asking for medicine and help but no one can until someone tells her to go to the Buddha He sends her to get a mustard seed from a house where no one has died She goes to many houses but cannot nd anyone who has not lost a family member She goes back to the Buddha and he explains the lesson to her and she buries her son in peace 0 The Braham Girl That Married a Tiger 0 An old Braham had three sons and a daughter the daughter was spoiled and whenever she saw a handsome boy she said she must marry him But as she got older her parents got nervous that they needed her to marry someone soon before she got too old There was a magic tiger near by the town who had the power to transform into different forms and he heard the news about this girl who needed to marry someone so he decides to take form of a handsome boy and of course the girl sees him and falls in love The tiger speaks to the girls parents and agrees to marry her The tiger man is walking back with his new wife to his home in the woods when he reveals his true identity and turns back into a tiger telling his wife if she wants to live she must cook for him every day She cries for a long time but every day prepares his food and they even have a child together who turns out to be another tiger until one day a crow ies by and nds her crying and agrees to take a message back to her brothers about what is happening The brothers receive the message and go to rescue her When they get there the tiger smells humans in the house and nds them but they trick him and get the tiger to run away Before they left the girl kills her tiger son and they all run away and when the tiger returns later devises a way to get revenge on them all and assumes another human form and goes back to their home in the town The siblings see right through his plan though and trick him into falling into a well when he arrives at their home and burying him for good Fitcher s Bird 0 There was a sorcerer who was also a thief and would disguise himself as a poor man begging from house to house He came across one girl and forced her into his bag and took her home with him He later leaves and gives the girl an egg and a key but says don t open the door it leads to The girl does anyway and nds a tub full of dismembered bodies and accidently drops the egg inside it She picks it up and tries to clean off the blood but it keeps reappearing and when the man gets home yells at her for disobeying him and then cuts her up and throws her in the tub as well He goes back to town nds the second sister and the exact same thing happens with her He goes back and takes the third sister but she is smart and hides the egg and then goes into the room nds her sisters puts them back together and they come back to life The man comes home and sees the egg is clean she has obeyed him and asks her to marry him and she agrees She puts her sisters in a basket and covers them with gold and insists the man take it back to her mother before the wedding but not to look inside or she will be able to tell He takes them home and when the man is gone the third sister covers herself in honey and rolls in feathers to create a disguise and escapes home running into people who think she is just a bird When the man returns home all his guests are there for the wedding but the sisters send someone to go to the house and they light it on re and everyone inside burns along with the sorcerer man Beauty and the Beast O A rich merchant had 6 children youngest was the prettiest and called Beauty He loses all his money and has to move to the country to work and Beauty comes and works hard every day The father leaves to make money but gets lost in the woods and comes to a great mansion He eats the food and recovers but when he is leaving he takes a rose to bring back to Beauty and a giant beast comes outside and says he will kill him for taking his rose The father explains it is for his daughter and begs for his life and the beast tells him to go home and send one daughter as a sacri ce and to bring a trunk full of things he wants back with him The father returns and intends to go right back and sacri ce himself but Beauty will not let him do that and plans to go sacri ce herself They go together and the Beast is impressed with the mans honesty and tells him he can go home Beauty learns the Beast is actually very kind and ful lls all her wishes and he asks her to marry him Beauty says no though and the Beast is sad but comes to eat dinner with her every night but never pressures her He lets her leave for a week to go visit her family but realizes she misses the Beast very much and does not want to make him sad and returns She nds him almost dead from grief of losing her and tells him she wants to marry him He then transforms in to a handsome prince and tells her she has lifted his curse The Husband Who Was to Mind the House 0 There was a husband with a bad temper who came home very angry so the wife suggested tomorrow they switched jobs and he can take care of the house He thinks he will be good at it but makes such a mess and spills and ruins all sorts of things He had tried to tie himself to the cow so it would not run away but it fell off the roof and pulled him up the chimney so they were both hanging in the air When the wife eventually came home she found the cow hanging from a rope outside and rushed to cut it down but when she came inside her husband had fallen down the chimney and into the porridge pot The Golden Key 0 In the wintertime there was lots of snow and a poor boy had to go fetch wood on a sled He was so cold he wanted to make a re before going home so when he scraped away the snow he found a golden key He dug farther and found a golden chest and nally opened it The story ends without telling us what was inside 0 The Fox and the Grapes 0 On a hot day a fox sees grapes hanging from a tree branch He tries to jump up to reach them but just cannot jump high enough Eventually he walks away saying quotI Bet they were sour anywayquot Changeling is Beaten with a Switch 0 Nobleman had large crops that his subject harvested for him One year there was a barely recovered newborn mother harvester so she brought her child with her and put him down behind her to do work When she picked it up it wasn t her child She cried out but kept it for a few days but nearly collapsed it was so badly behaved The nobleman tells her to take it out to the eld and beat it and she will witness a miracle The woman did this until the child screamed and the Devil came back with her child and took his own back Of Nature and the Returns of lngratitude 0 An emperor was out hunting and heard a serpent crying out that was tied to a tree He felt bad and untied it but it immediately bit him in the neck The emperor cries out and asks why he was not grateful and the serpent explains it is only in his nature and he cannot help it How a Fish Swam in the Air and a Hare in the Water 0 A man tells his wife everything but once he tells her she gossips and the entire town knows One day the man is walking and nds a pot of gold but decides he cannot tell her so he buys a pike and a hare at the market and plants them in the forest He goes home and tells his wife about the pot of gold and takes her out to the forest and one by one they discover the hare and the pike and she insists they take them home for dinner They do and then they nd the pot of gold and take them all home but the wife continuously keeps inviting people over for dinner and the husbands grows angry that she is spending so much The wife turns it around and tells the governor her husband is abusive and a drunk and he promises to look into the situation They decide to take the money away from the man so he tells them to ask his wife how they found the gold and then decide When she starts talking about nding a pike and a hare in the forest they laugh and assume she s crazy and let the man keep the money and he lives happily Godfather Death 0 A 13th child was born to a family and they became worried they would not nd anyone to be the Godfather The father sets out to look and meets Death who offers to do it The boy grew up to be a successful doctor and only treated those who were meant to live at the advice of his Godfather One night the Godfather showed him a room full of candles that each represented a life Some were burning bright and some were about to go out the son points at one that was ickering and his Godfather said quotthis one is youquot The son tried to grab another candle and re light it but accidently pushed the wick too hard and put his candle out He died later that night Cat and Mouse in Partnership 0 Cat and Mouse live together and save up a pot of fat to get them through the winter They decide to hide it in a church to keep it safe but the cat lies 3 times telling the mouse he has to go serve as a godfather at the church and each time eats the fat until it is gone When winter gets cold the mouse suggests they go retrieve it and when they see it is gone the mouse realizes the cat has been eating it and then the cat eats the mouse Death s Messengers 0 Death made an agreement with a man saying he would not come without sending warnings rst One day Death comes and tells him it is his time The man protests saying he has not been given warning Death responds that his hair is grey and he is weak and that was his warning and his time is still here The Rose 0 There was a child who would go into the woods every day to gather wood for his mother One day he could not nd any but met a child who helped him get some and carry it back but as soon as they did the child disappeared He told his mother the story but she didn t believe him Later the child went back and the mystery child gave him a rose and said when it bloomed he would come back again So the child brought it home and told his mother and the mother placed the rose in water One morning the child did not get up and when the mother looked to check on him he was lying there dead That same morning the rose had fully bloomed The Emperor s New Clothes 0 A greedy emperor keeps demanding his servants to make him nice clothes so they trick him that they have a beautiful robe that he cannot see and get him to go out in the processions naked and he doesn t realize it was a joke until he was already out in public Blue Beard 0 A man was very rich but had a bright blue beard that made him ugly He had a neighbor with two beautiful daughters but they both refused to marry him so he took them along with some other friends to one of his country houses for a week to stay and had many parties and impressed them The youngest daughter began to think maybe the beard wasn t so bad after all and agreed to marry him Before this happens though Blue Beard tells her he must take a journey and leaves her with the keys to different rooms but forbids her to go in one last closet Eventually she becomes too curious and enters the room and nds many dead bodies and blood on the oor She is so frightened she drops the key but as hard as she tries cannot clean off the blood Blue Beard returns and yells at her for disobeying him and says she has to die Before he kills her she begs for him to let her go pray upstairs and he lets her so she summons her brothers for help She puts it off as long as possible and just when he is about to cut off her head her brothers arrive and kill him rst She then takes over his estate and lives happily with her siblings The Mouse the Bird and the Sausage o A mouse bird and sausage all formed a partnership where the bird would y to the woods to gather wood the mouse carried the water and made the re and the sausage cooked One day the bird met another bird who scolded him for letting himself be the one who did all the hard work The bird came back and told his friends they should try doing different tasks so the switched They tried but many tragic things happened when they were not used to theirjobs and they all died 0 An Adulteress s Punishment 0 King Charles sent a man named Bernage to Germany and since he is traveling day and night he stays at a gentleman s house The man only requested that Bernage keeps his door closed at night because his wife was full of mischief He agrees and eats dinner but when he meets the wife he nds her very beautiful The husband tells the story of how he caught his wife cheating on him and killed the other man and leaves his bones as ornaments around the house to remind her and cuts her hair very short to remind her how she has lost her honor and chastity The husband later takes Bernage to meet the wife himself and she looks so unhappy he asks her about it and she begins crying As Bernage was leaving he talked to the husband and told him how sorry his wife looked and that he should consider forgiving her and over time the husband does and they live happily Christmas 0 A man s wife was not very smart and one day he told her to clean the house because Christmas was coming So she sat on the balcony and asked every passerby if his name was Christmas One man nally said yes she brought him inside and gave him all their belongings The husband came home and was so angry he beat her Later the wife asked when the husband was going to kill the pig and when he says at Christmas she nds the same man and gives the pig away to him Her husband returns and is again so angry he beats her and learned never to say anything to her again The Wager o The husband tells his wife they should eat some fritters but they need a frying pan so he has her go to his godmothers and borrow one After they eat the husband says the next person to say a word has to bring the pan back so they are silent One day a soldier was riding through and was told a shoemaker lives nearby so he goes to the house and asks the husband to come cut his horse a girth but when the shoemaker would not speak he threatens to cut off his head and when he is just about to the wife cries out for him to stop The husband then exclaims that she spoke rst and she has to take the pan back and he cut a girth for the soldier Stone Soup 0 An old beggar knocked on a farmhouse door but the wife tells him to go away she has nothing to offer him He says then she should have some of his stone soup She is curious and lets him inside and he drops a stone in boiling water and insists it needs lots of other ingredients to make it great so the woman goes running around and gathering foods from her house They made a delicious soup with all her food and ate it together and when the beggar sensed her husband would be home soon he quickly left The Serb from the Other World 0 A Turk and his wife were in the woods when the man wet to the river to get water for his horse The woman waiting for him met a man who told her he was from the other world She asks him if he knows her son who died and he says he does So the wife gives him a purse of money and tobacco to take back to her son and he leaves The husband gets back and as soon as he hears what happened jumps on his horse to go after the man The man knows he is coming though and disguises himself and when the husband reaches him he throws him off the trail but offers to hold his horse for him When the husband goes running he gets on the horse and leaves When the husband catches a man he asks where the money is but the man says he does not know and the husband believes he is innocent He returns home without his horse and the wife asks what happened so he said he thought their son needed a horse too and gave it away Till Eulenspiegal o Till Eulenspiegal came to a town and worked for a baker who told him to bake but gave him sarcasm and the man had to pay the baker for the creative bread he made He then sells it on the street and makes more and moves to the next town He tricks two more people but when he falls ill he calls a priest He gets a bucket of human feces and covers the top with money when the priest asks to be paid he says reach lightly into that bucket and the priest reaches deep down and is disgusted and yells at him andleaves o The Entrapped Suitors o A sculptor and his wife lived in a beautiful city The wife was so beautiful though that other men were always trying to court her Finally she gets so sick of it the husband and wife make a plan The next time these men ask her to meet up she tells them her husband will be away today and invites them over to her house but at one hour after another Each time one comes over she seduces them so they take off their clothes but then the next one knocks at the door and she screams that her husband is home and hides him in the closet Eventually all 3 men are in the closet together and the husband walks inside with 3 nuns He tells them he has their sculptures for the garden waiting in the closet and opens up the door to the men standing as still as rocks The nuns observe them but ask the sculpture for status with a little less detail He says that won t be a problem grabs his chisel and walks towards them when the men immediately dodge him and spring out the door 0 The Abandoned Child 0 Young mother let her child die of exposure One night she is invited to fancy party but has no clothes to wear so she stays in Thinks she hears her daughters voice singing to her that night and goes insane o The Story of the White Pet 0 A white pet sheep runs away from home and meets a bull a dog a cat a rooster and a goose also running away because they were all going to be killed by their masters for Christmas On their travel they see a house with thieves inside counting their money So they sneak up and all let out great loud noises and scare the thieves to run away That night they go to bed and one of the thieves comes back thinking the house is safe now but in the dark the animals attack him and he runs away again He reports to the other thieves there is a crazy man inside and they never went back again 0 The Falsely Accused Wife 0 A merchant lived with his servants and faithful wife but one day while talking to a friend his friend brings up how wives are only faithful until opportunity knocks His friend claims he can get with any woman but the merchant says not his wife so they make a bet So the friend bribed the merchant s servants to carry a trunk into the wife s bedroom for one night He then drilled a peephole in the drunk and hid himself inside That night he watched the wife and when he got back to the husband the next day brought up the birthmark on her hip to him The husband was so angry he called one of his servants to take his wife to the forest and kill her The servant could not do it though and let her run away She ran to another kingdom and got a job as a clerk and moved up in the job ladder until she became the highest judge One day her husband and the friend were brought to her court still ghting over the dispute about her and when she heard the story told her husband that his friend had tricked them both and they went home and lived happily together Haaken Grizzlebeard 0 Princess who was very beautiful and but not a good person thought none of her suitors were good enough for her When a prince named Haaken Grizzlebeard came to try and woo her the made one of her servants cut off his horses ears and cut it s mouth open and when he saw what happened she laughed and closed the door on him As he left he planned his revenge so the next day he disguised himself as a beggar and bought a spinning wheel and returned to the kingdom The princess asked to buy it but he said no but if she lets him sleep outside her room tonight she could have it She agrees but when it gets colder he begs her to let him inside and she does He leaves and the next day comes back with the stand for the wheel and does the same thing two more times A little while later the princess became pregnant and had a child and the king was so angry he almost killed her The princess sees the beggar in the dining hall and begs him to let her go back to his home so she is safe from her father and he agrees As they entre back into Haaken Grizzlebeard s land the princess keeps commenting on how she could have married him before if she wanted to and wishes she had so she wasn t in this position while the beggarjust keeps his mouth shut The go to a cabin he built in the woods and he tells her to go to the kingdom the next day because the prince wants her to bake for him The beggar switches into his princes clothes and beats her to the kingdom they do the baking but he catches her trying to steal bread After she is very upset and yells at the beggar back home for making her do it but he says she has to go back to the kingdom tomorrow anyway and make sausages and again tells her to steal some but again she gets caught Then again the begger tells her the prince is getting married but the bride is sick and she is the same size so must go stand in for her for the dress tting and steal fabric while she s there Same thing happens and she gets caught but is forgiven and goes home Then the begger tells her it is the wedding day and bride is still sick so she must go stand in for her in the wedding They dress her up and make her beautiful and she goes and as she s standing on the alter notices the cabin is in ames and screams but turns to Haaken and realizes he is the beggar and the prince and they get married and live happily Of Adultery o A king had a lion a lioness and a leopard When the lion was going the lioness was unfaithful and met with the leopard but that so her mate wouldn t nd out she would wash herself in a fountain by the king s castle The king found out and commanded that the fountain be closed When the fountain closed the lion found out and sentenced the lioness to death 0 The Frog King or lron Heinrich 0 Princess dropped her golden ball into a well She is crying and a frog appears and offers to help her if she lets him be her friend She doesn t think anything of it and agrees He gets it back and the princess leaves without bringing the frog The next day the frog shows up at her house but the king makes her keep her promise and bring the frog around with her When she gets to her room she throws the frog against the wall but he turns in to a handsome prince Old Hildebrand o The village priest liked a peasants wife so he tells her to pretend to be sick for many days and then he will make an announcement that if anyone has a sick wife they can send them on a journey to be healed and then they will be able to spend time together alone So the wife does this but the husband insists he is going to go for her so she can rest and he does He leaves and he priest soon comes over but on the peasant s journey he meets a kinsman and tells him what he is doing The kinsman laughs and tells him that was just a trick so the priest and his wife could be alone and tells him to come in his basket and he will take him home and show him They get home and he sees the priest and his wife together from the basket and the kinsman tricks the wife and the priest to sing a song about how they tricked the peasant husband and he then jumps out of the basket and drives the priest out of his house Cupid and Psyche 0 King and Queen had 3 daughters the youngest who was so beautiful that even Venus started to become jealous She tells her son Cupid to go nd Psyche and give her a curse to make her desire a low and unworthy man He goes and pours the liquid over her to curse her but nds pity and changes it with a different liquid No one is proposing to her though even though her sisters all get married Apollo tells her parents she has been cursed so she will never marry a mortal and that her husband is waiting for her on the top of a mountain Psyche travels to the mountain and nds a beautiful palace with riches inside but her husband will not let her see him in person because he wants her to see him as an equal not as a god Her sisters nd out she has never seen him and tell him that they have heard he is a giant serpent and tell her to go nd him when he s sleeping and kill him She does and nds out he is a beautiful god but he is upset she didn t trust him and tells her to leave She goes to Venus to nd out how to change what happened but she just gets angry and tells her she can only marry a man if she shows she is a good housewife and makes her separate grains Cupid hears and feels bad for her and does the task for her but Venus knows after there is no way it was the work of Psyche Psyche goes to the river god who gives her a task that she does She is given a box but when she opens it it just makes her fall asleep Cupid goes to nd her and awakens her with the touch of one of his arrows and takes her to Jupiter who gives her a drink to make her immortal and they marry East of the Sun and West of the Moon 0 A white bear goes to a poor man s home and offers him riches in exchange for his youngest daughter and the man convinces the daughter to do it The bear brings her to a castle and she gets whatever she wants constantly although she never sees the bear at night but she tells him she misses her family and wants to visit them He lets her but says she may not talk to her mother alone in private Her mother persuades her though and she tells her to take a candle and at night light it to see what the bear looks like The daughter does this and sees he is a handsome prince but wakes him up and he says he was cursed but now she ruined it she only needed to wait a year and he could have transformed back to a man He says now he has to leave and nd the princess east of the sun and west of the moon to marry She meets people on the way who give her a horse and tell her how to get there to nd him She is sitting outside the castle playing with a golden apple when the princess asks for it and she trades it in order to see the prince who lives there but when she goes she can t wake him up from his sleep Eventually he nds out the princess is giving him sleeping potion and doesn t drink it so that he is awake when the girl comes back the next night They beat the test the queen gives her to be able to wash a white shirt clean and leave and marry and free all the Christians being held captive HansMyHedgehog 0 Rich man and his wife were mocked for having no children so one day he says I will have a child even if it is a hedgehog and his wife then gives birth to a halfsonhalfhedgehog They give him a straw bed and he lies there for 8 years One day the father goes to the fair and asks what everyone wants him to bring back and HansMyHedgehog asks for bagpipes He then offers to leave and his father is happy and he goes to the forest to live One day a king is passing through and hears him playing his bagpipes He sends his servant out there and the Hedgehog promises to show him the way back to the kingdom if he agrees to give him the rst thing that greets him at the royal court The rst person to greet him is the kings daughter but they tricked him in the written promise and said he would not actually get the rst thing to greet him He goes back to the woods and another king comes by and he does the same thing to this king Hans goes home rst and brings lots of pigs to be slaughtered and then promises his father again he will never come back He then goes to the rst kingdom and takes the princess but sticks her with his quills until she bled and sent her home in punishment for breaking her promise He goes to the second kingdom and the princess is nice and he takes off his hedgehog skin and throws it in the re and he turned into a handsome man 0 A Wendish Legend 0 During olden times there was a gruesome practice of getting rid of old people who were no longer able to contribute to the society A son would kill a father when he became old and incompetent One day a man from another town was traveling in the area and saw an old man being led by a group of people When he asked where they were going they responded quotTo Godquot because they were going to sacri ce him The man was so appalled he took the old man home with him and hired him as a gatekeeper where he worked for 20 more years 0 How the Wicked Sons Were Duped o A wealthy old man divided up his money to give to his sons although he was still not going to die for a few more years However once he gave them their money they went from being great children to very mean and ungrateful towards him One day the old man met his friend and told him the story and the friend says he has a plan and later brings over four bags of stone and gravel The friend tells him hold on to these bags and when your sons ask what they are say l have owed you a large debt and nally came to pay it but do not let them see inside until you have died and you will see their attitudes toward you change It worked and the sons were always very nice and attentive to their father until his death when they opened the bags to nd stones Scissors 0 There was a cobbler named Tom and his wife named Joan who always did the exact opposite of each other One day the wife breaks a bunch of pots by dropping them and her husband runs in and she tells him she cut them all up with scissors He insists this is impossible but she swears it is true He drags her to the river and throws her in and as she is drowning she makes a cutting motion with her ngers Tom starts running upstream and runs into a neighbor who says if he wants to save her he has to go downstream to catch her but Tom says she always goes contrary to what he says so she must be upstream and he never nds her or saves her 0 Why People Today Die their Own Death 0 ln Ancient times people did not die their own death instead law tradition required they be taken into the mountains and pushed over a cliff when they reached a certain age One family could not do this to their grandfather and hid him in the cellar instead At the time there was a great famine in the land and the grandfather told his family to removed the thatched roof from their house and rethresh the straw for any kernels of grain they may have missed the rst time They did this and harvested a good amount of grain which miraculously was ready for harvest the next morning The king learning of this miracle demanded an explanation and when they told him about the grandfather the king was so impressed by their courage and the man s wisdom that old people were then allowed to live until they died their own death 0 Of Women Who Lie Fearfully 0 Two brothers one was a layman and other a parson The second always said that women couldn t keep a secret so one night the rst told his wife he had a secret to tell her but she cannot tell anyone He tells her about how he voided a crow and she immediately runs next door to tell her best friend who tells her friend and so on until the story keeps getting changed until it is not one black crow but sixty The man learns his wife cannot be trusted to keep a secret anymore 0 The Language of Beasts o A Shepard was walking through the forest when he heard a snake crying out and found it trapped in the middle of a re of burning leaves He rescues the snake who says to take him to his father who is the King of the Snakes and he will be rewarded The snake tells the man that his father will offer him anything but to request that he can know the language of beasts The King of Snakes is very hesitant but eventually gives in but tells the man to tell no one of his knowledge or he will die immediately So the shepard returns to his herd of sheep and can hear all the animals talk and overhears some ravens talking about a pot of gold they found He goes to nd it and becomes very rich and builds a beautiful home for his and his new wife One day they are riding their horses and the horse carrying the wife makes a joke about her being fat and the husband laughs at it She asks him why he laughs and he keeps brushing it off but she will not give up and eventually he tells her that he will tell her but he will immediately die after So he lays in a coffin ready to tell her but then die when he hears one of his animals talking about how he cannot stand up to his wife and if it were them they would teach her a lesson So he gets back up beats her and tells her never to ask why he laughs again 0 The Bull the Donkey and the Husbandman o A wealthy husbandman was given the gift to understand animals but told never to share his gift or he would die He overhears the donkey giving advice to the bull about how to get out of doing hard work and when he sees them trying to trick him he laughs His wife asks why he laughed but he says he cannot tell her although she is relentless about it and eventually he gives in When he was about to tell her but realized he would have to die if he does he overhears one of the roosters talking about how he can t stand up to his wife and he should beat her to teach her a lesson So he does this and his wife never asks questions again 0 Russian Soldiers 0 A friend used to house Russian soldiers in his home They did not understand anything and would drink water of out the toilet used the bathtub to hold coal and ride a bicycle with the hands on the pedals o The Foolish German 0 A German steward didn t understand Russian saints and their holy days so when the peasants were forced to work on these days they played a joke on the German They told him they should have the day off for St Hornets day and led him to a tree with a hornets nest Soon they all came out and stung the steward and he cried out that they could have the day off 0 The Old Man and Death 0 An old man was gathering sticks in the forest but was so tired and miserable he cried out that he wished he would just die At that moment Death appeared in front of him and asked him what he would like and he responded by saying he just needed some help lifting the sticks up on his shoulder We would regret it if all our wishes were actually granted 0 The Place that had No Graves o A mans wife died and he was very sad so he went looking for a town where no one died He searched for a long time until he nally found a place where there were no graves He went into the home of a sheik who made him a feast When he asked where the man s father was he pointed to the food in front of them and the man learned that here whenever someone fell ill they were killed and eaten and that is why there are no graves o The Burial Shirt 0 A mother loved her young son very much but he died at a young age and she could not stop crying for him After his burial he began to appear to her often and explained to her that she needed to stop crying because the shirt he was wearing would not dry out from all her tears and he could not sleep peacefully in his coffin The mother understood and gave up her grief to god and the boy no longer came to visit Harisarman 0 There was a poor foolish man named Harisarman with a large family who went to work for a rich householder along with the rest of his family He realizes he is not very respected by his boss and his boss s family so he tells his wife he is going to pretend to know magic so they appreciate him He is able to trick them for a long time and acquires a good deal of wealth but some people become suspicious and decide to challenge the mans legitimacy The boss places a frog in a jar and tells the man to say what object is inside Somehow the man remembers a pet named Froggie and guesses that and the entire audiences cheers and shouts for him and he is from then on believed to know magic and becomes very successful Recitation Readings Donald Haase quotYours Mine or Ours Perrault the Brothers Grimm and the Ownership of Fairy Talesquot 0 O O Discusses the argument over who really has ownership over fairy tales Especially Grimm tales which have become a national staple of fairy tales and story telling Compare fairy tales to holding a similar importance to the Bible a sacred thing in modern Western culture JStArgument blames the decline on fairy tales on the original tellers for not placing copyright on their stories and opening them up to being owned by quotthe folkquot De ning tales as being owned by the folk is to say they are national property 2quotd Argument because Bettelheim s perspective says fairy tales address quotessential human problemsquot they can help children adults nd their way through life s dilemmas it would seem that fairy tales belong to us all not de ned by our culture Some disagree so the question becomes quotwhy does it matter who fairy tales belong toquot 3rd Argument folktales remain in the public domain but there is a growing tendency for individuals or corporations ex Disney to claim ownership This just becomes an issue of control now Final Folktales are simply owned by each individual person in the way that they are read that they are told and that they are remembered Each person can claim fairy tales as his or her own Zohar Shavit quotConcept of Childhoodquot O 0 Reading discusses the concepts of quotchildquot and childhood and how they are perceived and the relationships between these concepts and literature written for children quotRed Riding Hoodquot and it s different versions is used to show how tales have changed to be suitable for children Other factors children s clothes for example changed over time became a symbol of separation between the world of children and adults Up until 19th century folktales were told and read for adult audiences children would hear them but were not the intended audience Perrault wrote his tales with ambiguity so he could address two audiences children and adults 0 jack Zipes quotBreaking the Disney Spellquot O 0 Disney managed to gain a cultural ownership of the fairy tale and changed our way as audiences of viewing them There has always been tension between literary and oral tradition where the literary fairy tales would exclude a majority of people who could not read while oral tales were open to everyone When lm came out scenes could now be staged and selected speci cally for the camera and the moviemaker could control the story Disney was by far the most intense and occupied with the lmmaking of fairy tales Disney basically attacks the literary tradition of the fairy tale and changes it to t his own form but at the same time makes it accessible to the majority of the people since lm is comprehensible to everyone In Disney s tales he is basically portraying himself as he came from a poor family and obtained the American dream much of his work focuses on underdogs and triumph and the idea of hard work and perseverance People 0 Bruno Bettelheim o Wrote quotThe Uses of Enchantmentquot Uses a Freudian approach to foktaes Shows kids that perseverance is the key to success Reaches children at an unconscious eve Also discusses Oedipus Electra complex in characters Ex Hypothesizes that the quotwild manquot in many folktales is a symbolic representation of strong inner drives that boys must learn to control Also that boys leaving home in tales are a representation of needing to be on their own and start their own family 00000 0 Friedrich Engels 0 Origin of the Family Private Property and the State 0 Looked at family relationships in economic terms 0 Husband the owner and marriage does not necessarily incude quotlove and sexquot These are different can be divided from marriage 0 Adultery the result of economicbased relationship caed marriage and equal to the natural outgrowth of capitalism AarneThompson o Motif smallest narrative element idea within a tradition Ex quot The Wicked Witchquot 0 Type collection of motifs in an arrangement Ex Two mothers claiming the same child 0 AarneThompson Contribution Gave analytics terms Gave a method for those who wanted to trace the origins o AarneThompson Index Classi es 2500 types of foktaes Anima taes Ordinary Folktales Jokes and Anecdotes Formal Taes Unclassi ed Bidpai o The Fabes ofBidpai was how the large collection of Indian animal beast fables was known in Europe 0 Bidpai was the narrator and Indian sage about whom very little his known The tales are didactic 0 Animal characters are reoccurring throughout the tales and the animals have very human qualities Ex Lion strength Bull mental dumbness Jackal craftiness O 0 Buddha 0 Many folktales showed how the Buddha lived many lives with the end goal of enlightenment Ex quotThe Parable of the Mustard Seedquot lBuddha teaches a grieving mother an important lesson about accepting death 0 Walt Disney 0 Embodied a classic ragstoriches tale from lower middle class with a distant father Part reason for the absence of many father gures in later Disney lms 0 Started out by creating quotLaugh o Gramsquot that were short animated versions of fairy tales but quickly failed 0 Eventually brought fairy tales to the screen created visual depth and realism o Dealt with many disputes from his employees about fair labor payment Terms lndoEuropean 0 lndoEuropean refers to a related group of languages broad geographic terms 0 If languages have a common origin that would suggest that the stories do as well Folklore o Folkore is a body of knowledge passed on by endusers through informal means Endusers people who have no interest authority but are simply interested in hearing the tales Informal means word of mouth social media non supervised electronic exchange Folktale Genres 0 Fable Moral message at the end Short under 1 page Characters often animals or inanimate objects Q jest quotJokequot 2 parts setup and punch line Myth Explains a phenomenon often with supernatural guresevents Magic Tale Alternate reality Phrases like quotthey lived happily ever afterquot l signals end to alternate reality Doesn t have a lot of physical descriptions of people Legend Migratory legends of similar context found in different areas Urban legend that is still believed Often adds realistic details to make the story more believable dates familiar location Motif smallest narrative element idea in a story Ex The Wicked Witch 0 Contamination 0 Refers to the mixing of elements from one story into another 0 Almost unavoidable because of oral tradition 0 We can see an example of this in the many different versions of the Cinderella tale a Folkloric vs Literary 0 Folkloric tales can contain written and oral tradition 0 Literary tales are folktales reduced to written form They are not necessarily understood or accessible to all people some cannot read a Anger Bargain 0 An example of folktale where a youth enters the service of a cruel farmer master and it is understood that whichever one of them rst becomes angry will suffer some sort of punishment 0 Q 0 Last Third of the Semester important Fools Franz Boas 0 19th century anthropologist believed in the study of folklore and implementing the scienti c method 0 Believed similarity in folktales among different cultures was due to dissemination O O O O O O O Jester Produced method to break folktale into parts and analyze these parts Created quotcatch wordsquot to help with this Robert Lowie Another anthropologist interested in the study of folklore Interested in problems within culture and society Celebrations Ex We celebrate April Fools Day Fools are a source of entertainment for us they are mirrors of the norm values and beliefs of culture and agents of social change A jester is a professional joker or fool at a medieval court Functions of Fools Professional fools for example re ect a long term frustration with the overeducated and overpaid and serve as an outlet for our resentment Ex We still make doctor and lawyer jokes Wife Beaters Continuum of Violence 0 O The idea of husbands having control over their wives is mentioned all the time through literature even the Bible Husbands are never punished for it unless the quotcross the linequot and commit murder The husband s right to primary authority is never questioned success in marriage means the husband is in control quotWomen s Curiosityquot usually leads to the wife being punished it was her fault for being curious anyway threat to patriarchy Use of Nature to justify Domination O O O Bluebeards Tales portrayed as quotjestsquot to justify discipline Use nature to explain this Ex quotThe Language of Beastsquot husband has a secret of being able to understand animals but he cannot seem to control his wife when she demands things of him and is about to give up his life to tell her a secret when he hears a rooster representative of natural order making fun of him for not standing up to her and goes ahead and beats his wife l the tale ends happily Legends about husbands who cross the line Universal and cautionary function for males fantasy ful llment for women who have suffered abuse Historical Figures 0 O Cunmar the Accursed 5th Century Wanted to marry a woman whose father refused Cunmar would cut off his wives heads when they became pregnant This wife he married Triphine became pregnant and he cut off her head but she returns gives birth and founds a convent Gilles de Rais 14011440 Turned to dark magic to regain his fortune but his involvement led to him being arrested for 140 murders Common Features of OralBased Bluebeard Tales 0 O O O O O O Bride s father is weak or absent Improved social status by marrying the Bluebeard Husband leaves gives wife an object to hold to test her loyalty key 999 Forbidden room will contain dead wives The wife nds it tries to disguise that she betrayed husband by looking Brings the women back to life escapes Bluebeard Downfall of the Bluebeard Perrault s Changes to Tales 0 O O O The heroine is passive early versions the girl rescues herself Women s curiosity is a bad thing early versions it was a virtue God and brothers serve as saving gures References to living conditions and pastimes of Perrault s contemporaries Bettelheim s Interpretation of the Tale Key 0 O O The permanent irremovable blood on the key is symbolic to a crime The key is a de led physical organ Looking into the hidden room gt adultery Feminist Interpretation 0 0 If a woman can see she can subvert the power of a man shows weakness in the patriarchal system Men are afraid of the female gaze having a fear of intimacy Women seek out this weakness in the patriarchy Men are afraid so use violence to oppress the women Shrewish Foolish and Talkative Wives Constructions of Women 0 Men try to limit the damage caused by women s aws o Talkative untrustworthy foolish nancially irresponsible curious stupid lazy gullible greedy Structure of Talkative Wives Tales 0 After seeing learning something important husband tells wife a lie about it 0 Wife spreads this lie 0 Others do not believe her and she is discredited Moral Aspect of Tales 0 Telltale Wife Of Women Who Lie Man has no reason to lie is testing his wife Wife is publicly humiliated lmplies that talkativeness unfaithfulness Little humor much ill will 0 The Treasure How Fish Swam l quotDamage Controlquot Tales Husband has a reason to lie wants to keep found treasure Knows wife will lie so he tells her wild complicated lies which she will tell along with the story of the treasure Damage control is not as malicious but more of self preservation for the husband Division of Labor Gender Roles 0 Tales don t trivialize women s work but show a sense of quality of labor 0 Inequality seen in division between gender lines o Portray work as difficult requiring practice and expertise You can conclude they were probably written by women Adultery Adultery as Property Crime 0 An affair with another man s wife was considered a violation of his property 0 Husband has total freedom in marriage the wife does not 0 Wife is held responsible not the other man AntiClerical Tales 0 Common European motif about material resentment o Anticlerical aspects were symbolic of AntiCatholicism 0 They criticize the policy of celibacy as well as Church practices and abuse Friedrich Engels 0 Origin of the Family Private Property and the State Looked at family relationships in economic terms Husband the owner and marriage does not necessarily include quotlove and sexquot These are different can be divided from marriage Adultery the result of economicbased relationship called marriage and equal to the natural outgrowth of capitalism Punishment of Adultery o quotGesta Romanorumquot Adulterous animals are killed Con ned lover killed forced to use their skill hair is cut Husband needs heirs and forgiveness is property consideration Margeret de Navarre 0 She wrote for the most elite social class in Europe 0 Versions of folktales with a twist dedicated to her own elite audience 0 Supporter of religious liberty and mid church reform 0 Best known for Heptameron 72 tales in Boccaccio mode Adultery and Power 0 Relationship between power and sex Those with power will use it Kings for example 0 Political authority is more powerful than marital authority 0 jus Primae Noctis quotright of the rst nightquot Old Age and Death Reasons for Parents Conditional Love 0 Prior to the Enlightment parental love was very conditional High mortality rates for infants and mothers Health of a child suffered due to the scarcity of resources Gender boys were far more privileged in patriarchal society Social Norms Resignation o The norm was that old age was a bitter reality the old are seen as family burdens and often killed Social ldeals Respect and selfinterest 0 We should respect the elderly we are creating a pattern of treatment that we will one day bene t from Jessica Mitford o The American Way of Death 0 Mitford exploited details of the funeral home industry as arti cial and unnecessary Functions of Death Tales 0 Explanation of death often for children 0 Addressing fears Resignation Ex quotGodfather Deathquot 0 Social Regulatory Ex quotThe Burial Shirtquot Explains that everyone has to die at some point Disney Problems with Film Adaptation of Fairy Tales 0 Fair tales are short need to be lengthened 0 Material is not always quotchild appropriatequot 0 Moral ambiguity is common there isn t always a moral hierarchy present 0 Fairy tales are texts so the image is in the reader s head not a visual reality quotDisney Formulaquot 0 Clear structure of good and evil 0 Objectionable material is eliminated violence death not vividly shown 0 Romance replaces sex love replaces magic Family Structures 0 Absent mother Stepmothers frequently seen or no mother gure at all 0 Absent father This is different from fairy tales likely because Disney s father was absent himself 19th Century Melodrama o lnnocent heroine o Gallant hero 0 Evil character Minor Figures 0 Minor characters stretch the plot play out con icts we don t want the main character to deal with Ex Jiminy Cricket Hollywood Musical 0 Each tale was changed to the 1930 s standard musical formula which changed the fairy tale genre Technology Foregrounded 0 Heroes use subject matter to solve problems not magic Father is inventor in Beauty and the Beast 0 We see quotsalvation through technologyquot not using magic Disney Land Disney World have many areas dedicated to inventors early 20th century belief in progress was very prevalent in these lms Americanization o Democratization made fun of royalty increased aspect of social mobility o Protagonist AllAmerican teens with Horatio Alger rags to riches cando attitude motif deeply ingrained always speak English with American accents 0 deals ofBeauty gures change as ideas change to Barbie 0 Domestication of Women tamed by household tasks Beauty Ideals 0 Females are framed by males in these tales Ex The voice in the mirror in Snow White is a male 0 Earlier the female was beautiful but still did real work Cinderella 0 Later more progressive female not as guibe and more intellectual Beauty and the Beast 0 Despite all this beauty is still necessary for love Feminism Feminist Readings o Is there a feminist school of folkloric interpretation How might it be characterized If there is a particular school that does this it is probably out of date Feminist Scholarship 0 Not a huge movement can easily contradict itself Positive de nition movement for equal rights Negative de nition theoretical practice working against the subordination of women divided on how 0 Common element patriarchy is the enemy 0 Feminism and Folklore in two areas Feminist reworking reappropriation of folktales Feminist literary criticism Gilbert Gubar Anne Sexton 0 Worked on changing the function of folktales making them more literary Upper middle class new England Mental breakdown let to poetry success Pulitzer Prize plagued by depressions Transformations rewritten folktales in poetic form including Snow White Tales deal with situations of women in 50 s and 60 s 0000 O Transformations Sexton o 17 poems free verse Link tales to present day Language is contemporary Concerns identity abuse lrony o No morals the work raises questions Angela Carter 0 Another feminist folklore writer 0 Received many awards for her work 0 The Bloody Chamber rewritten classic tales as a feminist story quotThe Tiger s Bridequot rewritten based on quotBeauty and the Beast 0000 Parody Parody lampoon work that imitates another work in order to ridicule ironically comment on or poke fun at the work itself the subject of the work the author or ctional voice of the parody or another subject 0 Ex quotShrekquot


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