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CLEMSON / Psychology / PYSC 3060 / What are the important topics that are studied under human sexuality?

What are the important topics that are studied under human sexuality?

What are the important topics that are studied under human sexuality?


School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexual Behavior
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Clemson University, bruce king, Human Sexual behavior, PSYC 3060, and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 3060 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Notes compiled from Chapters 1 & 2
Uploaded: 02/04/2017
25 Pages 411 Views 1 Unlocks

Chapter 1 PSYC 3060 January 12, 2017 ∙ Why a Course in Human Sexuality? o While people engage in sex for procreation and other recreational purposes,  many children learn information from their environment rather than their own  parents. o The inability to openly confront such an issue leaves children in the dark in about matters pertaining to sexual health and behaviors. ∙ Cross-Cultural Comparisons o When someone’s behavior falls within a “normal” range we tend to accept them  more. o Our perception of normal is based on our society, community, and personal  beliefs. ▪ Sexual Attractiveness ∙ Erotic preferences differ between cultures. Some find the back of  the knee arousing, while others take to breast or body weight. ∙ As time changes, so do sexual preferences. What was considered  highly attractive some centuries ago may not fall in line with some of today’s ideals. ∙ Example: Many African and South Asian countries place a high  value on body modifications (stretched lips, tattoos, needles  through noses, etc.). This desire isn’t held to the same standard as largely in Western society, as many still attach a negative stigma  towards body modifications. ▪ Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes ∙ While kissing and foreplay remain popular in the West,  civilizations in the East didn’t often practice these gestures. ∙ In Mangaian culture, children are taught about sex in the early  years. This knowledge is then applied as often as possible, with  multiple partners, in various ways before adulthood pushes them  towards monogamy. ∙ Many South Pacific societies placed a greater value on physical  pleasure then emotional attachment.Chapter 1 PSYC 3060 January 12, 2017 ∙ In contrast, those of the Inis Baeg culture feared sex,  menstruation, and nudity. Men feared sex would be bad for their  health. Both sexes regarded it as a negative experience. ∙ Homosexuality, underage marriage, polygamy, and incest are  common among some communities, while others avoid them at  all costs . ∙ The extremes of various civilizations depict how cultures differ in  their reservation towards sexual relationships. ▪ Culture Diversity Within The United States ∙ Early on, oral sex was common among the white middle class. A  decent portion of whom were college educated. ∙ It later reached the African American community. This signaled a  shift in their socioeconomic status. ∙ Today, the practice no longer holds such a status as it is done by  many ethnic backgrounds, regardless of their wealth. ∙ In other studies, African Americans regularly began having sex  before their Caucasian counterparts. ∙ Asian Americans held on to the restrictive attitudes commonly  found in Asian countries about sex and paled in comparison to  both African Americans and Caucasians. ∙ They had lower numbers in areas of premarital intercourse and  multiple partners, but (depending on the subculture) had the  highest rates of abortion. ∙ This statistic originates from the belief that, in an overpopulated  country, one should limit the amount of children they have. ∙ But these notions do not hold forever as they change with each  passing generation. ∙ As more generations are born into the culture, younger members  are much more accepting in expressing Western ideals.Chapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ∙ Historical Perspectives o While media most often paints sex in a positive light, authoritative figures such  as parents, churches, and schools do just the opposite. ▪ Judaism ∙ Those of the Jewish faith embraced sexual openness within the  confines of marriage because it allowed them to “bear fruit and  multiply” under God’s words. ∙ Procreation was an obligation, but was a positive experience for  both parties involved as God gifted them their genitals ∙ On the other hand, sex outside of marriage was condemned. ∙ Women committing adultery were stoned to death, but a man  committing the same act was considered to have violated another  man’s property rights. ∙ Rape also constituted as a property rights violation. ∙ Consequences for homosexuality and bestiality lead to death. ∙ Ejaculation had to occur inside of a man’s wife. “Spilling seed”  wasn’t a feasible option for sexual pleasure, thus masturbation  was avoided.  ▪ The Greeks and Romans ∙ Greeks and Romans also placed value on marriage and family, but  unlike Jewish men, Greek and Roman men were allowed sexual  freedom outside of marriage. ∙ Sexual relations between men and young boys, within the  confines of a teacher-student relationship, were considered vital  for adolescent development. ∙ Greeks initially idealized the naked body, but later switched to  emphasis spiritual development. ∙ Dualism was the belief the body and soul are separate. o Wisdom came from virtue, which was obtained when  avoiding sexual / bodily passions.Chapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ∙ Plato believed immortality could be achieved by replacing sexual  urges for intellectual / spiritual love. ∙ This is the concept of being platonic, expressing sexless love. ▪ Christianity ∙ Christians separated physical love and spiritual love as well. ∙ They valued the purity of inner thoughts. o “Everyone who looks at a women lustfully has already  committed adultery with her in his hearts.”, Matthew 5:27 ∙ Many saints struggled coming to terms with their own sexual  temptations. ∙ Saint Paul that marriage was for the weak and that celibacy was  the true path to heaven. ∙ Saint Jerome felt he loved his wife too much and felt guilty of  adultery. o “He who too ardently loves his own wife is an adulterer.”  ∙ Saint Augustine, who played the field in his early days, became a  major influence on the subject. He regarded ALL sexual behaviors  as sinful, easing up only to give sex for procreation a pass, but still  labeled it an “unpleasant necessity”. ▪ Victorianism ∙ Era of purity and sexual modesty ∙ Any pleasure related to sex was denied ∙ Women were deemed innocent and asexual. Men were  responsible for lust. Sex was just another “wifely duty”. ∙ Swiss physician Tissot alleged masturbation held direct links to  blindness, insanity, even physical disorders ∙ Daniel Defoe claimed sex led to issues of greater deformation,  epilepsies, rotten tempers, falling sick, arthritis ∙ Most Victorian physicians thought “spilled seed” hurt men’s  health more than blood lossChapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ∙ This lead to parents banning masturbation and the act of  circumcising young boys ∙ Sexual restraints, patented for nighttime use, helped uphold pure  values among men and boys ∙ This era of misinformation led to the spread of overly modest  values and fear-based genital mutilation. ▪ The Sexual Revolution ∙ More efficient machines led to shorter work days and more leisure time for teens and adults. ∙ The Great Depression and WWII broke this trend, which fell back  into place around the 1950’s. ∙ With women’s rights growing a substantial platform, young  women became more active in managing their bodies. ∙ Birth control pills and IUDs became available to prevent  pregnancy. ∙ Penicillin helped curb various STDs. ∙ Women were now taking control of their sex lives, in contrast to  previous time periods. ∙ With this sexual revolution, more people engaged in premarital  sex, but not without consequences. ∙ The 1980s saw the spread of HIV / AIDs (Human  Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease). ∙ The infection was life-threatening with a bigger surges among the  gay community and drug users. ∙ By the 1990s, the US began take an active stance against the  disease by fueling research to concoct a cure. ∙ While we now have a more open opinion of expressing sexuality,  many of the older stigmas can be found in our modern society.  Many people still aren’t comfortable enough to have  conversations about sex with their children or parents. ▪ What Influences Our Attitudes About Sex Today?Chapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ∙ Socialization  o Manner in which individual behaviors and expectations ∙ Socializing Agents o Social influences that shape behaviors ∙ In past centuries, religion was the main socializing agent. ∙ Teens who identify as religious tend to be more conservative. ∙ Interactions with friends, peers and the media increase the  chances one will engage in sexual behaviors. ∙ In today’s age, no other socializing agent has as much an impact  on children / teen behaviors as the media. ▪ Types of Socializing Agents Within Media ∙ Magazines and Tabloids o Mainstream magazines boost sexual content because sex  sells and nets bigger profits. o Cosmopolitan is almost entirely about sex ▪ They often feature articles about new positions to  try, reading men’s sexual preferences, how to  achieve better orgasms, sex toys reviews, etc. o Teen magazines also use these tactics, but in a more PG-13 way. ∙ Music o Most music videos / lyrics contain sexually suggestive  material. o It often pins women as sexual objects and aids in  stereotypical gender roles. ∙ Radio o Anyone of any age can turn on the radio to hear sexually  charged content come from the mouths of local disc  jockeys.Chapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ∙ Movies o Full frontal nudity and frequent sexual intercourse, more  common in R-rated movies. o Highly suggestive scenes ▪ Sharon Stone’s leg cross in Basic Instinct o Male nudity is becoming more prevalent, but it’s nowhere  near the extent to which women’s bodies are showcased. o Sex scenes are worked in as integral part of plot lines. ∙ Television o “The most powerful storyteller in American culture,… [it]  legitimizes the social order”, J.D. Brown o 75%+ evening primetime shows hosts sexual content. o 10% of shows depict or strongly imply behaviors of a  sexual nature. o 11% make an attempt to reference sexual health / wellness / responsibility. o Parents try to regulate this streaming, but many of their  efforts are in vain. ∙ Advertisements o Perfume, cologne, liquor, beer, and clothing brands, among many others, use sex to sell their products. o These ads get more people’s attention are usually well  received. o They often focus more on sex than product information or  placement. ∙ Internet o Over half of US teens search sexual material on the  internet o This is one of the harder media forms for parents to  controlChapter 1 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 17, 2017 ▪ Sexual Socialization: Cause and Effect? ∙ Sexual content with media lends itself to being a major act in  socialization ∙ Sexually active teens are more likely to seek out sexual content ∙ Sexual content on TV has 4 major effects on viewers: o Overestimation in the sexual activities of others o A more liberal attitude towards sex o Increased interest in sexual issues o Education of sexual topics ∙ The sheer power media holds in expressing sex overpowers most  of the other socializing agentsChapter 1 (Pt 3) PSYC 3060 ∙ Sex as A Science o Over time, science began replacing religious authority when it came to matters  containing sex o Sigmund Freud (1865 – 1939) ▪ Demonstrated influence of sexuality ▪ Helped develop the unconscious motivations for sex ▪ He too believed incorrectly proposed theories o Henry Havelock Ellis (1859 – 1939) ▪ Had frequent wet dreams (nocturnal emissions) , believed he would die ▪ When he didn’t lose any function in his body, he set out to explore sexual  research ▪ Argued women aren’t asexual and that the orgasms of both genders were similar ▪ Believed masturbation and homosexuality should be normal o Alfred C. Kinsey ( 1894 – 1956) ▪ Also feared bodily deterioration due to wet dreams ▪ When he didn’t, sought out to ease fears about the issue ▪ Took it upon himself to obtain substantial data on sexual behaviors ▪ Accused of being amoral because his research showed: ∙ Most people masturbated ∙ Women could achieve multiple orgasms ∙ Many men engaged in homosexual behaviors o Masters and Johnson ▪ William Masters (1915 – 2001) and Virginia Johnson (1925 – 2013)  observed and recorded sexual physiological responses under lab  conditions ▪ Led to better understanding in medicine, anatomy, and physiology in  regards to treating clinical issuesChapter 1 (Pt 3) PSYC 3060 ▪ This work also helped find a way to treat sexual disorders ▪ Ridiculed by public, lauded by medical community o Edward O. Laumann and the National Health and Social Life Surveys ▪ 1989: Federal funds were requested for AIDS research ▪ US Health and Human Services approves $15,000,000 budget ▪ Shot down by Jesse Helms, NC Senator ▪ Laumann continued through private funds and a scaled back sample  population ▪ Despite challenges, survey produced in-depth and widely accepted results o 2010 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior ▪ First nationally representative sample on sexual behavior since Laumann ▪ Data mostly collected through the internet ▪ Demographics: 5865 adults people aged 14 – 94  ▪ Participation: 52.6% adults, 38.2% adolescents ▪ Found Americans engaged in wide variety of sexual behaviors ∙ Scientific Methodology o Surveys and Samples ▪ Survey ∙ Study of attitudes, opinions, behaviors ▪ Generally face-to-face interviews over paper and pencil questionnaires ▪ Survey accuracy depends on sample size (people surveyed) ▪ Random sample  ∙ Observations drawn so all possible samples have an equal chance  at being selected ▪ Stratified Sample ∙ Representative of target PopulationChapter 1 (Pt 3) PSYC 3060 ∙ Used by Gallup and Harris in predicting presidential election  outcomes ∙ Breaks country down by o Sex o Education o Race o Income o Age o Geographical Region ∙ Gallup and Harris poll survey maintain accuracy, while hand picking a small sample size ▪ Convenience Samples ∙ Made out of whoever’s available (i.e: college students in a course) ∙ Not always representative of the general population ▪ Some exaggerate sexual experiences ∙ Can be “fixed” by giving confidential questionnaires to answer ▪ Volunteer Bias ∙ Bias in results based on those who participate and those who  didn’t ∙ Sex study volunteers a positive sexual experiences, interest in  variety, less guilt, more positive attitude about sex o An Example of Problems in Survey Studies: What so “Sex,” “had Sex,” and  “Sexual Relations” Mean?  ▪ Different people, different perception of sex ∙ In one study, 40% of college kids felt oral-genital relations counted as sex, but 20% did not ∙ This issue can best be solved by mentioning specifically sex terms  and acts (i.e.: anal intercourse, oral-genital sex)Chapter 1 (Pt 3) PSYC 3060 o Correlation ▪ Degree of relationship between two variables ∙ i.e.: Laumann found the more sex a married person has, the more  likely they are to masturbate ▪ believed to be a reflection of that person’s over all sex drive o Direct Observation ▪ Observing and recording as subjects conduct activities ▪ Can be done in lab or in the field (i.e.: Travelling to Inis Baeg) o Case Studies ▪ In-depth study of individual ▪ Observer Bias ∙ Observer might project his or her beliefs onto the case study o Experimental Research ▪ Biggest limitations: can’t demonstrate cause and effect between two  variables ▪ Experimental Method ∙ Cause and effect relationship established by manipulating  variables of interest ∙ Sexuality Education o In medieval times, children were treated like mini adults and were prone to  society’s confinement o The idea of childhood is a concept determined by passing generations o Different cultures attach different meanings to childhood o Most people assume sex educators spread factual information, but this isn’t  always the case o Due to the reluctant desire to discuss sex, many of these same educators put  forth distorted knowledge in the hopes of repressing sexual behaviorChapter 1 (Pt 3) PSYC 3060 o As time goes on, more and more parents are becoming comfortable discussing  sex with their kids ▪ Believed to be a sign in the drop of morality and an acknowledgement  the sexual behaviors are normal o Abstinence only programs have been proven to be ineffective, but schools persist in teaching them o Most teens end up learning sexual education from the internet o Proper sex education leads to a decrease in pregnancies and abortions Chapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017 ∙ External Female Anatomy  o Mon Veneris  Latin for “mount of Venus”  Soft issue covering pubic bone that doubles as a cushion  during sex  Sensitive to touch, depending on nerve ending density  Researchers believe pubic hair was meant by nature to be  attractive  Before 1970’s, shaving was uncommon  Women started as underwear and bikinis got smaller  Now, most a vast majority shave the hair off completely  Has led to negative attitudes about women who don’t  shave  o Labia  Consist of labia minora and labia majora and extend down  to the anus  Protect vaginal and urethral opening  After childbirth, it’s not uncommon for labia majora to  become separated  The Hottentot people in Africa highly eroticize labia. Girls  are taught to pull on them throughout childhood. Labia Chapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017 may reach as much as 7 inches and are nicknamed  “Hottentot Aprons”.  Labia minora meet at the top of the clitoral hood and are  very sensitive to touch  During sexual stimulation, blood engorges causing clitoral  size to increase  Behind labia minora are Bartholin’s glands. During  prolonged stimulation, they release a few drops of alkaline  fluid to counteract vaginal acidity. Sperm can’t survive in  acidic environments.  Vaginal piercing has become popular, but can come with  complications  Genital plastic surgery, known as a labiaplasty, are sought  out to change vaginal appearance (designer vaginas)  o Clitoris  Greek for “hill’, ”slope”  Develops from same embryonic tissue as penis, but has  twice the nerve endings  Only known function is for pleasure  Contains 2 spongy cylinders called corpora cavernosa that  fan out like a wishbone  Sexual pleasure isn’t related to size  A clitoris closer to the vaginal opening doesn’t greater  pleasure  Smegma can accumulate beneath the head causing it to  stick to the glans. Discomfort may be experienced, but  smegma can be washed away  o Vaginal Opening  Area between labia minora is the vestibular area (Latin for  “entrance hall”) and the vaginal opening is the introitus  (Latin for “entrance”)  Surrounded by bulbous cavernosus muscle, a ring of  sphincter muscles  Vestibular bulbs, located under sphincter on both sides of  opening, help the vagina grip the penis through swelling  blood vessels  Inexperienced women may have a hymen that partially  covers the vagina. This structure is only in humans.  Hymen has an opening for the passage of menstral fluidsChapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017  While it has no certain functions, its become a sign of  virginity and purity  In Hebrew times, newlywed women who did not bleed were occasionally stoned to death  Many Muslim, Chinese, and Moroccans display blood  stained sheets from the wedding night  In western culture, the pressure is so intense that some  women undergo surgical hymen reconstruction before  marriage  Very little bleeding occurs as most hymen are stretched,  not torn  Many women have suffered due to the misconceptions  reinforced by men  o Urethral Opening  Urine passes from the bladder through the urethra, located above vaginal opening  Both sperm and urine pass through men’s urethra, but  women have two different systems  Women are more prone to UTI’s then men, via recent sex  and relocation of anal bacteria  o Breasts Chapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017  Not part of the reproductive system but highly eroticized  by men in Western culture  Develop in puberty due increasing estrogen levels  produced by the ovaries  Contains 15-20 mammary glands (milk-producing) glands  Separate ducts connect each gland to the nipple, which is  made from smooth muscle fibers and nerve endings  When sexually aroused, muscles contract and make the  nipple erect  Areola becomes darker during pregnancy and secretes oil  to aid breastfeeding  Pituitary gland makes prolactin during the late stage of  pregnancy causing lactation  Suckling promotes the pituitary gland to release oxytocin,  which results in milk ejection  Breast size is determined by fatty adipose tissue. This trait  is primarily hereditary  Bigger breast size doesn’t mean more sensitivity. There’s  no increase in nerve endings  Plastic surgeons began filling breasts with silicone bags to  give them a fuller appearance  260,000 American have this procedure done, with 80% for  cosmetic reasons  Implants eventually leak, but don’t pose a cancerous threat  15% of implant patients experience capsular contracture  due to the fibrous capsule that forms around the implant  This gives breast a hard, tight, unnatural appearance  ∙    Internal Female Anatomy Chapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017  o Vagina  Latin for “sheath”  Located behind bladder, in front of rectum  The increase of female hormones during puberty cause  vaginal walls to thicken, becoming more elastic and highly  vascularized  Serves as sperm depository and birth canal  Unstimulated it reaches 3-5 inches  Expands upon sexual arousal  Vaginal lubrication secretes from soft mucosal surface of  the inner layers  During menopause, the ovaries atrophy causing loss of  hormones and inelastic vaginal wallsChapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017  The vagina is a self-cleaning organism ∙ Douching only masks natural vaginal odors with  perfume ∙ Regular vaginal douching may lead to bacterial  vaginosis or ectopic pregnancies  Though the opening is sensitive to touch, the inner walls  have few nerve endings  Surrounded by pobococcgeus (PC) muscles that control  urine flow and can lead to better organisms if exercised  properly  At about the level of the top of the pubic bone lies the  Grafenbreg (G) spot.  Stimulation here often leads to orgasm, but <10% of  women have this area of sensitivity  When a women is born without a vagina, a doctor is usually able to reconstruct one  o Uterus  Where fertilized eggs attach to become embryos and then  a fetus  Has the ability to expand tremendously  The cervix is the narrow opening that projects into the  vagina  Broad part of the uterus is the fundus  Maintains 90o to vagina because of the ligament structure  There are 3 layers ∙ Endometrium: Where fertilized eggs implant ∙ Myometrium: Muscles that contract during labor ∙ Perimetrium: External cover  The cervix opening is the size of a match stick, but  expands up to 10 cm, or 4 inches, for child birth  The cervix is the most common cancer site for women. Pap smears and regular examinations may help maintain  cervical health  o Fallopian Tubes (Oviducts)  Extends 4 inches from both sides of uterus  Path through which egg travels from ovary to uterus  May be fertilized in the process of travel, but will continue  the endometrium  Contain finger-like structures on the end called fimbria that brush against ovaries to pick up a mature eggChapter 2 (Pt 1) PSYC 3060 January 24, 2017  o Ovaries  Female gonads that develop from same embryonic tissue  as male’s testicles  Two functions: produce eggs, or ova, and females  hormones  Girls are born with all the eggs they’ll ever have,  approximately 300K – 400K  Each egg is surrounded by a primary follicle. One of these  follicles are stimulated for maturation each month  Becomes the Graffian follicle when fully mature  Ends in menopause, leaving only 400 of the thousands of  to mature during a women’s lifetime  In contrast, men’s testicles produce sperm dailyChapter 2 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 19, 2017 ∙ External Male Anatomy 

Chapter 1 PSYC 3060 January 12, 2017 ∙ Why a Course in Human Sexuality?

We also discuss several other topics like an economy's scarce resources are allocated by

 o Penis: Outer Anatomy  Latin for “tail”  Has both reproductive and urinary functions  When unaroused, is soft and hangs between legs  Hardens during sexual stimulation  May have a slight curve  At birth, foreskin folds over glans  Parents may opt to cut foreskin in a process called  circumcision  Uncircumcised boys should be taught proper hygiene when cleaning foreskin  Foreskin may be attached to penis for 3 years  o Penis: Internal Structure  Contains 3 parts: shaft, glans, root. Only the first two are  visible  Shaft contains 3 spongy structures: 2 corpora cavernosa on top, 1 corpus spongiosum on the bottomChapter 2 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 19, 2017  Only the corpus spongiosum extends the full length of the  penis, creating the glans towards the end  Corona, rim of the shaft, is the most sensitive part of the  penis  Urethra transports both sperm and urine through the  corpus spongiosum, but never at the same time  The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernosa,  which form the crura and attach to the pubic bone  Many falsely believe a bone lies within the penis, as with  many other structures, but it does not.  Erections occur when arteries dilate, filling the cavernosa  and spongiosum with blood  Detumescence, loss of erection, is not well understood, but probably occurs from artery contraction   Severe curvature of the penis occurs when the 3 spongy  bodies held within are injured and replaced with inelastic  scar tissue. This instance is called Peyronie’s disease and is caused by abnormal development or injury to fibrous  sheath ∙ If curvature is too extreme, intercourse can be  painful  Some sexual positions place too much pressure on the  penis and may “fracture” fibrous sheaths, requiring surgery  o Scrotum  Sac lies beneath the penis  Sperm are produced here because the structure lies  outside the body  Sperm prefer 93oF environment to the body’s natural 98.6oF  Skin sparsely covered in hair  Has small muscle fibers that contract or relax in response  to heat of the external atmosphere  ∙    Internal AnatomyChapter 2 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 19, 2017

o An Example of Problems in Survey Studies: What so “Sex,” “had Sex,” and “Sexual Relations” Mean?

▪ What Influences Our Attitudes About Sex Today?

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 o Testicles  Male gonads develop from the same embryonic tissue as  the ovaries  Two functions: produce sperm and male hormones  Millions of sperm are created daily in several hundred  seminiferous tubules ∙ Entire process takes about 70 days  Interstitial cells of Leydig produce hormones between the  seminiferous tubules  Male hormones are called androgens, the most important  of which is testosterone  The testicles produce inhibin (to come later in Chapter 3)  Two months before birth, testicles descend through to the  inguinal canal ∙ This fails in 2-5% of males, a condition known as  cryptorchidism ∙ Usually corrects itself. If not, can cause sterility and  increased risks of hernia or testicular cancer  Testicle is suspended by the spermatic cord, tube-like  structure that contains blood vessels, nerves, vas deferens, and a muscle to raise / lower testicles  During arousal, testicles are drawn closer to the body   In right-handed men, the left usually hangs lower. Vice  versa for left-handed menChapter 2 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 19, 2017  Very sensitive to pressure. Some men may not want them  touched during sex  Maintaining testicular health is important ∙ Virus that causes mumps is responsible for testicular  painful swelling ∙ Too much pressure on fibrous sheath may crush  seminiferous tubules, resulting in sterility if after  puberty  Latin for witness (“to testify”) ∙ In biblical times, one man held the testicles of  another while giving an oath. If oath was broken, the  children of the other man had right to revenge  o Duct System  After sperm is produces in seminiferous, they pass through  four-part duct system  Seminiferous tubules converge to form epididymis  Sperm mature as they travel through, which takes up to 6  weeks  Sperm pass to vas deferens. Vas begins in scrotum travels  through spermatic cord, then enter abdominal cavity  through inguinal cavity. From there, they go over up and  over bladder towards prostate  Fully matured sperm are stored in the expanded end of  vas, the ampulla, before ejaculation  During orgasm, rhythmic muscular contractions push  sperm into ejaculatory ducts and is mixed with fluids from  prostate to form semen  The two ejaculatory ducts open into urethra, passing  through corpus spongiosum to exit the body  Sphincter muscles surround part of urethra, involuntarily  contracting to prevent urine form mixing with sperm.   o The Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles  Ejaculation contains up to 200-300 million sperm, but make up little of total volume  Seminal fluid from seminal vesicles make up 70% of the  fluid, while prostate contributes the other 30% ∙ Seminal vesicles were misnamed because prior  scientists thought they stored sperm for ejaculation  Seminal vesicles secrete fructose, prostaglandins, and  basesChapter 2 (Pt 2) PSYC 3060 January 19, 2017 ∙ Fructose – activates sperm mobility ∙ Prostaglandins – cause uterine contractions to aid in  sperms movement to fallopian tubes ∙ Bases – neutralize acidity of vagina so that sperm  may make it to uterus, a more alkaline environment  Prostate secretes all of these, in addition to fibrinogenase,  causing sperm to coagulate to prevent spillage from vagina  Prostate also secretes an antibody to protect both male  and female reproductive systems from infection  Prostate cancer is the second most common type in men  o Cowper’s Gland (Bulbourethral Glands)  Pea-sized and lie beneath prostate  Secrete a few drops of alkaline fluid. Many know this as  precum  The fluid neutralizes the normal acidity of the urethra so  sperm aren’t destroyed before and during ejaculation  ∙    Our Sexual Bodies o Cultural standards emphasize the most admired physiques  Playboys models have become skinnier and more like  Barbie  Men have become more muscular o Girls are told the nearly impossible Barbie figure is ideal o GI Joe toys have become more muscular to point of impossibility  In relation, men try to obtain hypermuscular 6-pack abs o Many men and women are dissatisfied with their bodies because  of these largely unachievable standards o Positive body image = Better sexual functioning o Body shame = Greater sexual problems o Most Americans are unhappy with their bodies and are extremely image conscious  They pay thousands in cosmetic surgery o Sexual appearance might be appealing, but a healthy sex life  involves sensuality, which better depicts who we are as a person o Uniqueness should override the pursuit of becoming a perfect  “10” o Everyone has the potential to be a sexual being
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