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WSU / Biology / IM 1500 / Why is genetic variation in a population necessary for evolution?

Why is genetic variation in a population necessary for evolution?

Why is genetic variation in a population necessary for evolution?

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Biology
Course: Plant and Animal Diversity
Professor: Nataliya turchyn
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Part 1/3 BIO 1500 EXAM 1 Study Guide
Description: Because the first exam will cover lots of material I have decided to create three parts of a study guide that I will upload throughout the weekend. This covers the first and beginning of second chapter learned!
Uploaded: 02/04/2017
3 Pages 44 Views 2 Unlocks
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EXAM 1 BIO 1500 STUDY GUIDE


Why is genetic variation in a population necessary for evolution?



Chapter 20

Natural Selection – Process by which things adapt in their environment Evolution and Natural Selection are not the same!

Polymorphic (phenotype) – Presence of one allele of a gene at a frequency  greater than newly arising mutations

MUTATION RATE IS SLOW!

1. Why is genetic variation in a population necessary for evolution? If you don’t have variation, there is nothing to select… There has to be  differences for a selective process.

Non-Random Mating

∙ Assortative – phenotypically similar, increases proportions of  homozygous individual

∙ Dissortative – phenotypically different, produces excess of  heterozygous

Genetic Drift – Random occurrences that change frequency drastically alone,  especially in small populations


How would you distinguish a small aquatic tracheophyte from a freshwater algae plant?



If you want to learn more check out What is the concept of yin and yang?

∙ Founder Effect

∙ Bottleneck Effect

Fitness – number of surviving offspring left in the next generation

Gene flow  

∙ Constructive – spread beneficial mutation to other populations ∙ Constraining – can impede adaptation by continual flow of inferior  alleles in populations We also discuss several other topics like What is the average size of organelles?

Gene flow will cause mutation to spread in other locations

Chapter 30  

Land Plants

∙ Multicellular haploid and diploid stages

∙ Trend toward more diploid embryo protection  

∙ More fit overtime

∙ Trend toward smaller haploid stage


What is mycorrhizae and how does it benefit plants?



Know the steps to the plant life cycle

Haplodiplontic Life Cycle

∙ Multicellular diploid sporophyte stage  

∙ Produce haploid spores by meiosis (sporophyte stage)

∙ Diploid spore mother cells undergo meiosis in sporangia ∙ 4 haploid spores are produced

∙ Multicellular haploid gametophyte stage  

∙ Spores divide by mitosis

∙ Produces gametes

∙ Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote If you want to learn more check out How does the history of psychology connect to philosophy?
If you want to learn more check out How are enzymes in our body structured?

*Moss – large gametophyte, small dependent sporophyte

*Angiosperms – small dependent gametophyte, large sporophyte

2. How would you distinguish a small aquatic tracheophyte from a  freshwater algae plant?

Tracheophytes contain xylem and phloem, and algae has not developed  these because they are non-vascular. If you want to learn more check out What is a binomial expression?

Seedless Plants

∙ Bryophytes: closest living descendants of first land plants (non vascular spores)

o Lack of xylem and phloem Don't forget about the age old question of When was the paleolithic era?

o No roots, but contain rhizoids

∙ Mycorrhizal Associations – important in enhancing water uptake in  early plants and in bryophytes

Mosses

∙ Not true leaves – no vascular tissue

∙ Gametophytes consist of small green leaf-like structures around stem  like axis

∙ Have stomata (first plant to have)

∙ And cuticle to prevent dessication

Archegonia – female gametangia

Antheridia – male gametangia

Liverworts

∙ Form gametangia in umbrella shaped-like structures

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