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BYU - PHY S 100 - Study Guide - Midterm

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide I. Forces
a. Strong – holds nucleus together
b. Weak - nuclear, tries to break down nuclei (but not on the test, so don’t
worry) i. Nucleus – neutrons and protons inside ii. Quark – the basic building block of a nucleus iii. Radioactive – atoms who can spontaneously change under the  weak force iv. Element – a kind of atom (Oxygen, Hydrogen, Potassium, etc.) v. Molecule – a bunch of the same atom (O 2 , H 2 O, Na+, etc.) c. Electromagnetic – holds everything together that is bigger than the  nucleus, but smaller than a human i. F elec =kq 1 q 2             d 2 1. k=electrical force constant = 1.6 x 10 -19 ii. Charges 1. Like charges repel
2. Unlike charges attract
3. Negatively charged – missing protons
4. Positively charged – missing electrons
5. Static – unmoving electricity
iii. Vocab: 1. Insulator – a material that does not permit electrons to  flow through it 2. Conductor – a material that does allow it a. Electrical Current – electric charges flowing through a conductor b. Direct Current – a steady flow of electrons in one  direction, e.g. a wire c. Alternating Current – a current of electrons that  changes direction of flow 3. Ferromagnetism – metal alloys that are attracted to  magnets or are capable of being transformed into 
permanent magnets
a. Field – Physical quantity existing at every point in  space b. Domain – a small section in a magnet where the  magnetic force from all the atoms add together c. Curie temperature – The temp. above which a  metal is no longer magnetized d. Field Lines – lines coming from an object  REPRESENTING the strength of the force; the 
denser the lines the stronger the force
d. Gravity – holds everything together bigger than a human, gravity wins i. F grav =gm 1 m 2             d 2 1. g=gravitational constant = 9.8 m/s 2 ii. How to find forces 1. Isolate the object in your mind!!!!
background image 2. What role does gravity play? Is it significant or not?
3. Are charged objects, current-carrying objects, or magnets 
involved? Are the forces attractive or repulsive? 4. What does the object touch – is there contact force  involved? 5. What is the role of friction? Does it change with time or  motion? iii. If two objects are dropped at the same time, they will land at the same time if there is no friction!!! iv. But, sometimes the friction is too small and doesn’t matter. 1. Friction matters – feather and truck (the difference in  mass is too great) 2. Friction doesn’t matter – bike and truck v. Vocab: 1. Contact Force – the force arising between objects when  they touch 2. Freefall – the act of falling under the pure influence of  gravity 3. Centripetal – (ORBIT) a force “sideways” to the motion of  the object a. (mass x speed 2 )/radius II. Newton’s Laws
a. 1
st  – (inertia) when at rest or in uniform motion, it stays that way unless another force is applied to change it. b. 2 nd  – F=ma: Force is proportional to mass and acceleration c. 3 rd  – If one object applies a force to another, the other applies the same amount of force back. d. Vocab: i. Uniform Motion – constant speed ii. Force – push or pull iii. Velocity – speed + direction iv. Acceleration – change in velocity v. Net Force – the sum of all the forces vi. Unbalanced Forces – net force doesn’t equal zero vii. Mass – basically matter (don’t go technical, science stops  explaining at some point) viii. Weight – mass x gravity III. Buoyancy – Force=the weight of the displaced fluid
a. Fluid – anything that flows; gases and liquids
i. Denser fluids generate greater friction than lighter ii. Density=mass/volume= kg m 2 b. Pressure – Force/Area i. Bounded fluids – completely closed container; if pressure is  exerted on one side, then it is exerted on the whole container ii. Unbounded fluids – lacks boundaries one one or more sides iii. 4 rules 1. Pressure depends on depth only and is greater at greater  depth 2. Pressure is the same for all parts at the same depth

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Physics
Name: PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: An easy to understand study guide full of description and vocab compiled from the text, lectures, and reveiw sessions
Uploaded: 02/04/2017
4 Pages 39 Views 31 Unlocks
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