Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to OSU - PSYCH 4540 - Class Notes - Week 2
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to OSU - PSYCH 4540 - Class Notes - Week 2

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

OSU / Psychology / PSYCH 4540 / What is the concept of yin and yang?

What is the concept of yin and yang?

What is the concept of yin and yang?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Counseling Psychology
Professor: Currence
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Cognitive Psychology, Psychology, psych, group counseling, group counseling and dynamics, Counseling, career, ohiostate, Ohio, OSU, and buckeye
Cost: 25
Name: Lecture 1 pt. 3 - Lecture 2 multicultural Counseling.
Description: week two notes. Combination of end of history lecture - multicultural counseling
Uploaded: 02/04/2017
10 Pages 46 Views 5 Unlocks

[Tuesday, January 17th] 

What is the concept of yin and yang?

Historical Perspectives

∙ Primary assumption: what we call mental illness or emotional disturbance  today has always existed

∙ Three dominant theories

o Each has vied for dominance and the prevalence of perspectives has  depended on culture and content

1 Biological theories

o Similar to physical disease, breakdown of some systems of the body 2 Supernatural theories

o Divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin 3 Psychological theories

o Mental disorders as the result of trauma(s)

Ancient Theories

∙ Stone age [prehistoric human civilization]

o Demons and ghosts caused abnormal behavior

What does vurt heighmer say about gestalt psychology?

o Spirit possession

o Trephination - drilling a hole in the skull to free evil spirits o Exorcism - using shamans to drive away demonic possessions Don't forget about the age old question of Who discovered cells by observing the slices of cork?

∙ Ancient China (3000-2000 B.C.)

o Yin and Yang

o Positive force and negative force

∙ Insanity was an excessive of positive force

o Vital winds or vital air

∙ Balance of winds (hot wind, cold wind)

o Sick? You have an excess of hot air

∙ Eat cold food like oranges  

∙ Drink herbal teas

At which decade did the psychotropic medication emerge?

Don't forget about the age old question of Is there a difference between signs and symptoms?

∙ Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome (~1900 B.C.)

o Biological theories emerge

o Hysteria - caused by a wandering uterus

∙ Manic episode

∙ Nervous

∙ Depression

∙ Only women got it

o Theory of 4 humors

∙ Health was determined by balance of blood, phlegm, black bile  and yellow bile

∙ Melancholia - caused by excess black bile [melancholy]  ∙ Sanguine personalities - excess of blood

∙ Medieval Views (~400-1400 A.D.)

o Some evidence of beliefs in witchcraft

∙ Older, unmarried begging women were seen as witches ∙ Cyclical nature of belief systems - socio and political factors  influencing beliefsWe also discuss several other topics like What are the two things experiments have to have?

Growth of Asylums: A Lack of Understanding

∙ Basic Belief: people who were mad needed to be kept away from society so  they wouldn't do harm

o Dalton's 1618 Edition of Common Law: 'it is lawful for the parents,  kinsmen or other friends of a man that is mad, or frantic…to take him and  put him into a house, to bind or chain him, and to beat him with rods, and  to do any other forcible act to reclaim him, or to keep him so he shall do  

no hurt'

o Girl Interrupted

o One Flew Over the Cookoos Nest

o If you treat them like animals, they’ll behave like animals ∙ As early as the twelfth century hospitals began to include special rooms for  people with mental disorders

o Treatment was often inhumane If you want to learn more check out What is the formula of volume charge density?

o Example: St. Mary of Bethlehem = Bedlam (meaning chaotic] ∙ Asylums were established and run by people who thought mental disorders  were medical illnesses

o Example: Benjamin Rush

∙ Humane treatment

∙ Conditions benefit

Refinement of Asylums: Moral Treatment

∙ Movement toward a more humane treatment of the mentally ill into the 19th  century

∙ Advocacy for the mentally ill

∙ Not really meant as for caretakers to be more moral

∙ Helping people restore own morality, beliefs, and self restraint o PATIENT FOCUSED

∙ Susceptible to disorders because of society

o What does it require to get people better? Don't forget about the age old question of When was the paleolithic era?

∙ Disconnectedness/removed from society

∙ Less stress

∙ More help

∙ Shelter and protection from stress

∙ Until they learn how to deal with it

∙ Basic belief: people become mad because they were separated from  nature and succumbed to the stresses imposed by social changes of  the period

o 1792: Philippe Pinel's experiments - La Bicetre

o 1796: William Tuke - The Retreat

o Moral Treatment

∙ Designed to restore patients self restraint through respect and  dignity

o Not really all that successful - while some improved, some were still  suffering symptoms of psychological disorders.  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the assumptions in projectile motion?

∙ Psychological View

Rise of Academic Psychology

∙ Willhelm Wundt - founding father of psychology

o First psychology laboratory in 1879

o University of Leipzig

o Studied consciousness

∙ How different tasks stick together in your consciousness ∙ Reaction times with simple/difficult tasks

o Structuralism: Perspective for understanding consciousness o Edward Titchener

∙ Cornell University

∙ Gestalt Psychology [whole psychology]

∙ Top/down processing, proximity, confidence, symmetry

∙ Grouping things together, you assume they are similar

∙ Arose as a disagreement to the reductionist methods of structuralist  psychology

∙ The whole must be appreciated and consciousness can not be  understood by simply understanding the basic processes

∙ Contributed to perception and understanding of visual illusions ∙ Vurt Heighmer

∙ Functionalism

o William James (1842-1910): American philosopher at Harvard o Consciousness is best understood by the function it plays in survival  and reproduction

∙ 15 year old boys have more testosterone - making them more  aggressive

∙ Biology explaining psychology

∙ Dominance  

∙ Man's 'thirst' for hunting in order to live

o Influenced by Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

∙ On the Origin of Species (1859)

∙ Theory of natural selection

∙ Evolutionary Psychology

∙ Behaviorism

o Denied the importance of studying the mind

o Emphasized the study of overt behaviors

∙ Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

o Classical conditioning

o Eventual theoretical bias for desensitization therapies

∙ John B. Watson (1878-1958)

o Classically conditioned phobias

Modern Perspectives

∙ Increase in hospitalization

o Dorothea Dix (1841-1881)

o 15 states total

∙ Maine

∙ New Jersey

∙ North Carolina

∙ Illinois

∙ Louisiana

∙ Pennsylvania  

∙ 1950s

o Psychotropic medication

∙ Advent incredibly great for some

∙ 1st medication: chlorpromazine/thorazine

∙ For schizophrenia

∙ Major tranquilizer

∙ Halucinations and delusions reduced

∙ More calm

∙ Slept a lot

∙ Replacement for previous physical constraints

∙ Straight jackets  

∙ Decrease in hospitalization

o 1963: Deinstitutionalization

∙ Get more people living at home or halfway houses and going to  partial day facilities instead of living there

∙ Hospitalization is expensive ($30,000 a month TODAY for eating  disorder treatment)

∙ Free healthcare

o Community Mental Health Centers Act

o New Classifications System

Patient's Rights Movement

∙ Mental patients could recover more fully or live more satisfying lives if they  were integrated into the community, with the support of community-based  treatment facilities

∙ With the advent of more modern psychotropic medications, this has resulted  in both successes and failures for those in need of care


[Tues, Jan 17th - Tues, Jan 24th]

∙ Counseling continues to presume an individualistic perspective in which  dependency is always bad, freedom of choice is always constructive, dual  relationships are unethical, privacy is universally values, and the welfare of  each individual is always more important than the welfare of the group to  which that individual belongs. In the global, more typically collectivistic  context, this perspective is erotic and extraordinary

∙ Psychological issues looked at differently in different cultures ∙ Counselors own bias : self-exploration

o Defending our beliefs

o Could I possibly be privileged in this way?

o Where you are today, you got through your own hard work and merit o White privilege  

o Race, gender, culture

o Asians are smart - even if acting dumb, given the benefit of the doubt ∙ Getting pulled over by a police officer

∙ Not stereotyped for asian to harm an officer

∙ Not trialed/assume to be stealing

o Why the best crimes are done by people you wouldn't expect to do  such a thing

Fake an Understanding

∙ Holding feathers so a bird likes you

∙ Don’t be fake to clients

∙ Goal of creating connection

o Oh I love asian food - wow. Now were best friends

o I have black friends - good for you

o Patronizing women about academics [hidden figures movie] ∙ If you want to know something about their culture, ask them o Have an open mind

∙ Is individualism best? - should the client welfare be valued over the welfare of the group


o Share all info with everyone [gpa, test scores, disciplinary actions etc.] ∙ ITALIAN CULTURE

o Think that sharing things outside of those who should/need to know is  crazy

∙ Not all families are like yours

∙ Privacy, values, how you go about things


o Doesn't acknowledge the manipulative qualities addicts have o Responsible for addicts problems

o Dying to please people so others will like you

o Expect their unwanted advice to be followed

o Victimization

o Manipulation, shame, guilt

∙ Evaluation is negative

∙ Often used to label individuals who may be in some relationship with a  person who suffers from an addiction or other factor that compromises  functioning

∙ Centers some responsibility on the person a la enabling

Super Heroes are Codependent Enablers

∙ Superman isn't even from earth

∙ They help in ways they aren't asked to

∙ Gotham hates Batman

o What would happen if he started setting his own boundaries? o And said that he couldn’t swoop In to save Gotham again because their police force really needs to step up their act.  

Multicultural Counseling  

∙ Throughout the 60s, awareness emerged that individual psychopathology  was bound up with society as a whole

o Does US culture breed narcissism

∙ Social media

∙ Get more followers [people you don’t know]

o Sexist attitudes may result in an uneven playing field for women ∙ 1970s: homosexuality taken out of DSM

o No longer deviant or pathological  

∙ We must connect with all members of society

o Understand why they do what they do

∙ If you were able to really listen to someone's story, you would  love them. Even your worst enemies. The trick is to be able to put  aside all bias and look at their story completely from their point of  view - which is almost impossible to do.  

∙ Is it possible Psychology may have been blaming the victim for the ills of  society?


Psychiatr y







Change person/individual <------->change society/advocacy

∙ Counseling where counselor and client differ

o Isn't all counseling multicultural counseling?

∙ Challenges assumptions that individualism, relationships based on  hierarchies, and linear thinking are goals to which all people can and should  aspire

∙ But what type of differences are we talking about? Race, religion, sex,  priorities etc.  

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

∙ Just go in and change the incorrect thoughts

∙ Helpful but classically 'old' therapy/psychology

∙ Change 'I don’t like what I have done'  

o Follows with 'and because I don't like my behavior, I am worthless' o Is insane because it is not founded upon any fact

∙ Overcome psychological beliefs and behaviors if presented with enough logic

Modernism vs. Postmodernism

∙ Modernism held there is a flexed, objective reality

∙ Postmodernism is the idea that there is not just a write and wrong way to  think about things

o Our culture creates our world view and how we see reality o Cultural relativism: humans ideological structure and behavior needs to be examined within the context of the individual's own culture

∙ The way a person behaves depends on the context, and should  be interpreted within the context and culture that they exist.  

∙ From New Jersey [Rutgers] to Columbus [OSU] and he thought  the way we treat college football like a religion is weird…because  college football is big here. It’s the culture.  

∙ Cults [cult of the Nacirema: United States from the eyes of the outsider] o All cultures when interpreted from an outsiders perspective can seem  odd: even our culture

o We put children in own room but have technology to let us know when  we need them

o Don’t leave child outside of restaurant so they can sleep while parents  eat

One Definition of Culture

∙ Culture can be ethnographic variables such as ethnicity, nationality, religion,  language, regionality, etc.  

∙ Demographic variables such as age, gender

∙ Status variables such as social, economic, educational background ∙ Any group of people who identify or associate with one another on the basis  of some common purpose, need, or similarity of background

o 86% of counselors in 2007 said they had clients that differed from  them

∙ Cities hold diversity - small towns/rural areas do not

Multicultural Counseling: Why is it Important?

∙ Underutilization of psychological services

∙ Is matching important - is it important for an Asian American male have an  Asian American counselor

o No because different people balance each other out

o Matching in itself [racial or ethnic matching] is not required for a  positive therapy experience

o Symptoms don’t go down simply because client and therapist match -  we have the potential to help those who are different than us

∙ Likelihood of remaining in therapy is higher when client and  counselor are from the same background

∙ Dropout rates for minority clients is 50% versus 30% for  dominant group clients

∙ Inability of mental health providers to provide culturally  sensitive/responsive therapy for ethnic minority clients

o Much current therapeutic practice taught in grad school comes from  experience and research with middle and upper class whites  

o Many theories we discuss [psychodynamic perspectives, humanistic,  cognitive-behavioral, gestalt etc] emerged from white men

o Multicultural counseling is the 'fourth force' in psychology o APA's guidelines on multicultural education, training, research,  practice, and organizational change for psychologists  



The Self

∙ What does it mean to be psychologically healthy?

o Being able to cope with negative situations - resilience

o Being able to adapt to life changes

o Having self-awareness

o Talking about things and not letting them go unspoken

o Feeling fulfilled or content [other cultures view content as pride or  negative - being better than others]

o Having the motivation to be a contributing member of society o Thoughts and behaviors are not impeding other areas of wellness o Rational thinking thought patterns.  

o Being able to understand yourself - why you think the way you think -  introspection/self-knowledge

∙ In china, with arranged marriage - if you serve two foods that  don’t go together [tea and bananas] both families know that the  arranged marriage wouldn’t work

∙ Doing something not outright but having deeper meaning to it ∙ What does it mean to be American? Marlboro man

∙ In control of his own destiny

∙ Tells other people what to do

∙ Don’t talk about feelings, don’t  

∙ Assumed heterosexual

∙ What our ads tell us - sexuality in America

∙ How does a definition of psychologically healthy impact therapy? o In the US, therapy characteristics include

∙ Focus on individual

∙ Autonomy, independence and de-enmeshment are crucial ∙ Free will is implicitly valued

∙ Not controlled by external events

∙ Clients expected to be expressive and disclosing

∙ Focuses on nuclear family with egalitarian relationships ∙ Little attention on environmental, social, cultural factors

Independent vs. interdependent selves

∙ Independent means all your parts of your life are separate from yourself ∙ Interdependent means they come together to form who you are

Distribution of self-esteem scores

∙ European Canadians have lower self esteem than Japanese  ∙ Perspective of self esteem and happiness are different  

∙ How comfortable are they saying 'I like myself'

∙ Modesty vs. courage

Self esteem across groups

∙ Assume groups that have been discriminated against have lower self esteem  - but OPPOSITE

o Black : 1

o White : 0

o Hispanic : -1

o American Indian : -2

o Asian : -3

∙ Self esteem not a good measurement of psychological health because ones  idea of self esteem and what it should be is shaped by culture - not necessarily  by the psychological health of the individual

Examples of pathologizing non-individualistic behavior

∙ Sleeping arrangements

∙ Judgement of those who continue to live at home

∙ FTL {failure to launch} males who live with their moms

o In our culture, if you live at home for too long its viewed negatively  o 'boomerang' life phase where kids come back

∙ Arranged marriages

∙ Multi-generational homes


∙ Everyone has a worldview

∙ What if your worldview is different from your client's worldview o Challenges

∙ Awareness and exploration of own assumptions and privilege ∙ Willingness to learn about client's WV

∙ Respectful of client's WV

∙ Co enters CI WV

∙ Can't work with every client

∙ What makes up your world view

o What do you need to keep in mind when working with people who hold  different world views

∙ Grandma paid for all of uncles education, and none of moms ∙ Men who are told that they are amazing, get lazy

∙ Wont admit to being sexist or racist.  

Multicultural Counseling Theory

∙ Not specifically a theory of counseling, but a framework to increase cultural  effectiveness of counseling theories (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral) ∙ Propositions

o Incorporate socio-cultural consideration

o Identity is embedded in multiple contexts

o Cultural identity influences attitudes (e.g., racial/cultural identity  development models)

o Cultural strategies enhance therapy/no single approach helps all o Therapists can advocate on many levels (promote community/societal  change)

o Understands societal realities (role of social, political, and economic  influences in mental health issues) and 'emphasized liberation of  consciousness of both therapist and client'

∙ Multicultural counseling is not taking in to consideration cultural variables  merely to practice western-oriented therapies

Tripartite framework for multiple dimensions of personality

∙ All individuals are like no other individuals, like some individuals and like all  other individuals

Identify development cross' model of ethnic identify development Identify development acculturation status among Asian Americans Recommendations for clinical practice

Approaches to multicultural training/counseling

Examples of challenges

Multicultural counseling competencies

∙ Awareness of personal beliefs/attitudes toward culturally diverse clients ∙ Knowledge about diverse cultures

∙ Techniques ability to use intervention skills/techniques that are culturally  appropriate

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here