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OSU / Psychology / PSYCH 4540 / What criteria are considered to determine a psychological disorder?

What criteria are considered to determine a psychological disorder?

What criteria are considered to determine a psychological disorder?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Counseling Psychology
Professor: Currence
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: psych, Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, assessment, measurement, Ohio, ohiostate, OSU, and buckeyes
Cost: 25
Name: Lecture 3: Measurement and Assessment
Description: Week 2/3 - Lecture 3 Notes. Measurement and assessment within the psychology field
Uploaded: 02/04/2017
7 Pages 26 Views 4 Unlocks

Assessment and Measurement - What is assessment and diagnosis

What criteria are considered to determine a psychological disorder?

o Purpose of assessment

o Process of assessment

o Pros and cons of diagnosis

o DSM 5

- Methods of clinical assessment

o Cognitive tests

o Personality tests


- Process of collecting information in a systematic, objective, empirical  way about an individual’s intellectual functioning, behavior, or  personality so that predictions and decisions about them can be made Why Use Assessment

- To help an individual better understand him/herself

- Provide clinician with better data

- Institutional decisions

- Allows for research

- To diagnose and guide treatment decisions

How do you measure patient outcomes?

- To measure treatment process and outcomes


- Determining that a certain disorder is present or identifying a specific  disorder that best matches an individual’s symptoms

o Pros and cons of diagnostic system?

Clinical Assessment Process

- Referral question If you want to learn more check out What is sublimation and deposition?

- Collect data

o Interview

o Testing (APA test standards)

- Interpretation

- Report

Understanding scales of measurement

- Nominal

o Basic categories

 Gender, county of residence etc.  

- Ordinal

o Ordinality is implicit

 Stars and movie ratings

- Interval  

What are some examples of culture bound syndromes?

o Units are equal, but there is no absolute 0 point

 thermometer

- Ratio  

o Characterized as having an absolute 0 point

 Length

 Numbers

Psychometric Quality as indicated by APA Test Standards

- Reliability  

o Test- retest

o Inter-rater

- Validity  

o Content

o Face

o Predictive

o Concurrent If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a dependent variable in science?
If you want to learn more check out What is the amount of material in an object?

o Construct

- Norms for any use intended – e.g. by age, gender, ethnicity,  nationality, disability status

Diagnosis – DSM 5

- First one -1952 (6 revisions)

o DSM 5 published May, 2013 (American Psychiatric Association). - Atheoretical

- Doesn’t address etiology

- Cultural factors that may affect diagnosis, common cultural syndromes - Disorders appear

- New diagnostic criteria

- Includes equivalents to ICD-9 and ICD-10 clinical modification codes o As of 10/1/14, ICD-10 becomes official classification of US  government Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement escape?


- Perceptions of mistrust in process

o Signing of non-disclosure agreement

o Robert spritzer and allen frances voiced concerns

- Voting on inclusion and exclusion

o Accusations that ‘pet’ diagnoses of some influential panelists  made it in to the final version

o Diagnostic reification is social process

- Criteria for diagnosis

o NIMH-diagnosis based on research (genetic, imaging,  

physiological, and cognitive) not symptoms, developing research  domain criteria

- Diagnostic census claimed that majority of Americans have or have  had a mental disorder

o Is normal human condition a medical condition?

Methods of Clinical Assessment

- Intelligence Tests

o What do they predict?

o Wechsler Tests

 The global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment  [david Wechsler]

-In America, testing them  

-how comfortable you are with technology  

-all of these tests are timed – the value of speed [in  

America we value speed. So if you are able to do the tests  quickly, then you are more valued in US culture]

-In Japanese culture – different cultural perceptions to time -how a person comes into the testing situation:  We also discuss several other topics like What is the relationship between covariance and the correlation coefficient?

people in Hawaii do things more when they want, when it  comes around. In America we want everything NOW –  

instant gratification.  

∙ WAIS-IV [Wechsler adult intelligence scale] 15  


o Verbal comprehension scale [vocabulary]

 Obsinquious

 More words in Sweden for weather  

because that is a more real part of their  

reality there  

 How language and vocabulary interact  

with culture

o Perceptual reasoning scale [block design]

o Working memory scale [ digit span]

o Processing speed scale [symbol search]

o 10 subtests make up FSIQ

 WISC [Wechsler intelligence scale for children]

 WPPSI [Wechsler preschool and primary scale of  


- Neuropsychological assessment

o Assessment designed to register neuropsychological difficulties  [e.g. after TBI] Don't forget about the age old question of What is the sum of two even numbers?

 Halstead-Reitan Battery

 Bender Visual-Gestalt II

∙ Test of visual motor integration

 Wisconsin card sort

∙ Prefrontal intellectual

correses [lobe] – part of


o Cognitively intact

and can switch

categories in the


∙ Pointing at one and then they have to guess what  

category you are using

o Change every 10 (10 shape – 10 color – 10  


 No way they can get these results  

o If you get one wrong you have two attempts to  

get it right

o Judging general executive functioning  


 Provide ambiguous stimuli

∙ Thematic apperception Test [TAT]

∙ Rorschach

o Exner’s system of qualification

o Compromised?

- The different ink blots and what their ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ answer is  o On Wikipedia: If you are on criminal trial and they use this as a  way to  

 Two people who were dragging

a body away – yea he did the


 Collaboratively two people

banging on a drum – I am

thinking of more general

comradery and working well

with others

Personality measures

o Likert (LIE-KERT) type scale:  

 Strongly disagree / Strongly agree

 What Makes Objectives, Objective?  

 List of questions to which one gives an answer

∙ Agree, disagree; true, false

∙ Myers-Briggs [MBTI]:  

o career assessment to tell you what you should  

be based on the types of people you work best  





first to decide




could be



Profile of the MMPI-II validity scales

[FIG 18]

- VRIN – variable response

inconsistency. Do people

respond similarly on similar items?

- TRIN – true response inconsistency. Was the person randomly  responding

- F - infrequency

- L – lie scale [social desirability]

- K – defensiveness


[Jeffery Dahmer]  

- Valid Profile  

- [HIGHEST] [3 point high code – Jeff is 4,9,8]

and make  

- Hypomania – bizarre thoughts [Schitophrenia]

- Problems with authority  

[Charles Manson]  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Ford_assassination_attempt_in_Sacra mento 

- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynette_Fromme 

o Found a large stack of letters from Lynette to Dr. Toms professor  o He is now forensic psychologist

Million Clinical Multitaxial Inventory II

Beck Depression Inventory

- Higher scores mean higher depression levels - lower scores mean lower depression levels

Methods of Clinical Assessment - The clinical interview

o Structured vs. unstructured

o If you find something interesting, it is a little harder to go forward or backward

o Easier to connect with people with unstructured

o Person is in crisis and you need to provide support – unstructured make that easier

o Required to have paper and pen while interviewing

- Behavioral assessment

o Naturalistic observation

o Participant observation

 Having trouble with personal hygiene – were you able to go through basic functions such as getting up, getting ready  etc.  

 Family member asked to perform the observation

 Child experiencing Inuresis: peeing their pants then have  parent perform this observation

o Self-monitoring  

 Ask dr. tom for contact of social worker who asked  

individual how much they had been drinking lately?

∙ Need to wait for toxology report

∙ Substance use is always a challenging one to ask

o Do you smoke?

 Social acceptance  

 Socially ‘correct’ answer

o When was the last time you smoked?

o When was the last time you drank?

 More accurate assessment because you  

are making it assumed that they have

o Psychophysiological assessment

 HR

 BP

 Skin conductance

∙ When creating a treatment plan,  

psychophysicological ass

Controversial issues in psychological assessment – assessment - There are many

- Why

o Assessments can be used for high-stakes purposes: PSAT  TAKING PSAT makes you eligible for the consideration of a scholarship o Eligibility to qualify for a national merit scholarship – tests are TIED TO  MONEY  

o Only had to score a certain point above your SAT, just sent check -Had to live in New Jersey and  

 Determine who needs what services.

 Could mean loss of personal and individual freedoms in the case of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization  


 Award benefits in the form of access to programs, funding,  admission etc.  

 Issues regarding reliability and validity

- Example of poor validity [one with which you are all quite familiar]

o Student 1 earns 90.6% and 90.2% in two courses [assume both 3 hour courses]

o Student 2 earns 99.8% and 89% in same two courses.  

o Student 1 earns A- and A- [(3.7x3)+(3.7x3)]/6 = 3.7

o Student 2 earns A and B+ [(4x3)+(3.3x3)]/6 = 3.65

 This despite the fact that student 1’s cumulative real  

average is 90.4% whereas student 2’s cummulative real  

average is 94.4%

 When ratio data is placed into bins [letter grades] and then retransformed back to continuous data, INFORMATION IS  


Controversial issues in psychological assessment

- Clinical vs. statistical prediction

o If there were a move, it would have been called Moneytesting o Meehl began claims that statistical interpretation is better than  clinical interpretation

 Where appropriate statistical information exists, clinical  interpretation cannot improve on it

 Critics argue neither process [statistical or clinical] is very  accurate [30% vs. 40%]

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