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SRM UNIVERSITY / Civil Engineering Structures / CE 001 / What are the different types of soil structures?

What are the different types of soil structures?

What are the different types of soil structures?

Description

.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1 0}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0 0}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8 0}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6 0}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4 0}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6 0}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3 0}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5 0}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1 0}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4}.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1 0}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2 0}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7 0}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6 0}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3 0}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3 0}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8 0}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5 0}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1 0}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3 0}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j1kru95izwf8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_94mwtwz7jikl-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4 0}ul.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8 0}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5 0}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7 0}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2 0}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2 0}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6 0}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5 0}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-4 0}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7 0}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8 0}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4 0}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0 0}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0 0}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6 0}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-2 0}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-1}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7 0}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-3}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2 0}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-8}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-5}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-3 0}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7 0}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-7}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4 0}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-5 0}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-4}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0 0}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-8 0}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-0 0}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1 0}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fi09v97kzlvd-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-0}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vb9qopov4pfr-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-2}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ibf2jafp377y-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-1}.lst-kix_alyjshlzz620-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x0tnrq9k2z6a-6}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y59mvvgfkjp7-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j8jl0zm2slsn-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aliybyz4vfgo-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6mitbro9d1s8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w8sfpui080z0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-7}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_r8sfymmq7vrx-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_m91q6bup7hww-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_yxcol0ovhxwu-6}.lst-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_o9r0olrxg93h-0}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_l5nq8a3qebby-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_77il1p6npza2-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-5}ul.lst-kix_4s9qy2qevxc6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bkhas7ltdtrd-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_avd9qyjd4wzo-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}

SOIL STRUCTURES & CLAY MINERALOGY If you want to learn more check out What is a 2movement in dimensions?

Types of Structures

1. Single Grained Structure in gravel & coarse sandWe also discuss several other topics like How does stream erosion work?

2. Honeycomb structure in fine sand & silt

3. Flocculent structure in clays

4. Dispersed structure. → in remoulded clays

5. Combined structure in soil mixturesDon't forget about the age old question of What is the formula for kinetic energy?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the misconceptions in Astronomy?

We also discuss several other topics like Who was Claus Sluter?

  • very sensitive to vibrations (decreases in - vol. due to vibrations)
  • It collapses on wetting. (volume decreasing)
  • collapsible soil eg. loam, fine sand, silt

We also discuss several other topics like What is the origin of social legislation?

Particle Shapes.

  1. Angular: gravel and sand

  1. Round: gravel and sand

  1. Flaky: clay soils

The clay particle is electrically charged as show below (negative charge on surface)

Flocculent structure

  • Relatively more strength
  • Stable
  • Edge to face orientation
  • Net attraction

   

Dispersed Structure

  • Relatively low strength
  • Unotable
  • Face - to - face orientation
  • Net repulsion

Thixotropy

  • he phenomenon of regaining of strength with passage of time under const. Water content is call Thixotropy

In clay,

Due to remoulding, strength decreases.

Due to thixotropy, strength regains

Marine clay (sea water) → flocculent structure.

Lake Clay (fresh water) → dispersed structure

The presence of salts in seawater and due to its alkaline nature, salto acts as flocculating agents. The marine clay has flocculent structure.

→ Minerals.

  1. Rock Minerals,
  • no surface activity.
  • Eg: Quartz, mica, feldspar.

  1. Clay Minerals
  • No surface activity (like cohesion, electrostatic, chemical forces)
  • Eg: Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite, Halloysite.

Kaolinite

  • causes no swelling & no shrinkage.
  • it is present in china clay (used to make earthenware utensils)

Inlite :

  • causes medium swelling & shrinkage
  • present in most of the clays

Montmorillonite:

  • causes large swelling and large shrinkage.
  • present, Bentonite clay & B.c soil.

Halloysite :

  • similar to Kaolinite

NOTE :

  • Plasticity of Kadinite < Plasticity of Mite < Plasticity of Montmorillonite.
  • SSA of Kaolinite < SSA of Illite < SSA ob montmorillonite

SSA- Specific Surface Area (s.A per unit weight).

→ Specific Surface Area (SSA).

  1. It is the surface area per unit weight  
  2. It is the surface area per unit volume

Gravel                 least SSA

Sand                                          increasing order

Silt

Clay                        highest SSA

Diffuse Double Layer Water (or Adsorbed Water)

Clay                water molecule        kerosene molecule

                (dipolar)                (non polar)

  1. Strongly held layer of water

  1. Loosely held layer of water

Double layer water:

  • Present only in clays
  • Causes plasticity property to the clay.

INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILS

Soil Properties

  1. Index Properties                                        2. Engineering Properties        
  • Indicative of behaviour of soil                                - used for engg. applications
  • Eg: grain size distribution, relative density,                - eg. permeability, shear strength

atterberg limits                                                compressibility        

Grain Size Distribution

 By 1. Sieve analysis - used if size > 75

      2. Sedimentation - used if size < 75

Sieve Analysis

Size (mm)

% retained

Cumulative %

% finer

4.75

2.36

0.075

Size vs % finer graph is plotted

Sedimentation Analysis

  • An indirect method
  • Based on “Stoke’s Principle”

Setting velocity of particle,

                 stoke’s equation

approximate stokes eqn

Assumptions:

  • Laminar flow
  • Particle settle independently without interference

 

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