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Unit 2 Study Guide

by: Angela Cho

Unit 2 Study Guide 0407

Angela Cho
Green River Community College
GPA 3.5
AP 103

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AP 103
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cho on Thursday April 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0407 at Green River Community College taught by Mullet in . Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see AP 103 in Anatomy at Green River Community College.

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Date Created: 04/16/15
UNIT TWO Chapter 3 Cell Theory Cell Parts Building blocks of all plants and animals Smallest functioning units of life Produced through division of preexisting cells Each cells maintains homeostasis Centrioles cytoplasm contains 2 at right angles 0 Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division 0 Organization of microtubules in cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes 0 Strength and support 0 Movement of cellular structures and materials 0 Two major components microfilament and microtubule Plasma Membrane lipid bilayer containing phospholipids steroids proteins and carbohydrates 0 Isolation protection sensitivity and support 0 Controls entry and exit of materials Microvilli membrane extensions containing microfilaments 0 Increase surface area to aid absorption of extracellular materials 0 Microfilaments contain chromatin Cilia long extensions 0 Movement of material over cell surface Proteasomes hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes Wregulatory proteins at the ends not covered in lecture o Breakdown and recycling of damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins Ribosomes RNA proteins fixed on rough ER and free scattered in cytoplasm 0 Protein synthesis Peroxisomes vesicles containing degradative enzymes 0 Catabolism of fatty acids and other organic compounds 0 Neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process 0 Detox free radicals ie hydrogen peroxide Lysosomes vesicles containing digestive enzymes 0 Intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens 0 Digests worn out cells and foreign substances Golgi Apparatus stacks of attened membranes cisternae containing chambers 0 Storage alteration and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes 0 Processes packages and secretes proteins Mitochondria double membrane Winner membrane folds cristae enclosing important metabolic enzymes Produces 95 of ATP required by the cell Contains chromatin Major site of cellular respiration o Aerobic metabolism Endoplasmic Reticulum network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm 0 Rough ER modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins then ships to golgi apparatus I Studded with ribosomes 0 Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates site of phospholipid and cholesterol synthesis I Site of synthesis of sex hormones Nucleus nucleoplasm containing nucleotides enzymes nucleoproteins and chromatin Surrounded by nuclear envelope double membrane 0 Control of metabolism 0 Storage and processing of genetic information 0 Control of protein synthesis 0 Genes located here DNA 0 Contains chromatin nucleolus Vesicle intracellular taxi shuttles products from one place to another 0 Formed during endoocytosis and used during exocytosis Cytoplasm includes all materials found within the boundary of the cell membrane EXCEPT the nucleus 0 Major subdivisions are cytosol and organelles 000 Route of Protein that is exported by cell and becomes part of plasma membrane Nucleus 9 rRNA tRNA mRNA 9 protein 9 lumen of rough ER 9 vesicle 9Golgi apparatus 9 vesicle 9 plasma membrane via exocytosis Information Flow in a cell DNA 9 Transcription 9 RNA 9 Translation 9 Protein Transcription process of mRNA formation mRNA is a copytranscript of information in original gene Translation synthesis of a protein using information provided by sequence of codons on mRNA strand when mRNA tRNA and rRNA are used Initiation elongation termination Copy of DNA or RNA EX EX DNAA 9TandG 9C RNAA 9UandG 9C DNAA T G C T RNAU A C G A mRNA A U G tRNAU A C Protein Assembly Cell Cycle mRNA strand binds to ribosomal subunit and joined at start codon by tRNA wamino acid codon binding occurs between complementary base pairs of codon and anticodon Second tRNA arrives at binding site Peptide bond formed between amino acids First amino acid detaches from tRNA and ribosome moves one codon further along mRNA strand Chain elongates until stop codon reached then components separate Completed polypeptide protein fully formed Interphase interval of time between cell divisions when cell performs normal functions Resting phase Mitosis process that separates and encloses duplicated chromosomes of original cell into two identical nuclei 0 Four stages of mitosis I Prophase begins when DNA coiled tightly amp chromosomes visible wmicroscope I Metaphase begins after chromosomes move to narrow central zone metaphase plate I Anaphase begins when centromere of each chromatid pair splits and chromatids separate results in two daughter chromosomes I Telophase cell prepares to return to interphase Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm to form two distinct cells Mitosis and Meiosis o Mitosis cell division that generates new cells for growth and repair Produces two identical daughter cells with same number of chromosomes as parent cell 0 Somatic cell division One division total 2 daughter cells produced 2N chromosome diploid Chromosomes line up end to end at metaphase plate 0000 o Meiosis cell division that produces sex cells gametes Produces four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as original parent cell Sex cell division Two divisions total 4 daughter cells produced 1N chromosome haploid Homologous chromosomes line up side to side parallel Synapse and tetrad formation Crossing over between corresponding maternal and paternal chromosomes OOOOOOO Chapter 4 Tissue Level of Organization 0 Primary tissue types 0 Epithelial I Covers exposed surfaces I Lines internal passageways and chambers I Produces glandular secretions o Connective I Fills internal spaces I Provides structural support I Stores energy 0 Muscular I Contracts to produce active movement 0 Neural I Conducts electrical impulses I Carries information 0 Aging effects Epithelia get thinner o Connective tissue gets more fragile 0 People bruise more easily and bones get more fragile 0 Cardiac muscle fibers and neurons can t be replaced 0 Epithelial Tissue General Features 0 2 types of epithelial tissue Cover amp lining and glandular 0 Large degree of cellularity Avascular no blood supply get fed from tissue below All have free edge to a lumen or environment High Regenerative capacity Mitotic All sit on non cellular basement membrane epithelial connective tissue Cell Junctions 0 Tight junctions in apical top side seals cell Prevents water from going from lumen side to basal side 0 Gap junction channels in between allows ions and molecules between cells ie Montlake cut between Lk Wash and Lk Union 0 Desmosomes anchoring junctions anchor cells together side to side 0 Hemidesmosome found at bottom of cell connects cell to different tissue below Special Characteristics of EpitlheliaCell Junc ons Cilia Na rrow extracellular space Microuilli an epithelial cell Eell junctions W ghtjunction Adhesive belt Eieemoe ome Gap junction w Ii r kW u V Basal region A l Basal lamina j Reticular Basement bers membrane Connective 39 eeue Functions 0 Protection skin 0 Controlling permeability 0 Absorption intestines o Filtration kidneys 0 Sensory reception 0 Secretion glandshormones 0 Excretion salt on skin 0 Lubrication mucous membrane serous uid Classification 0 Simple Squamous o Lining ventral body cavities lining heart blood vessels 0 Reduce friction control permeability perform absorption and secretion 0 Stratified squamous 0 Surface of skin lining of mouth throat anus vagina 0 Provide physical protection against abrasion pathogens and chemical attack Simple cuboidal o Glands ducts portions of kidney tubules thyroid 0 Limited protection secretion absorption Stratified cuboidal o Ducts of sweat glands and larger ducts of mammary glands 0 Rare Simple columnar o Lining of stomach intestine gall bladder uterine tubes collecting ducts of kidneys 0 Protection secretion absorption Stratified columnar o Portions of pharynx epiglottis anus urethra 0 Rare Pseudostratified ciliated only columnar all cells in contact wbasement membrane 0 Nasal cavity trachea bronchi portions of male reproductive tract 0 Protection secretion move mucus with cilia Transitional kidney 0 Urinary bladder renal pelvis ureters o Permits expansion and recoil after stretching Glandular o Exocrine discharge products through a duct or tube onto some external or internal surface Mucous goblet salivary glands perspiration oil wax digestive enzymes 0 Endocrine hormones Ultimately secrets products into the blood 0 Merocrine secretion where products is released from secretory vesicles by exocytosis mucous saliva o Apocrine involves loss of both cytoplasm and secretory product milk production involves both merocrine and apocrine secretion 0 Holocrine entire cell becomes packed with secretion then bursts apart and dies sebaceous glands in hair follicles Connective Tissue Connective tissue proper loose amp dense Fluid connective tissue blood amp lymph Supporting connective tissue cartilage amp bone Functions Structural framework for the body Transport uids and dissolved materials blood amp lymph Provide protection for delicate organs fat cartilage bone Support surround and interconnect other types of tissues areolar Store energy reserves fat Defense against foreign invaders white blood cells Classifications 0 Common embryonic origin Mesenchyme o Descendants o Fibroblast 9 Fibrocyte 9 Connective Tissue Proper 1 Loose Connective Tissue a Areolar b Adipose c Reticular 2 Dense Connective Tissue a Regular b Irregular c Elastic o Chondroblast 9 Chondrocyte 9 Cartilage 1 Hyaline Cartilage 2 Fibrocartilage 3 Elastic Cartilage o Osteoblast 9 Osteocyte 9 Osseous bone 1 Compact Bone 2 Spongy cancellous bone 0 Hemocytoblast 9 Blood Cells 9 Blood Common Components 0 Cellular 0 Extracellular matrix nonliving I Ground substance fibers can be liquid jelly or hard Cells create and put outside of themselves 0 Living blasts immature cytes mature o Fibers o Collagen tough resist pulling force Most abundant protein in body 0 Elastic elastin o Reticular netlike fibers I Found in spleen filters blood I Found in stroma body of lymph node Three common building blocks 0 Specialized cells 0 Fibers 0 Ground substance Loose Connective Tissue o Areolar 0 Most Widely distributed connective tissue in body Widely distributed under epithelia of body 0 Gellike matrix with all three fiber types Cells fibroblasts macrophages mast cells some WBC 0 Plays important role in in ammation mast cell releases histamine causes in ammation to fight off infection 0 Adipose 0 Under skin around kidneys amp eyeballs in bones amp breasts 0 Gellike matrix like areolar but very sparse o Closely packed adipocytes have nucleus pushed to side 0 Insulates against heat loss supportsprotects organs Reticular o Lymphoid organs lymph nodes bone marrow spleen 0 Network of reticular fibers in loose ground substance 0 Fibers form soft internal skeleton to support other cell types Dense regular 0 Tendons most ligaments aponeuroses 0 Primary parallel collagen fibers a few elastic fibers Major cell type fibroblast o Attaches muscle to bone or other muscles withstands great tensile stress when pulling force applied in one direction Dense irregular o Dermis of skin submucosa of digestive tract fibrous capsules of joints and organs periosteum perichondrium o Primarily irregulary arranged collagen fibers some elastic fibers 0 Major cell type fibroblast o Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions structural strength Hyaline cartilage 0 Forms most of embryonic skeleton covers ends of long bones in joint cavities forms costal cartilages of the ribs cartilage of nose trachea larynx o Amorphous but firm matrix collagen fibers look glassy in appearance can t see fibers 0 Chondroblasts produce matrix and when mature chondrocytes lie in lacuna o Supportsreinforces resilient cushioning properties resists compressive stress Elastic cartilage 0 Supports external ear pinna epiglottis 0 Similar to hyaline but more elastic fibers in matrix fibers are not in straight lines o Maintains shape of structure while allowing exibility Fibrocartilage o Intervertebral discs pubic symphysis meniscus of knee 0 Matrix similar but less firm than hyaline thick collagen fibers predominate straight fibers 0 Tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock 0 Hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers 0 Osteocytes lie in lacuna 0 Supports and protects provides levers for muscles to act on stores calcium other minerals and fat Blood 0 Red and white blood cells in uid matrix plasma 0 Transport of respiratory gasses nutrients wastes and other substances 0 Skeletal Muscle 0 Cells long cylindrical and multinucleate striations 0 Voluntary movement and under voluntary control locomotion facial expression 0 Cardiac Muscle o Branching striated generally one nucleus cells intercalated discs 0 Walls of the heart 0 Propels blood into circulation involuntary control 0 Smooth Muscle 0 Mostly walls of hollow organs arrector pili muscles of skin 0 Spindleshaped cells w single central nucleus 0 Cells form sheets no striations o Propels objects along internal passageways controls volume of hollow organs involuntary control 0 Nervous Tissue o Neurons I Brain spinal cord nerves I Irritable branching cells I Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to other neurons or effectors muscles and glands o Neuroglial cells I Nonirritable supporting cells five types I Astrocytes microglial ogliodendrocytes ependymal amp Schwann cells I Brain spinal cord amp nerves I Support and protect neurons Strugm FE m a Typical Neuron mutate aygun terminal if Schwann Ellll EMithilln sheath Hm IEUE Epithelial Membranes 0 Cutaneous Membrane 0 Skin 0 Mucous membranes 0 Line cavities that communicate with the exterior o Serous membranes 0 Line internal subdivisions of ventral body cavity not open to exterior I Pleura lungs I Pericardium heart I Peritoneum stomach 0 Synovial Membranes 0 Lines joint cavities that allow free movement end of bone covered Whyaline Cartilage symm al J39 iii EEIT IWE IT39I BIJII JE39EEE i39tlml EHFiHEQiE Fl IJVS39IIILFEJ j i EBFSUIE mm l vi l Flum Llamar55 r Integumentary System Skin is largest organ in the body 16 total body weight Functions 0 Protection for underlying tissues and organs mechanical barrier and UV radiation absorption melanin Excretion of salts waters and some other wastes Regulation of body temperature via sweat Synthesis of vitamin D Storage of nutrients Stimuli reception sensations touch pressure pain vibration temperature 0 Retards water loss and gain Components 0 Cutaneous membrane 0 Accessory organs hair nails glands receptors Epidermis Stratified squamous epithelial Most abundant cell type keratinocytes 5 layers slough off every 3545 days 0 Avascular gets nutrients from areolar connective tissue Layers 0 Stratum Germinativum or Stratum Basale o Mitotic cells 0 Some nerve endings no blood vessels 0 Melanocytes produce melanin which forms protective UV umbrella over nucleus 0 Stratum Spinosum o Mitotic cells 0 Spiny layer 0 Stratum Granulosum Dermis Hypodermis o Keratin made here 0 Grainy layer Stratum Lucidum 0 Clear layer 0 Flattened densely packed keratin filled layer Soles of feet palms of hands Stratum Corneum 0 Exposed layer of skin W 15 30 layers of epithelial cells 0 Packed with keratin Hair shafts start here Contains 2 layers of connective tissue 0 Papillary layer areolar connective tissue 0 Reticular layer dense irregular connective tissue Loose connective tissue and adipose subcutaneous layer If fat cells adipocytes present hypodermis Erlratwm jasmiutgm Stratum Ijiiiilimt EElrgrlrmi grazwulnarmm wag graham spainnsum 1 garatum 1 in ame I u r 1 Sebaceous Glands 0 Oil glands all over except hands and feet 0 Usually empty into hair follicle 0 Secretes sebum 9 mixture of oily substances and cell fragments Sudoiferous Glands 0 Also called sweat glands o Merocrine produce sweat 0 Water some salts o Traces of metabolic wastes urea uric acid Vitamin C o Acidic pH of 46 inhibits bacterial growth 0 Heat regulation can lose up to 7 liters water per day 0 Apocrine armpits axillary and genital areas 0 Larger ducts empty into hair follicle o Secretions I Fatty acids and proteins I Milky or yellowish color 39 Odorless when secreted bacteria feeds upon to give musty unpleasant odor 0 Begin functioning at puberty o Nerve activated during pain stress sexual foreplay Skin Color In uenced by rate of dermal blood ow and presence of pigments o Melanin brown yellow black 0 Carotene 0 Amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin


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