Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide 0407
Green River Community College
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cho on Thursday April 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0407 at Green River Community College taught by Mullet in . Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see AP 103 in Anatomy at Green River Community College.
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Date Created: 04/16/15
Chapter 6 Skeletal System Bones 1 Five Functions of skeletal system a Support b Storage of minerals and lipids Calcium and phosphorus c Hemopoiesis hematopoiesis Blood cell formation in red marrow d Protection e Movement via leverage system 2 Bones plus what other components are included in skeletal system a Bone b Cartilage c Ligaments d Joints 3 Spongy cancellous vs compact cortical bone a Compact centralhaversian canal b Spongy trabeculae i Blood cell production red marrow ii Supports compact bone iii Reduces weight of bone 4 Classification of bone shape a Long longer than wide shaft with two heads cylinder shaped b Short cube shaped c Flat thin at and usually curved i Skull ribs sternum clavicle scapula d Irregular i Hips vertebrae e Sesamoid formed and wrapped in tendons i Patella ii Encountered at joints in the knee hands and feet f Wormian sutural found in skull i Irregularly shaped bones between at bones in a suture line 5 Macroscop1c gross anatomy of a long bone mg Ema 3quot DiaphySiS E Murmur cartilage b Epiphysis EEIWSIS A c Articular cartilage hyaline L A EPWWEEEH I d Periosteum e Medullary cavity L V f Yellow marrow 159m DE le g Endosteum h Epiphyseal line H quot MEEEUHEW CWW i Red marrow ia mi A Hutr ieutf ramen Jig gpongy bgne EV Endosteum ompact one i Pam mum In Miwlar cartilage Epipn ia 6 Osteoblast osteoclast osteocyte a Osteoblast builds bone up produce new matrix b Osteoclast bone destroying cells scrubbing bubbles breaks down matrix c Osteocyte matrix hardens around these to trap them in lacuna Galenan 7 Microscopic Anatomy of compact bone trimaranmm Lilrnjlgllal Daaeoeym x a Central canal is W 1 1 b Osteon haversian system H i c Osteocyte is i Camalleu us 01 MatrlX 1 e Lacunae quot quot 32 f LamGIIa g Volkann s canal 5132 mm 39 39 lwm 2 I m m h Elam I Iquot Eamtral uLHImnianlcallm uk X2quot Farl mlsingg EVuIHmamWaj canal H 1 quotM Pauli351mm Blood vessel GagEh Luz 1amp3 8 Osteoporosis osteoblast activity less than osteoclastflgssquot39bpfh awi a Osteopenia inadequate ossification leads to osteoporosis b Especially in females as estrogen levels decrease osteoblasts have estrogen receptors c Calcium supplements andor hormone replacement to combat osteoporosis 9 Bone increases in length a Division and elongation of cartilage cells in epiphyseal plate b Fate of cartilage cell Divide enlarge amp die matrix calcifies replaced by bone c Endochondral ossification i Primary ossification center of a long bone middle of diaphysis ii Secondary ossification center epiphysis happens after birth iii Epiphyseal plate is cartilaginous structure between primary and secondary ossification centers d When bone no longer grows epiphyseal plate turns to epiphyseal line 10 Bone increases in diameter a Appositional growth b Osteoblasts build up on outside c Osteoclasts hollowing on inside to keep light 11 Healthy bones a Exercise stress bones to keep strong i After a few weeks unstressed bones can lose up to 13 of mass ii Couch potato syndrome in absence of mechanical stress reabsorption outpaces bone formation b Kidney connection i Kidneys release calcitriol which is essential for normal calcium and phosphateion absorption in digestive tract 12 Bone remodeling recycle 57 of bone mass every week a Bone matrix has high turnover rate 20 of skeleton replaced every year b Stresses cause alterations in shape internal architectural or mineral content 13 Hormones and Vitamins for regulation of bone growth a Vitamin D synthesized in skin or taken in diet needed for calcitriol sysnthesis b Vitamin C needed as cofactor for enzymes involved with producing collagen c Scurvy loss of bone mass and strength due to Vitamin C deficiency d Vitamin A stimulates osteoblast activity e Vitamin K and B12 synthesis of proteins in normal bone f Hormones Estrogens and Androgens Sex hormones stimulate osteoclasts 14 Repair of a bone fracture a Immediately after break extensive bleeding occurs Over several hours large blood clot hematoma develops b Internal callous forms as network of spongy bone unites inner edges External callus of cartilage and bone stabilize outer edges c Cartilage Replacement cartilage of external callus replaced by bone struts of spongy bone unite broken ends Fragments of dead bone and areas of bone closest to break have been removedreplaced d Final Remodeling swelling initially marks area of fracture over time region remodeled and little evidence remains 15 Bone tissue in calcium homeostasis a PTH from parathyroid gland released when calcium levels drop below homeostasis most common as we usually have too little calcium i PTH 9 Bone 9 osteoclast activity increases to release calcium to blood ii PTH 9 Kidney 9 retain calcium and release calcitriol tells small intestine to absorb more calcium b Calcitonin from thyroid gland opposite effect of PTH i Reduces levels of calcium in bloodstream if too high ii Turns off osteoclasts iii Kidney releases pees more calcium and doesn t release calcitriol Skeletal System 1 Two major subdivisions of skeletal system a Axial i Skull vertebra sternum thoracic cage and ribs b Appendicular i Pectoral girdle upper limbs pelvic girdle lower limbs 2 Articulations and examples a Synarthrosis no movement i Fibrous b Amphiarthrosis some little movement i Cartilaginous 1 Fibulatibial syndesmosis amphiarthrotic fibrous c Diarthrosis free movement i Synovial 3 Structure of a synovial joint and function a Synovial cavity and uid i Lubrication to reduce friction Articular cartilage i Hyaline absorbs shock very slippery Articular capsule i Holds ends of bones together Made up of ligaments and sheets of dense fibrous connective tissue ii Allows movement without dislocation and is continuous with periosteum 1 Synovial membrane lines joint capsule secretes synovial uid into joint 2 Ligaments parallel bundles of collagen fibers strengthen articular cartilage Meniscus i Fibrocartilage pad which allows two different shaped bones to fit together shock absorber Bursa i Synovial uid filled pads form where tendon or ligament rub against other tissue bone or muscle 4 Synovial joints page 168 hard book tmgop gw Gliding Hinge Pivot Ball and socket Saddle Ellipsoidal condyloid 5 Body movement Muscular System 1 rcpt99 FlexionExtension Adductionabduction Rotation Circumduction Pronationsupination Inversioneversion Dorsi exionplantar exion Protrationretraction j aw Gross structure skeletal muscle a Endomysium i Surrounds individual muscle fibers b Perimysium C i Surrounds groups of muscle fibers fasiscles Epimysium i Connective tissue sheath holds entire muscle together and allows to slide past adjacent muscles d Tendon i Continuous with epimysium and attaches muscle to periosteum ofbone 2 Single muscle cell myofiber 3 Functional contractile unit of a muscle cell sarcomere a Stacked end to end to make up myofibril 4 Diagram of sarcomere 5 Actin myosin muscle fiber myofibril myofilament Th I n u H 5 mm a Thick filament llama mt l U llnmam i Myosin head fernsquot quot d39 b Thin filament i Actin 1 active sites for myosin heads ii Troponin 1 Calcium connects to troponin and moves tropomyosin to expose active sites iii Tropomyosin 1 Blocks active sites 6 Sliding filament theory a When a muscle undergoes shortening contraction actin filaments are pulled toward center of sarcomere by myosin heads Actin slides past myosin filaments thin filaments move 7 Events that happen when a muscle contracts a Action potential travels down axon to muscle fiber Axon terminal 9 muscle fiber neuromuscular junction b Action potential opens voltage gates for calcium c Calcium in ECF causes exocytosis of ACh in by diffusion out by active transport d ACh opens chemical channel on motor end plate for sodium to diffuse through post synaptic side e Sodium creates action potential electrical impulse in muscle f Action potential travels through TTubules and causes calcium release from Terminal Cistemae into sarcoplasm g Calcium diffuses into sarcomeres binding to Troponin which causes Tropomyosin to move exposing Active Sites on Actin h Allows Myosin Head to hook to Actin to form cross bridges Cross bridge ratchets inward requires ATP which slides thin filaments toward middle of sarcomere Pulls Z lines towards one another and shortens sarcomere i Another ATP attaches to myosin cross bridge releasing myosin head from Actin ATP broken down and energy from it returns myosin head to original position ready to form another cross bridge j AChE breaks down ACh on motor end plate 8 What causes a muscle to relax a Calcium goes back to terminal cistemae b Allows tropomyosin to cover active sites 9 Motor Unit and Recruitment a Motor unit single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates connects to i All thresholds are different Titin EI IEI39JiJIi ii Helps differentiate the number of muscles being used b Recruitment process of increasing the number of active motor units i Increases the amount of forcetension production by the muscle c Tone a small number of motor units in every muscle are always active 10 Isotonic and Isometric Muscle Contractions a Isotonic tension rises muscle changes in length tension in muscle remains at constant level until relaxation i Lifting object off desk walking running b Isometric muscle does not change length tension produced never exceeds the load i Pushing against closed door picking up a car sitting upright 11 Diagram and label single muscle twitch summation of twitches incomplete tetanus and complete tetanus a Twitch brief contraction of all fibers in a motor unit in response to a single impulse of the motor neuron b Summation of twitches second stimulus arrives before relaxation phase has ended c Incomplete tetanus muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation virtually all normal muscle contractions involve incomplete tetanus of the participating muscle fibers d Complete tetanus when the rate of stimulation is increased until relaxation phase completely eliminated producing maximum tension Insert picture or draw examples pg 203 hardback book 12 Rigor Mortis a Sarcoplasmic reticulum unable to remove calcium b Without ATP cross bridges unable to detach from the active sites triggering sustained contraction l3 Mechanisms by which muscles obtain and use energy to power contractions a Energy reserves If 6 molecules of i ii iii ATP Creatine Phosphate Glycogen b Metabolic pathways used in muscle cells to make ATP g1ucose 1 Creatine Phosphate ADP 9 Creatine ATP Anaerobic 6 X 2 12 1 source of energy creatine phosphate ATP produced ii Aerobic cellular respiration Krebs Cycle and Electron Aerobic 6 X 36 216 ATP produced C iii Transport Chain C6H1206 602 9 6C02 6H20 36 ATP 1 source of energy glucose C6H1206 Anaerobic cellular respiration glycolysis and lactic acid formation Glucose 9 2 ATP C02 H20 lactic acid 1 source of energy glucose Muscle Fatigue i ii Exhaust energy reserves Build up of lactic acid d Restoration of energy reserves requires 02 i Oxygen debt extra amount of oxygen needed to take in to restore energy reserves and recycle lactic acid back to pyruvic acid in mitochondria ii Liver produces ATP to convert lactic acid in blood stream to glucose or glycogen iii Muscle Fiber restores ATP Creatine Phosphate glycogen reserves and restores oxygen to myoglobin 14 Types of muscle fibersperformance Slow Fast Small 12 diameter of fast muscle Large Slow 3 times as long to contract Fast responds quickly to stimulation Aerobic slow to fatigue Anaerobic glycolysis dependent Many mitochondria dark in color Few mitochondria light in color Low glycogen High glycogen High stores of oxygen myoglobin Low stores of oxygen myoglobin Many capillaries Few capillaries Slow rate of fatigue Fast rate of fatigue Red in color White in color Muscular System 1 Define and understand terms a Origin b Insertion Where muscle moves the most c Prime mover agonist d Antagonist e Synergist helper 2 Reciprocal Inhibition a EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potentials Depolarize i Closer to threshold b IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials Hyperpolarize i Further from threshold c Muscles on one side of joint relax tricep IPSP antagonist While the agonist side biceps contracts EPSP Nervous System 1 Membrane Potentials a b Graded potential i Post synaptic soma and dendrites ii Sensory nerve endings iii Membranes of glands innervated by neurons
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