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CMU / OTHER / BIOL 209 / What is the meaning of responsiveness in the functions of life?

What is the meaning of responsiveness in the functions of life?

What is the meaning of responsiveness in the functions of life?


School: Colorado Mesa University
Department: OTHER
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology
Professor: Kester
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, Responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, Reproduciton, transcription, translation, homeostasis, Receptor, afferent, efferent, control, Effector, elements, atomicnumber, isotope, valence, octet, ionic, covalent, hydrogen, endergonic, exergonic, activationenergy, catalyst, synthesis, decomposition, Exchange, Reversible, redox, oxidation, reduction, freeradicals, antioxidants, organic, Molecules, inorganic, pHscale, Osmosis, Carbohydrates, Lipids, triglycerides, Waxes, phospholipids, Steriods, Eicosanoids, Proteins, fibrous, Globular, lipoproteins, nucleicacids, PlasmaMembrane, Isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, transcytosis, centrosome, cilia, flagella, nucleus, robosome, roughER, SmoothER, golgi, Mitochondria, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Proteasomes, and cancer
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL-209 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is an overview of what will be on the First exam!
Uploaded: 02/05/2017
10 Pages 37 Views 1 Unlocks

BIOL 209 2/7

What is the meaning of responsiveness in the functions of life?



A. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions that occur

i. Catabolism: The Breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances ii. Anabolism: The Synthesis of more complex substances or molecules form  simpler substances

B. Responsiveness: The body’s ability to detect and respond to changes in the internal  environment  

C. Movement: Physical movement of entire organisms, tissues and individual cells or  structures within the cells

D. Growth: increase in the size of cells and increase in the number of cells and increase  in non-cellular materials

E. Differentiation: the specialization of cells to perform specific functions

What is the meaning of movement in the functions of life?

If you want to learn more check out How to distribute negation?

F. Reproduction: the formation of new cells, repair of existing cells, creation of a new  organism


A. Genes are segments of DNA that are transcribed to RNA, and then translated to  protein

i. DNA – Transcription???? RNA – Translation???? Amino acids


A. Stressors or stimuli shift a certain variable away from a homeostatic ‘setting’ B. Homeostatic mechanisms (bodily responses to maintain homeostasis) C. Components of the feedback systems

i. Receptor: sensor

ii. Afferent pathway: signal conduit toward control center

iii. Control center: processor

iv. Effector: signal conduit away from control center

What is the meaning of growth in the functions of life?

D. Positive versus negative feedback loops

i. Positive feedback loop: Reinforces or strengthens the direction of change to  some condition (Cervical dilation during child birth)

ii. Negative feedback loop: opposes the direction of change to some condition  (blood pressure regulation)


A. Subatomic particles

i. Protons (positively charged), neutrons (neutral), and electrons (negatively  charged) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of aries in child psychology?

ii. Protons and neutrons contained in nucleus, electrons orbit nucleus in electron  cloud

B. Atomic number

i. Number of protons

C. Mass number

i. Number of protons and neutrons (i.e. weight of the nucleus)

D. Isotope: Forms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons


A. An atom’s valence shell is its outermost layer (or orbit) of electrons

B. The octet rule refers to the fact that a given atom ‘wants’ to have a full valence shell,  which for most atoms means 8 electrons

C. The number of electron in an atom’s valence shell will determine how it reacts with  other elements or molecules


A. Ionic bonds

i. Involves an electron being donated

ii. Results in positively charged cation, and negatively charged anion B. Covalent bonds

i. Involves electrons being shared

ii. Most common type of bond in human body

iii. May result in polarity (partial charge resulting from unequal sharing of  electrons)

C. Hydrogen bonds


i. Caused by attractive forces between partial negative charge of a polar molecule  and the partial positive charge of the hydrogen atoms on water (or other polar molecules) Don't forget about the age old question of What kind of data is qualitative?

ii. Relatively weak bond compared to ionic and covalent


A. Endergonic reactions: More energy is absorbed than released

B. Exergonic reaction: More energy is released than absorbed

C. Activation energy: the energy needed to break the chemical bonds of the reactants

D. The rate of a reaction is determined by temperature, concentration of reactants, and  the presence of a catalyst

i. A catalyst speeds the rate of a reaction by reducing activation energy ii. Specifically, a catalyst causes the reactant molecules to be oriented correctly in  space allowing the reaction to occur

iii. Enzymes are biological catalysts Don't forget about the age old question of What does scientific development mean?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the three basic trade offs faced by a society?

E. Identify types of chemical reactions:

i. Synthesis: A+B????AB (anabolism)

ii. Decomposition: AB????A+B (catabolism)

iii. Exchange: AB+CD????AD+BC

iv. Reversible: AB???? ????A+B

v. Redox (oxidation reduction)

1. Oxidation: loss of electrons

2. Reduction: gain of electrons Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between arithmetic and algebra?


A. Free radicals have an unpaired electron and are highly reactive

B. Antioxidants can safely react with a free radical, neutralizing its reactivity i. Vitamins C and E are examples of antioxidants


A. Organic molecules:

i. Always contain carbon

ii. Always have covalent bonds

iii. Are generally more complex


iv. Are associated with living matter

B. Inorganic molecules:

i. Typically lack carbon

ii. May not have covalent bonds

iii. Generally associated with non-living matter

iv. Generally less complex than organic molecules

C. Polar inorganic molecules dissociate in water

i. NaCl dissociates into Na+ and Cl 


A. A measure of the concentration of hydrogen cations (H+) in a solution

B. Ona scale of 0-14 (with pH of 7 being neutral, below 7 being acidic, and above 7  being alkaline or basic)

C. The pH scale is a log scale, such that a solution with a pH of 4 is ten times more  acidic than a solution with a pH of 5, and 100 times more acidic than a solution with  a pH of 6

D. Your body keeps pH in a tight range between 7.35 and 7.45

11. WATER:

A. Has a high heat capacity, it can store and transfer heat without itself changing  temperature significantly

i. This is what makes sweating an effective cooling mechanism for your body


A. Be able to define/describe:

i. Carbon skeleton: the chain of carbon atoms making up the ‘scaffolding’ of an  organic molecule

ii. Functional groups: specific groups of atoms bonded in a specific manner, that  determines how a molecule will react

iii. Monomer: a single basic structural unit

iv. Polymer: a large molecule (‘macromolecule’) composed of repeating monomers v. Isomer: molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures  



A. Monomer unit is a monosaccharide (mono= 1, saccharide= sugar)

i. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides

B. A polymer of monosaccharides is a polysaccharide

i. Starch (amylose and amylopectin) and glycogen are polysaccharides (of glucose)


A. Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated

i. Unsaturation is determined by the presence of double bonds between two  carbon atoms in the carbon skeleton of the fatty acid

ii. Fatty acids (and most fatty molecules) are non-polar and are therefore not  soluble in water

iii. Fats are hydrophobic (‘water-fearing’)


A. Triglycerides

i. Consist of a glycerol ‘backbone’ and three fatty acid ‘tails’

ii. An oil refers to a triglyceride that remains liquid at room temperature (olive oil) iii. A fat refers to a triglyceride that remains solid at room temperature (butter) B. Waxes  

i. Consist of a fatty acid plus an alcohol

ii. Serves as water-proofing and dust trapping function

C. Phospholipids

i. Consist of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails and a polar phosphate ‘head’  ii. Form bilayers and make up plasma membrane (and other membranes) D. Steroids

i. 4 carbon ring fatty structures derived from cholesterol

ii. a variety of hormones are steroids (testosterone)

iii. Vitamin D (a fat-soluble vitamin) is a derivative of cholesterol

E. Eicosanoids

i. Fat-derived signaling molecules (made form 20-carbon fatty acids) ii. Mediate inflammation, blood clotting and immune function



A. Consist of specific sequence of amino acids arranged in a certain 3 dimensional  shape

B. 20 different amino acids make up protein found in human body

C. structural levels of protein

i. Primary – sequence of amino acids

ii. Secondary – arrangement of peptide chain (beta-sheet or alpha-helix) iii. Tertiary – folding of secondary structure

iv. Quaternary – association of multiple tertiary structures

D. Two main categories of protein:

i. Fibrous

1. Insoluble in water

2. Consist of long, linear peptide chains

ii. Globular

1. Soluble in water

2. Consist of spherical peptide chains

iii. Functions of protein

1. Structural  

2. Regulatory

3. Contractile

4. Immunological

5. Transport

6. Catalytic (enzymatic)


A. High density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are responsible  for transporting triglycerides through the bloodstream


A. Consist of three components

i. Nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines)

1. Adenine

2. Guanine

3. Thymine

4. Cytosine

5. Uracil


ii. Phosphate group

iii. Sugar

B. DNA houses genetic material, ATP is responsible for storing and transferring  chemical energy to drive reactions


A. Consists of phospholipids, cholesterol and glycoproteins

B. Critical features:

i. Fluidity

1. Determined by degree of unsaturation of phospholipid fatty acids and  cholesterol content

ii. Membrane potential

1. Caused by charge and concentration difference on intracellular side and  extracellular side

iii. Selective permeability

1. Small, uncharged polar molecules (water) oxygen, carbon dioxide, and  some fat-soluble molecules can diffuse directly through membrane

2. Other molecules need to be transported across membrane by a transport  mechanism


A. Diffusion of water:

i. Directly through plasma membrane  

ii. Through special water transport proteins called aquaporin’s

B. Isotonic: concentration of solutes that cannot cross membrane is equal on both sides  of the membrane

i. No net change in water flow

C. Hypotonic: concentration of solutes that cannot cross membrane is lower than in  cytosol

i. Water will flow into cell (causes volume to increase)

D. Hypertonic: concentration of solutes that cannot cross membrane in higher than in  cytosol

i. Water will flow out of cell (causes cell volume to decrease)



A. Know differences between

i. Simple diffusion: substances move down the concentration gradient directly  through the plasma membrane

ii. Facilitated (channel-mediated) diffusion: substances move down the  concentration gradient with assistance of membrane protein

iii. Carrier-mediated diffusion: substances attach to binding site on a carrier  protein, which changes shape to dispense it on the other side


A. Know differences between  

i. Primary active transport (uses ATP): energy released from ATP hydrolysis is  used to ‘pump’ substances across membrane

ii. Secondary active transport (uses concentration gradient generated by primary  active transport): Potential energy of Na+ or H+ concentration gradient used to  transport substances across membrane


A. Be able to describe the following mechanisms

i. Exocytosis: vesicles within a cell fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing  contents into extracellular fluid

ii. Endocytosis: Vesicles outside of the cell are taken up into the cell 1. Receptor-mediated: highly selective process whereby specific ligands are  taken into cell

2. Phagocytosis: Cell engulfs large particles, viruses, bacterial or other  dysfunctional cells (macrophages: found throughout the body,  

neutrophils: found only in the blood)

3. Pinocytosis (bulk phase endocytosis): no receptors involved, Extracellular  fluid including solutes are enveloped and taken into the cell, then fused  with lysosome, and ‘digested’ and used by the cell

iii. Transcytosis: material is imported (vial endocytosis) on one end of the cell and  exported (via exocytosis) on the opposite end of the cell


A. Centrosome

i. Consists of a pair of centrioles inside a pericentriolar matrix

ii. Microtubule organizing center


B. Cilia

i. Small hair like projections

ii. Move fluid across cell membrane

C. Flagella

i. Large ‘tail’ used to move entire cell

D. Nucleus

i. Houses DNA in the form of chromatic

ii. Contains nucleosomes (where ribosomes are produced)

E. Ribosomes

i. Site of RNA translation to protein (protein synthesis)

F. Rough ER

i. Studded with ribosomes

ii. Responsible for post-translational modification of proteins G. Smooth ER

i. Not studded with ribosomes

ii. Responsible for production of fatty acids and steroids

iii. Also involved in detoxification

H. Golgi Complex

i. Sorts and packages proteins for export from cell (in secretory vesicles) or for  incorporation into cell membrane (in membranous vesicles)

I. Mitochondria

i. Has two plasma membranes

ii. Site of cellular respiration (major site of ATP synthesis)

iii. Contain their own DNA

J. Lysosomes

i. Have phospholipid membrane

ii. Contain a variety of enzymes and have an acidic pH

iii. Responsible for digesting worn out structures, old organelles and whole cells K. Peroxisomes

i. Similar to lysosomes but smaller

ii. Responsible for some breakdown of nutrients

iii. Contain antioxidants and enzymes involved in detoxification L. Proteasomes

i. Small “tubes” made of protein, responsible for digesting cellular proteins



A. Uncontrolled cell division

B. Believed to be caused by several acquired DNA mutations C. Characterized by three stages

i. Initiation

ii. Promotion

iii. Progression


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