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What is the meaning of aries in child psychology?

What is the meaning of aries in child psychology?

Description

School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: Psychological and Brain Sciences
Course: Child Psychology
Professor: Patrick bowman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Child, Psychology, study, and guide
Cost: 50
Name: Child Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is a thorough study guide for exam 1.
Uploaded: 02/05/2017
7 Pages 48 Views 1 Unlocks
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Child Psychology


What is the meaning of aries in child psychology?



Exam 1 Study Guide

Philosophical views regarding childhood (Philippe Aries, Jean-Jacques  Rousseau, John Locke, etc.

∙ Aries

o Came around when the idea of the “child” stage in life came  about; before this the popular concept was that what we view as  children were little adults, there were only babies and little adults and adults

∙ Rousseau

o “Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains” – from his  book The Social Contract

o all individuals should be dedicated to the general good of all  people without thinking about their own personal interests o liberty and equality were major focuses  

o distinguished male and female as uniquely separate roles to play o 5 stages of childhood


What is the meaning of rousseau in child psychology?



 infancy – 0-2 years  

 ‘The age of Nature’ – 2-12 years

 pre-adolescence – 12-15 years

 puberty – 15-20 years

 adulthood – 20-25 years

∙ Locke

o The way children are shaped is through their own perceptions of  life experience and no knowledge of a child comes instinctually Behavioral theorists – Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Bandura

∙ Pavlov  

o Classic conditioning

o A neutral stimulus gains ability to produce a response that was initially  produced by another stimulus

o Pavlov’s dog

 Unconditioned stim - meat powder

 Unconditioned response - salivating  We also discuss several other topics like What kind of data is qualitative?

∙ Watson


What is the meaning of locke in child psychology?



o Little Albert experiment  

 Paired a loud noise with a white rat; little Albert feared any  white animal after the experiment  

∙ Skinner  

o Operant conditioning  

o (skinner's rat box, training them to get a pellet of food)

o The consequences of behavior affect the probability of the behavior's  occurrence  

o A behavior followed by:

 A rewarding outcome: more likely to recur

 A negative outcome: less likely to recur  

∙ Thorndike

o Law of effect

 Any behavior followed by a negative state of affairs tends to not  be repeated, any behavior followed by a positive state of affairs  tends to be repeated If you want to learn more check out Describe cathedral technology.

∙ Bandura

o Observational learning/modeling  

o Bobo doll

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory; 2 or 3 questions on test ∙ Emphasizes contextual influences on development

∙ 5 environmental systems

∙ Microsystem - the individual has direct involvement; ex. Home  environment (mom, dad, bros, sis); bio directional interaction  We also discuss several other topics like What are the three basic trade offs faced by a society?

∙ Mesosystem - interactions b/t microsystems/settings where the  individual has direct involvement; exemplifies how one setting impacts  another setting; ex. How the son/daughter's home life is directly  correlated to his/her school life, mom reads to kid and asks kid questions  then they'll do well in school  

∙ Exosystem - the individual does not have any direct involvement, what  happens in this one could impact one or more microsystem; ex. don't have any involvement with their parent's work, but it could impact them at  home

∙ Macrosystem - deals with cultural impact in relation to individual:  customs, laws, idealogy of the culture; ex. Growing up in a liberal vs.  conservative area; living in china vs. america  

∙ Chronosystem - things that happen in a point of time; ex. Something  that happened when you were young could affect you in your later life

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages; 2 or 3 questions on test

o Changes occur over life span  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the rule for scalar multiplication of vectors?

o Each stage has crisis/issue to resolve

o Infancy: 1st year  

∙ Trust vs mistrust

o Toddlerhood: 1-3 yrs

∙ Autonomy (being able to do things for yourself) vs. shame and doubt o Early childhood: 3-6

∙ Initiative (tackle something new) vs. guilt  

o Middle-late childhood: 6-10/11 yrs

∙ Industry (related to work and competence, being able to accomplish  something such as reading in school) vs. inferiority  

 What is suggested to be the key thing supported/fostered in the  elementary years? - industry

o Adolescence: 10-20 yrs

∙ Identity vs. identity confusion

∙ Objections/suggestions based on erikson's theory If you want to learn more check out What does the general assembly do?

∙ Nurture infants, develop trust, encourage and monitor autonomy ∙ Encourage initiate

∙ Promote industry in elementary years

∙ Stimulate adolescent Identity exploration  

Freud  

o 3 levels of consciousness

∙ Unconscious  

∙ Preconscious  

∙ Conscious

o Development is stagelike Don't forget about the age old question of How does axial stress vary from neutral axis?

o First 5/6 years are crucial

o Early experiences with parents emphasized  

o 3 personality parts (id - present at birth, pleasure principle; ego - around  age 2, mediator of personality of one's being; superego - around school  age 5/6, internal parent)

o Psychosexual Stages

∙ Oral (0-1); mouth - primary task: feeding

 Become oral aggressive if they don't get fed enough; results in  biting, sarcasm, cursing

 Develop an oral dependent personality if they're over fed

∙ Anal (1-3); anus - toilet training  

 If parents rush children through t.t., they'll become anal  

retentive; personality becomes stingy, becomes a collector or  

hoarder

 If parents are lax with t.t.; anal explosive, messy, dirty,  

disorderly  

∙ Phallic (3-6); genitals  

 Oedipus conflict (sensual attraction for mothers, so the rival in  life is the father, begin to fear castration so the complex is  

resolved when they realize this) or Eletra complex (sensual  

attraction for father, only way to satisfy is to get married and  

have a male child, "penis envy")

∙ Latency (6-11)  

 libidinal impulses dormant; emphasis on social and intellectual  skills

 Reading writing, arithmetic  

∙ Genital (puberty)

 sensual impulses resurge and directed toward someone outside  family  

Ethological theory

∙ Conrad Lorenz, John Bowlby

∙ Ethology - stresses that behavior is greatly influenced by biology, tied to  evolution, and characterized by critical/sensitive periods

∙ Konrad Lorenz - goslings following in body of water, there's a critical period of time that passes that when presented with an organism they will follow; John  Bowlby - studied attachment  

∙ Ecology - organisms in their environment; biotic (plants) and abiotic (gases) ∙ Ecological theory emphasizes environmental factors  

Research methods  

∙ case study

o in depth on individual

∙ correlational

o describing the strength of the relationship b/t two or more events or  characteristics is its goal

∙ experimental

o one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being  studied are manipulated, while all other factors are held constant;  carefully regulated

types of studies

∙ Longitudinal

o same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several  years

∙ cross-sectional

o individuals of diff ages are compared at one time

∙ sequential  

o have both a cross sectional and longitudinal study going

Infertility and reproductive considerations

∙ infertility diagnosis happens after 12 months of trying  

∙ invetro vertilization – laboratory dish baby created with eggs and  sperm

∙ gamete intrafallopian transfer – egg or sperm put into the fallopian  tube

∙ zygote intrafallopian transfer – fertilized egg inserted  

Prenatal diagnostic testing  

∙ ultrasound sonography – sound waves at a high frequency are directed  at woman’s abs to see the internal structures  

∙ fetal MRI – gives more details

∙ chorionic villa sampling – when a small part of the placenta/chorion is  taken for analyzation  

∙ amniocentesis – amniotic fluid taken to be tested for disorders of the  chromosomes or metabolic systems  

∙ fetal sex determination – assess DNA in maternal plasma, can be done  at 7 weeks

Sex linked chromosomal abnormalities

∙ XYY syndrome (male)

o Extra y chromosome, taller than usual, have normal puberty  therefore can father kids, larger teeth, thought to have higher  levels of aggression bc of increased testosterone  

∙ Klinefelter syndrome (male)

o Extra x chromosome, “xxy”, these males appear normal but  testes are underdeveloped therefore infertile, potential  

disabilities (learning and language), undergo female and male  changes during puberty

∙ Fragile x syndrome (male or female)

o X chromosome is literally fragile so may break b/c it’s  

constricted, possibility for learning disabilities or attention issues, therapy for speech and language needed, special ed, large  forehead and low set ears, soft skin

∙ Turner’s syndrome (female)

o Xo pattern where an x chromosome is missing, growth is stunted, webbed neck, sexual underdevelopment, need hormone  

replacement therapy in order to menstruate/develop breasts at  puberty, infertile

Period’s/stages of prenatal development (specific aspects associated with  each)

∙ Germinal

o Begins with conception and proceeds 2 weeks

o Includes the formation of the zygote, continued cell division, and  the zygote attaches to the uteran wall (implantation)

o Blastocyst – eventually becomes the embryo  

o Trophoblast – developed during this period, an outer layer of cells that will be the way in which the baby receives nutrition

∙ Embryonic

o Begins 2 to 8 weeks after conception

o Organogenesis – when organs form

o Endoderm – becomes the digestive and respiratory systems, was  an inner layer of cells

o Mesoderm – middle layer that becomes bone/muscle, excretory,  reproductive, and circulatory systems

o Ectoderm – outer layer  

o Embryo’s Life-Support System

o Amneon/amneotic sac – embryo floats in its clear fluid

o Placenta – 8 inches long, 1 inch thick; intertwines blood vessels  of mother and baby

∙ Fetal  

o Begins 2 months after conception and on average will last 7  months

o Aka growth and finishing phase

Three Dermal layers and development

∙ Endoderm – becomes the digestive and respiratory systems, was an  inner layer of cells

∙ Mesoderm – middle layer that becomes bone/muscle, excretory,  reproductive, and circulatory systems

∙ Ectoderm – outer layer  

Support structures for developing organism

∙ Amneon/amneotic sac – embryo floats in its clear fluid

∙ Placenta – 8 inches long, 1 inch thick; intertwines blood vessels of  mother and baby

∙ Umbilical cord – contains 2, sometimes 1, arteries and 1 vein that  connects the placenta to the baby

Prenatal developmental milestones

∙ By the 1st month – heartbeat can be detected by ultrasound, neural  tube appears, placenta developed fully

∙ By the 2nd month – end of embryonic period

∙ By the 3rd month – sex of baby detected by ultrasound, facial profile,  while at the end of the 2nd month most organs are formed, during this  month is when they are complete

∙ By the 4th month – movement  

∙ By 5th month – mother “pops”, 1 lb and 1 ft, vernix (milky like covering  on baby), lashes, brows, hair develop, eyes shut, can hear sound ∙ By 6th month – “age of liability”, opens eyes, strong grip ∙ By 7th month – heart and kidneys function, 3 lbs

∙ By 8th month – reverses position, 6 lbs, “womb crowded” ∙ By 9th month – “engagement”, head moves to lower neck of uterus and cervix begins to dilate

Teratogens

∙ Agent that can potentially cause negative affects

∙ Drugs, incompatible blood type, pollutants in environment, diseases,  lack of nutrition, mom stress, old parents

∙ Organ formation is impacted if there’s exposure during embryonic  period

∙ Growth and finishing of the organ are impacted if there’s exposure  during the fetal period

Maternal nutrition and other factors

∙ Caloric intake by mother needs to increase 10-20%

∙ Need folic acid, protein, iron, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus ∙ B vitamin: 400 micrograms; cells development

∙ Magnesium: increase by 50%

∙ Water!

∙ 25-35 lb weight gain

∙ exercise! But not too much

Paternal factors

∙ if older, baby can have dwarfism, down’s syndrome, marfan’s  syndrome (rare connective tissue disorder; facial abnormalities,  somatic abnormalities (deformed spine, caved chest, spidery  appendages; abe lincoln had it; rarely live past 50, die from ruptured  aorta or congestive heart failure)

∙ cig smoking: cancer, respiration problems, low body weight ∙ If exposed to various environmental hazards (lead, radiation, toxin  waste, etc.) can cause miscarriage or birth defect

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