Unit 4 Study Guide
Unit 4 Study Guide 0407
Green River Community College
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cho on Thursday April 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0407 at Green River Community College taught by Mullet in . Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see AP 103 in Anatomy at Green River Community College.
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Date Created: 04/16/15
Unit Four Objectives CHAPTER 8 The Nervous System 1 List the general functions of the nervous system 0 Rapid control communication and coordination of body activities 0 Gathering sensory information 0 Integrating information processes interprets makes decisions 0 Motor output activates effector organs muscles andor glands 2 Define the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each 0 Central Nervous System 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System cranial and spinal nerves 0 Sensory afferent neurons Special senses General 0 Motor efferent neurons Somatic skeletal muscle Autonomic o Parasympathetic o Sympathetic fight or flight 3 Neurons a What is their function 0 Cells capable of generating and conducting nervous impulses in response to specific stimuli chemical or physical b Label the general structures of a typical neuron Note the functions 0f eaCh Part 7 o Soma 39 39 39 o Dendrites o Axon Hillock o Axon Terminal 0 Myelin Sheath 0 Node of Ranvier o Schwann Cells c Differentiate between Afferent Sensory Efferent Motor amp Association lnterneurons o Afferent soma in dorsal root ganglion or in special sense organs sight smell 0 Efferent soma in CNS gray matter 0 Association soma in CNS gray matter 1 ST or soma in dorsal root ganglion 2 99 of all neurons WW EMFWWHWI Spinal curd eerirtrel nerveue system V 3 Bell Sensery neruron l body A Perupherel l r quot l I39 preceeefamrf Ila 7 V 1quot Etamerit I I I n V A Heme transmrsmeru I f lntemeru lem l V 7 aesmietien I ecepmm Peripheral heritems system WNW I gt 739 nlr39 391 I 19 V errer transmissient Te E mmm Murmur lawman museums and mama39s 439 31 3939 Pie1 li39r39y39 E jrgjlliai III marluij39i139rquote1r Mr 77I i ldruvl 39 y 4 Neuroglia a CNS list the 4 types and what they do 0 Astrocyte make up 12 of nerve tissue 0 Maintain blood brain barrier 0 Provide structural support3D framework for CNS 0 Perform repairs in damaged neural tissue 0 Form scar tissue after injury 0 Guide neuron development in embryos o Recycle neurotransmitter Glutamate 90 of CNS neurons release Glutamate o Regulate ECF K concentration 0 Oligodendrocyte o Produces myelin sheath neurolemma for axons in CNS 0 May wrap more than one axon in myelin different for schwann cell 0 Microglia o Phagocytic white blood cells clean up debris and attack stuff 0 Ependymal o Epithelial cells simple ciliated columnar or cuboidal 0 Line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain 0 Produce CSF o Ciliated help move CSF b PNS describe the function of a Schwann cell 0 Schwann produce myelin sheath in PNS one cell wraps only one portion of axon 0 Satellite cells Ia Pym a f oi i llquot us if idl ital 5 Spinal Cord Anatomy a Given a cross or a sagittal section of the spinal cord identify all the bony and connective tissue coverings meninges In addition identify all the spaces in these sections and identify what would be found in them What are the functions of these coverings and spaces 1 a g g E i1 ini liimr 5 Watered central canal 9 f quotAg h 39 aquot I t H Bum Winter inner layer 7 Subdumlamw 39 Hmc meid 39 Subamehinuiid space quot Pia mater o Pia Mater blood vessels highly vascular I Location and structure of the cranial meninges I Epidural spam containing adipose EIEE39IJIE39 5 Ilium mailer 39 antennait E Location r i JtlUi t ET 1i E ltl l tl meninges i I Subaracnrnoidspace galrn luwm Plat mater o Subarachnoid space cerebrospinal fluid CSF o Arachnoid collagen and elastic fibers 0 Subdural lymphatic fluid 0 Dura Mater dense irregular connective tissue 0 Epidural fat amp connective tissue b Describe the composition and organization of gray and white matter C 0 Gray Matter neuron cell bodies 0 White Matter myelinated axons Identify the dorsal root ganglion ventral root and spinal nerve What is found in each of these structures 0 Dorsal root ganglion soma cell bodies of sensory neurons 0 Ventral root axons of CNS motor neurons that control muscles and glands o Spinal nerve mixed nerves with sensory and motor fibers 6 The Brain a What are the three meningeal layers and what does each do Dura Mater fibrous connective tissue protection Arachnoid contains CSF for cushion Pia Mater adheres to nervous tissue blood vessels Identify the major regions of the brain cerebrum diencephalon mesencephalon pons medulla and cerebellum on a human brain model or diagram Identify the functions and parts of each of these regions Cerebrum o Cerebral cortex receive sensory info generate motor commands higherorder commands o Basal nuclei muscle activity posture learned movements pattern rhythm o Limbic autonomic response to smell emotion mood Diencephalon o Thalamus major sensory relay center Mood and movement 0 Epithalamus olfactory stimulation 0 Pineal body melatonin sleepwake cycles some mood o Hypothalamus major control center maintains homeostasis regulating endocrine system hormone production Midbrain mesencephalon o Reflex center for eye and head movements in response to visualauditory stimuli o Regulate muscle tone posture voluntary movement Pons bridge to other parts of the brain Medulla Oblongata links brain to spinal cord 0 Cardiovascular centers heart rate and vasomotor activity 0 Respiratory regulation 0 Coughing sneezing swallowing vomiting hiccupping 0 Origin of cranial nerves Vlll Xll Cerebellum balance posture skilled motor activities c Name locate and indicate the function of the 4 ventricles of the brain 0 Right and left lateral ventricle 0 Third ventricle 0 Fourth ventricle 0 Contain CSF buoyancy protection and chemical stability d Note the distribution of gray and white matter in the brain cortex white matter nuclei What parts of a neuron are found in each 0 Gray matter nerve cell bodies 0 White matter myelinated axons e What is the function of the corpus callosum 0 Bundle of axons that connects right and left cerebral hemispheres f Identify the five lobes of the cerebrum Identify some of the functions of each 0 Frontal 0 Personality speech Broca area left hemisphere conscience o Parietal o Sensory processing taste 0 Temporal 0 Hearing smell 0 Occipital o Sight 0 lnsula o Conscious perception of visceral sensations upset stomach full bladder conscious awareness of balance g Be able to identify the following landmarks of the cerebrum Longitudinal Fissure Lateral sulcus and Central sulcus h Locate the motor sensory and association areas of the cerebral cortex and note their functions 0 Primary motor precentral gyrus conscious voluntary movement skeletal muscle 0 Association pre motor cortex learned skills repetitive in nature sensory interpret analyze communicate i Identify examples which illustrate how the two hemispheres are specialized ie Categorical versus Representational o Categorical Hemisphere Left 0 Analytical verbal logic skills 0 Reading writing math 0 Spoken language 0 Scientific skills 0 Representational Hemisphere Right 0 Spatial artistic 0 Music awareness 0 Mental images associated sensations 0 Insight imagination j What are the functions of the limbic system 0 Emotional brain 0 Establishes emotional states and behavioral drives rage fear arousal pleasure 0 Links conscious functions of cerebral cortex wunconscious functions of brainstem o Facilitates memory storage and retrieval 0 Includes hippocampus hypothalamus amygdaloid body olfactory tracts gryi of diencephalon reticular formation 7 CSF a Provide its functions 0 Found in ventricles of brain subarachnoid space central canal of spinal cord 0 Cushions brain 0 Supports brain 0 Diffusion medium for nutrients wastes gasses and chemical messengers b Describe its circulation pattern 0 Circulates through different ventricles fills central canal of spinal cord 0 Enters subarachnoid space through openings in roof of fourth ventricle o Flows through subarachnoid space surrounding brain spinal cord and cauda equina c What produces it and how is its homeostatic level maintained 0 Produced by ependymal cells 0 Replaced about every 8 hours 0 Excess absorbed into bloodstream CHAPTER 8 The Nervous System cont 8 What is the bloodbrain barrier and why is it important 0 Protective diffusion boundary 0 Decreases permeability of blood capillaries o Helps isolate CNS from general circulation Cranial Nerves Identify the cranial nerves Note the principal function of each and note whether each is primarily sensory motor or mixed in nature 0 l Olfactory Sensory Smell 0 II Optic Sensory Vision 0 III Oculomotor Motor Eye Muscle 0 IV Trochlear Motor Eye Muscle 0 V Trigeminal Mixed Chewing orbital nasal cavity 0 VI Abducens Eye Muscle Motor 0 VII Facial Mixed taste expression 0 VIII Vestibulocochlear Sensory Hearing 0 Vllll Glossopharyngeal Mixed taste and swallowing o X Vagus Mixed Wanderer swallowing speech taste blood pressure Only 1 to extend beyond headneck o XI Accessory Motor Movement of head speech 0 Xll Hypoglossal Motor Tongue 10Spinal Nerves a Relate the distribution and pattern of spinal nerves to the regions they innervate o 8 pairs cervical nerves C1C8 Controls diaphragm and muscles of neckupper chest ears 0 12 pairs of thoracic nerves T1T12 o 5 pairs of lumbar nerves L1L5 o 5 pairs of sacral nerves S1 S5 0 1 pair coccygeal nerves Co1 b What is a nerve plexus Recognize examples of these 0 Collection of spinal nerves that innervate muscles 0 Cervical plexus o Brachial plexus o Lumbar plexus o Sacral plexus c What information is carried in a spinal nerve o Sensory information and motor commands PNS 11Reflexes a Define a reflex arc and list its elements Reference Fig 829 0 Wiring of a single reflex b Describe and give examples of Spinal monosynaptic and polysynaptic re exes o Monosynaptic reflex sensory neuron synapses directly on motor neuron no interneuron One synapse Stretchpatellar reflex o Polysynaptic at least one interneuron at least two synapses 12Sensory and Motor Pathways Reference Table 84 a Understand how the nomenclature of pathways indicates their origin and destination and whether they are ascending afferent or descending efferent pathways 0 Afferent to the brain CNS 0 Sensory from skin muscles joints or visceral internal sensory receptors 0 Efferent away from CNS to effectors o Autonomic Parasympathetic rest and digest Sympathetic fight or flight Smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands Involuntary o Somatic Skeletal Voluntary b Identify the origins functions and final destinations of the three major Sensory pathways see above c Compare the functions and components of the pyramidal corticospinal pathway and extrapyramidal medial and lateral pathways systems 0 PyramidalCorticospinal o Conscious voluntary control of skeletal muscles 0 Decussates in spinal cord lower motor neuron o MedialLateral PathwaysExtrapyramidal o Subconscious involuntary control of muscle tone and movements of neck trunk and limbs o Learned movement patterns 0 Reflexive skeletal muscle responses 0 Decussates in midbrain d What is referred pain and phantom limb pain What sensory pathways carry this information o Referred pain pain felt in an area not actually stimulated 0 Phantom limb pain nerves still carry feeling for appendage that is gone 0 Spinothalamic pathway involved 13CNS Integration and Response a Explain how you can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body 0 Proprioception knowing where body parts are wo having to look 0 Somatic sensory cortex postcentral gyrus and nerves that innervate b In general how does the brain integrate sensory information and coordinate responses 0 Cerebellum automatically fine tunes and ensures coordinated motor responses c Why does about only 1 of sensory information processed reach conscious awareness o If we didn t filter out unnecessary stuff it would assault our senses 14The Autonomic Nervous System ANS a Compare the ANS with the Somatic Nervous System SNS in anatomy and function In addition be able to distinguish the ANS from the SNS by description or diagram 0 Autonomic o Parasympathetic Preganglionic neuron longer Postganglionic neuron shorter Soma in PNS o Sympathetic Preganglionic neuron shorter Postganglionic neuron longer Soma in PNS o Somatic o Skeletal muscle No ganglion Soma in CNS b Diagram and interpret a generic motor pathway for the ANS Page 288 textbook c Compareexplain the functionsstructures of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions d Note the relationship between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and explain the implications of dual innervation 0 Most vital organs receive instructions from both autonomic divisions o Allows for both increase and decreases of heart rate dilation and constriction of pupils etc 15 Summarize the effects of aging on the nervous system 0 Reduction in brain sizeweight 0 Reduction in number of neurons 0 Decrease in blood flow to the brain increased risk for stroke 0 Changes in synaptic organization of the brain 0 Intracellular and extracellular changes in CNS neurons CHAPTER 9 The General and Special Senses 1 Define and recognize examples of Nociceptors Thermoreceptors Mechanoreceptors and Chemoreceptors Chemical Senses Taste and Smell a Describe the location structure and function of the olfactory and taste receptors b What is adaptation with respect to taste and smell c What is the role of saliva andor mucus in taste and smell reception d Trace the pathway of a nerve impulse conveying a olfactory and b gustatory information from reception to the brain e What are the four basic taste sensations and what factors may modify the sense of taste The Eye and Vision a What are the functions of tears 0 Clean debris 0 Keep eye moist b Locate name and provide the major parts and functions of the three eye tunics o Fibrous tunic o Sclera mechanical support protection attachment for extrinsic eye muscles 0 Cornea Assists in focusing 0 Vascular tunic o Choroid capillaries deliver O2 amp nutrients to retina remove wastes lymphatic o Ciliary body Neural tunic Muscle smooth intrinsic eye muscles hold lens in place Suspensory ligaments attach to lens and ciliary process Aqueous humor production and reabsorption lris intrinsic eye muscles 2 sets regulate amount of light by controlling size of pupil controlled by ANS o Pigmented epithelium outer layer absorbs light 0 Neural layer 3 layers of neurons Photoreceptors rodscones and support cells neurons make up retina avascular Convert light stimuli into action potentials c Describe the location and contents of the chambers of the eye 0 Anterior Anterior cavity and posterior chambers aqueous humor 9 protective cushion creates intraocular pressure which helps maintain shape of eye circulates nutrients oxygen and removes waste Posterior cavity vitreous humor 9 supports retina and shape of eye Divided from anterior cavity by lens and ciliary body d What is intraocular pressure IOP and how is the canal of Schlemm related to this pressure Canal of Schlemm is in the anterior chamber near the edge of the iris Empties aqueous humor into veins in the sclera lOP is maintained through circulation of aqueous humor interference with absorption or circulation elevated pressure in the eye can lead to glaucoma e Be able to locate name and give the function of the following parts of the eye Cornea Macula lutea wCentral fovea Pupil Sclera Suspensory Ligament Choroid Vitreous Humor Extrinsic Eye Muscles Retina Aqueous Humor Intrinsic Eye Muscles Iris Ciliary Muscles Ciliary body Optic Nerve Canal of Schlemm Optic disc Lens Rods black Anterior cavity anterior amp posterior chambers What is the function of the rods and cones and white low light Cones bright color Trace the pathway of light through the eye to the rods and cones Cornea 9 aqueous humor 9 lens 9 vitreous humor 9 retina Then trace the path of a visual impulse from the optic nerve to the optic cortex Optic nerve 9 optic chiasm decussation 9 optic tract 9 thalamus 9 projection fibers 9 visual cortex of cerebral hemispheres h Describe the process of accommodation for near and far objects 0 Distance ciliary muscles relax tension on suspensory ligaments increases and lens gets flatter 0 Near ciliary muscles contract tension on suspensory ligaments lessens and lens gets rounder 4 The Ear Equilibrium and Hearing a Identify the structures of the external middle and internal ear and note the functions of each 0 External collect and funnel sound to conduct sound vibrations produce wax for protection 0 Auricle o Auditory canal o Tympanic membrane 0 Ceruminous glands 0 Middle amplify sounds to inner ear equalize pressure oOssicles Malleus lncus Stapes o Auditory or Eustachian tube 0 Inner equilibrium and hearing 0 Vestibule o Semicircular canals o Cochlea b Describe the structure location and function of the organs of equilibrium Maculae and Ampullae o Maculae 2 per ear are in vestibule o Detect gravity and linear acceleration position 0 Crista ampularis 3 per ear are in semicircular canals o Detect angular or rotary movements spin c Describe the events involved and the pathway followed in the transmission of a sound wave from the pinna to the Round window 0 Pinna 9 auditory canal 9 tympanic membrane 9 ossicles 9 movement of stapes at oval window creates pressure waves in perilymph 9 distorts basilar membrane causing vibrations of hair cells on tectorial membrane 9 info sent via cochlear branch of vestibulocochlear nerve 9 wave dissipated at round window d Describe how the organ of Corti is stimulated and how it functions in heanng 0 Sound waves cause vibration of basilar membrane bends hairs and push against tectorial membrane 0 Nerve impulses send to brain stem medulla via cochlear branch of auditory nerve e Define sensorineural and conductive deafness and list possible causes of each 0 Conductive deafness conditions in external or middle ear that block normal vibration o Neural deafness damage to cochlea or auditory pathway f What is the sensory pathway for sound impulses from the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain 0 Vestibulocochlear nerve 9 cochlear nucleus 9 inferior colliculi 9 thalamus 9 fibers direct info to auditory cortex 9 Explain how you are able to localize the source of a sound 0 Binaural hearing stereophonic hearing sound arrives at each ear at a different time with different intensity h Explain the role of the basilar membrane in your ability to distinguish different pitches 0 Further up the basilar membrane the sound travels the lower the pitch 0 High pitch sounds are closer to the ovalround windows i Explain how the ear tells the brain how loud a sound is 0 Frequency of the Action Potentials
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