Introduction and Disclaimer
∙ Although the fetus is protected from most harmful influences by the placental barrier, it is not entirely safe.
∙ Poisons and drugs taken during pregnancy can affect the developing fetus. ∙ Most of the child’s characteristics are the consequences of complex interactions between genetically transmitted factors and environmental influences (nature AND nurture)
∙ The majority of babies (95%) are born perfectly normal, with no significant birth defects. Most pregnancies go well.
∙ Low birth weight – baby weighing less than 5.5 lbs, LBW increases risk factors (more likely to die, have mental retardation, hyperactivity, etc.) o Too big of a baby – C-sections are required
∙ One child – one sperm, one egg
∙ Monozygotic – identical twins, one sperm, one egg splits Don't forget about the age old question of What can we see with the given light out in space?
∙ Dizygotic – fraternal twins, one sperm fertilizes two eggs
∙ Age of Parent
o Mother: 20-35 years old
Risk of being teenage mom – reproductive organs have not
matured completely, nor has the pelvic muscle expanded large enough to get the baby out
Key to health of baby – mom’s prenatal care and a young mom (14-15 years old) does not get that
Older mom – risk factors increase (Down’s Syndrome), eggs are however old you are, baby is born with LBW
o Father: Under 50-55 years old
Evidence shows that fathers who are older than 50 when they conceive, have increased risk for limb abnormality, autism,
bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia
o Quantity – mom should consume 10-20% more calories, gain 20-35 lbs if mom is of normal weight to begin with
Obese mothers – babies with risk of cleft lip, spina bifida, etc. o Quality
Increase in protein, calcium, iron, zinc, folic acid (helps protect against neural tube defects)
Folic acid comes from prenatal vitamins, vegetables, etc.
Father: deficiency of Vitamin C can damage sperm which can cause birth defects Don't forget about the age old question of Do onions have negative change?
Teratogen – substance or condition capable of producing fetal abnormalities; birth-defect-producing
∙ Comes from Greek word “terat” which means monster Critical and sensitive periods – any period when the developing organism is especially susceptible to environmental influences. ∙ For the fetus, the embryonic period (4th-8th week after implantation) is considered a critical period when serious defects are most likely to occur
∙ 4th week – a time when a lot of women don’t even know they’re pregnant and still this is one of the fetus’s critical period
o Interactions are important: Effects depend on the TYPE of drug, AMOUNT of chemical, WHEN it’s consumed, the DURATION of the consumption, and the WHAT OTHER DRUGS are used We also discuss several other topics like How can one diagram the cell cycle indicating the timing of all processes?
∙ Interactions between teratogenic agents
o Tobacco – teratogen
Effects on baby: lower birth weight, respiratory problems, asthma, middle-ear infections, hyperactivity, short attention span, lower academic performance, cancer
Smoking lowers fertility, increases miscarriages/still-borns/pre mature babies, SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
Smoking results in lack of oxygen – detrimental to fetus as they grow poorly without oxygen
Nicotine restricts blood vessels, so fetus gets less nutrients o Alcohol
If there are high doses of alcohol/alcoholic mother, there is a risk of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Instead of trimesters, people use this to explain what neurons do when developing
∙ Proliferation (0-7 weeks) – grow exponentially
∙ Migration (8-15 weeks) – travel to certain places in brain ∙ Differentiation (16-25 weeks) – define what they do
∙ Continued Differentiation (26-39 weeks) - defining
∙ Radiation (made neurons stop short while migrating)
∙ Alcohol (made neurons keep going when they were
Severe mental retardation, microcephaly (smaller head size), facial abnormalities, heart disorders, hyperactivity, LBW First couple of months of pregnancy is the time where babies are most susceptible to these risks We also discuss several other topics like What is the concept of chiasmus?
Safe limit? – should avoid alcohol completely during pregnancy and while breastfeeding
o Other Drugs/Medication Don't forget about the age old question of Enumerate the four subfields of anthropology?
Thalidomide – tranquilizer that helped morning sickness ∙ Mat Fraser – American Horror Story actor
o His mom took this medication and it stopped nerve Don't forget about the age old question of How is the gordon growth model calculated?
buds for limbs to form – resulted in Phocomelia
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) – resulted in vaginal abnormalities,
cervical cancer, birth problems in female children; sterility,
testicular cancer in male children
∙ Synthetic hormone (estrogen) given to moms between
1947-1971 to prevent miscarriages
∙ Mothers themselves who took DES were two times more
likely to have breast cancer
Acutance (drug for acne) – results in malformed faces, heart defects, mental retardation
Cocaine – results in low birth weight, smaller head size, later learning problems, ADHD
Antibiotics (tetracycline and streptomycin) – results in congenital abnormalities of skeleton and teeth
Cannabis THC crosses the placenta
∙ Rubella (German measles) – if during the 1st trimester, it results in blind, deaf, heart defects, MR
∙ AIDs – results in death (eventually)
∙ Atomic radiation
∙ Tests for fetal defects (X-rays, sonogram/ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling)
∙ Pollution, work place toxins, pesticides, chemicals in food/cosmetics ∙ Natural disasters
∙ Stress hormones (cortisol, adrenaline) cause capillary constriction, also cross the placenta
∙ Correlation between high stress and LBW, pregnancy and birth complications ∙ Guest Speaker – Mary Coussons-Read
o Epigenetics – looking at prenatal events that set up entire life o To keep pregnancy (and people in general) healthy, there is a balance of the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems –
Stress tips this balance
o Inflammatory Response – adaptive response to noxious conditions Attempt to restore homeostasis
Infection, tissue injury
o Stress to mom during pregnancy – increased Type 2 diabetes, early death, etc.
Major physiological changes occur during pregnancy to the
immune system so that moms’ bodies don’t reject the baby
Usually, pregnancy decreases stress/inflammatory responses, but if moms do get these, there are poor outcomes (pre-mature labor/delivery)
o Stress effects – premature birth, LBW babies, children have more illnesses/behavioral and developmental delays
o Prenatal stressors – abuse, job loss, food insecurity, poverty, unhealthy lifestyle, lack of social support, partner deployment, “negative feelings about household roles”
o Central hypothesis – prenatal stress alters pregnancy outcome by increasing inflammatory and stress hormone activity
∙ Good for pregnant women?
∙ What kind of exercise? – moderate
∙ Risk of exercising? – when mom’s body temperature is up, so is the baby’s therefore a mom must be careful not to overheat her fetus