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FSU - CLP 4143 - Spring 2017 - CLP4143 Abnormal Psychology Exam 1

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FSU - CLP 4143 - Spring 2017 - CLP4143 Abnormal Psychology Exam 1

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background image Abnormal Psychology      Chapter 1: Looking at Abnormality      
Chapter Outline
 
 
—   Abnormality Along the Continuum  —   Defining abnormality   —   Historical perspectives on abnormality  —   The emergence of modern perspectives  —   Modern mental health care   
 
 
 
 
 
Abnormality Along the Continuum    •  Problems in thoughts, feelings, and behavior vary from normal to abnormal  
•  No clear dividing line exists between normal variations in thoughts, emotions, and 
behaviors and what would be labeled as abnormal  •  Judgment on where to draw the line between normality and abnormality are subjective  o  Meaning based on influence, tastes, or opinions    - Model -     •  Normal   (behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are the following) 
 
o  Deviance: Typical for the social context 
o  Distress: Not distressing to the individual  
o  Dysfunction: No interfering with social life or work/school 
o  Dangerousness: Not dangerous 
§   Example: college students who are self-confident and happy, perform good work and  have friends    •  Socially established division between normal and abnormal  (behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are one or more of the following) 
 
o  Deviance: Somewhat unusual for the social context  
o  Distress: Distressing to the individual  
background image o  Dysfunction: Interfering with social and occupational functioning 
o  Dangerousness: Dangerous 
§   Example: college students who are often unsure and self-critical, occasionally  abuse prescription drugs, fail some courses, etc.    •  Abnormal   (behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are one or more of the following) 
 
o  Deviance: Highly unusual for social context 
o  Distress: The source of significant individual distress 
o  Dysfunction: Significantly interfering with social or occupational functioning 
o  Dangerousness: Highly dangerous to the individual or others 
§   Example: college students who are hopeless about the future, are self-loathing,  abuse drugs, fail course, etc.                Psychopathology 
 
Def. study of abnormal psychology that includes people who suffer unusual:  •  Mental pain 
•  Emotional pain 
•  Physical pain 
 
 
 
 
Defining Abnormality   
Mental Illness 
 
—   Common belief: Behaviors, thoughts, or feelings can be viewed as pathological or abnormal if  they are symptoms of mental illness  §   Example: If someone has schizophrenia, then some symptom should show up on a  biological tests like hypertension shows up in a person’s blood pressure    o  To date no biological test is available to diagnose any of the types of abnormality we  discuss in this book à this is not just because we do not yet have biological tests   o  Modern conceptualizations of mental disorders view them not as singular diseases with a  common pathology that can be identified in all people with the disorder    —   Modern view: rather mental health experts view mental disorders as collections of problems in:  o  Thinking or cognition 
o  Emotional responding or regulation 
o  Social behavior 
 
background image §   Example: a person with schizophrenia has a collection of problems in rational  thinking and in responding emotionally and behaviorally in everyday life, and it is 
this collection of problems that we label as schizophrenia 
 
 
    Cultural Norms 
 
—   They play a large role in defining abnormality  —   Cultures have strong norms for what is considered acceptable  o  Gender-role expectations    —   Cultural relativism Def. the view that there are no universal standards or riles for labeling a behavior abnormal; 
instead behavior can be labeled abnormal only relative to cultural norms 
 
o  Advantage: it honors the norms and traditions of different cultures rather than imposing the  standards of one culture on judgments of abnormality  o  There are no universal standards or rules for labeling a behavior abnormal 
o  Behaviors are labeled abnormal relative to cultural norms 
 
 
—   Culture and gender influence:  o  Have a number of influences on the expression of abnormal behaviors and on the way  behaviors are treated    1.  Can influence the ways people express symptoms   •  Example: people who lose touch with reality often believe that they have divine  powers, but whether they believe they are Jesus or Mohammad depends on their 
religious background 
  2.  Can influence people’s willingness to admit to certain types of behaviors or feelings  •  Example: people in Eskimo and Tahitian cultures may be reluctant to admit to  feelings anger because of strong cultural norms against the expression of anger    3.  Can influence the types of treatments deemed acceptable or helpful for people exhibiting  abnormal behaviors  •  Example: some cultures may view drug therapies for psychopathology as most  appropriate, while others may be more willing to accept it    —   Time has a factor also  o  Age of the person 
o  What year it is (different decades) 
 
 
   
background image Four Ds of Abnormality 
 
—   If we do not want to define abnormality only on the basis of cultural norms & if we can  not define it as the presence of a mental illness because no singular, identifiable disease 
process underlies most psychological problems à then how do we define it? 
  1.  Dysfunction  •  Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that interferes with a person’s ability to function  in daily life  •  “be all that you can be”  o  Example: thinking that it is out of touch with reality (for example,  believing that you are Satan and should be punished) makes it difficult to 
function in everyday life à so is considered dysfunctional 
2.  Distress   •   Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that causes emotional or physical pain to the  individual or to others around him or her  o  Example: the individual could be in physical or emotional pain OR the  individual could not be in distress but cause others distress like chronic 
lying, stealing, cheating, etc. 
3.  Deviance  •  Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that lead to judgments of abnormality 
•  What is deviant depends on cultural norms 
o  Example: highly deviant behaviors, such as hearing voices when no one  else is around, lead to judgments of abnormality  4.  Dangerousness  •  Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that are of potential harm to the individual or to  others  o  Example: suicidal thoughts, OR excessive aggressive behavior    —   Constitute feelings or behaviors classified as maladaptive or abnormal    —   BUT we are still making subjective judgments à how much of each of these D’s does a  person have to experience to be abnormal? à return to the continuum model, each of the 
four D’s lies along its on continuum à there is no sharp line between what is abnormal 
and normal 
 
 
      Historical Perspectives on Abnormality    Across history, three types of theories have been used to explain abnormal behavior    1.  Biological theories •  Belief: abnormal behavior is similar to physical diseases and is caused by the 
background image breakdown of systems in the body  •  Cure: restoration of bodily health    2.  Supernatural theories:   •  Belief: Abnormal behavior is a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic  possession, and personal sin  •  Cure: religious rituals, exorcisms, confessions, and atonement have been  prescribed    3.  Psychological theories  •  Belief: Abnormal behavior is a result of traumas or of chronic stress 
•  Cure: rest, relaxation, a change of environment, and certain herbal 
medicines are sometimes helpful   
 
    Ancient Theories 
 
—   Driving Away Evil Spirits    o  A person who acted oddly was believed to be possessed with evil sprits    o  Different types of treatments:  §   Exorcism: Shamans, or healers, would recite prayers to cast them out   §   Simply kill the individual  §   Trephination: to drill a hole with a trephine in the individual’s skull to  allow the spirits to depart     —   Ancient China: Balancing the Yin and Yang    o  The human body was said to be a positive force (yang) & negative for (yin) à if  they were in balance then the individual was healthy  o  Also human emotions were controlled by internal organs   §   When the “vital air” flowed on one of these organs, the person  experienced a particular emotion  o  Evil winds and ghosts were blamed for bewitching people   
 
—   Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Biological Theories Dominate    o  Ancient Egypt  §   Kahun Papyrus: the oldest document found in Egypt that lists a number  of disorders with its cause and treatment  §   Treatment to hysteria: the use of strong-smelling substances to drive the  uterus back to its proper place   
background image o  Roman & Greeks  §   Most Romans and Greeks saw abnormal behavior as an affliction from the  gods  §   Plato and Socrates argued that some forms of abnormal behavior were  divine and could be the source of great literary and prophetic gifts    §   Greek physicians (for the most part) rejected supernatural explanations of  abnormal behaviors   §   Hippocrates “father of medicine” believed that all diseases were caused by  imbalances in the body’s essential humors   §   Treatments by Greeks were intended to restore the balance of the four  humors    
 
    Medieval Views 
 
—   Abnormal behavior was attributed to physical causes or traumas    —   Witchcraft  o  Persons accused of witchcraft were possibly mentally ill    —   Psychic epidemics Def.  a phenomenon in which large numbers of people engage in unusual behaviors that appear  to have a psychological origin 
 
o  Example: reports of dance frenzies or manias were frequent during the middle ages à 
“men and women were abused by the devil where they danced in their homes and 
churches, holding hands and leaping” 
 
 
    Moral Treatment in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 
 
—   Mental hygiene movement:   Def. Period in the 18 th  and 19 th  centuries where people saw the growth of a more humane  treatment of people with mental health problems    o  How it came about:  §   Psychological view that people developed problems because they had  become separated from nature and had succumbed to the stressed imposed 
by the rapid social changes of the period 
o  Treatment:  §   Moral treatment: Prayers, incantations, rest, and relaxation in a serene  and physically appealing place  §   Leader: Philipee Phinel (a French physician) 

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology, abnormal, disorders, CLP, CLP4143, psych, Studyguide, examone, exam1, and midterm
Name: CLP4143 Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is a 40 page study guide that covers chapters 1-4. It is very thorough and has diagrams.
Uploaded: 02/06/2017
41 Pages 46 Views 36 Unlocks
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