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comm 1500 uga

comm 1500 uga

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Communications
Course: Interpersonal Communication
Professor: Kristin andersen
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Interpersonal, communication, and 1500
Cost: Free
Name: Comm 1500 lecture notes through 2/3/17
Description: Lecture notes from beginning of semester through Feb 3
Uploaded: 02/07/2017
10 Pages 126 Views 4 Unlocks
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CH 1: INTRODUCING INTERPERSONAL  COMMUNICATION Interpersonal Communication (COMM 1500) | Professor Heather Cohen |  MWF 9:05am – 9:55am Mon Jan 9 ∙ Communication  o It’s a process o What we say to a person can affect our present & future o Consists of messages o Thus, occurs in virtually any situation or context o Uses a variety of channels (actual sensory dimension of  communication, aka 5 senses) o Through different media tools (it’s a canvas through which the  message/sensory aspects are transferred  Ex: media = powerpoint, channel = picture ∙ Interpersonal Communication (IPC) o “diadic” = 2 people, “triadic” = 3 people, “small group” = more  than 3 o Definition: a dynamic form of communication bw 2+ people in  which the messages exchanged significantly influence their  thoughts, emotions, behaviors, & relationships  Dynamic – always changing o “I” Positions  I-Thou relationship (most interpersonal) ∙ “we are similar” (ex family, lovers)  I-You relationship ∙ Middle of spectrum (ex teacher/student)  I-It relationship (most impersonal) ∙ “we are different” (ex political debates) o Principles of IPC  Includes content & relationship info (ex: ppt content,  attitude of teacher)  Can be intentional or unintentional  ∙ “one cannot NOT communicate” ∙ Metacommunication – communicating about how you are communicating  Wed Jan 11 ∙ Case Study – Dyadic Primacy o Grouped a bunch of people together in one room (didn’t matter  if a few people knew each other)o FINDINGS: people are more likely to break into groups of 2,  rather than a triad, small group, etc) ∙ 4 Principles of IPC o 1. IPC is irreversible o 2. IPC is dynamic (changes based on many factors) o 3. IPC is rule-governed o 4. IPC is learned ∙ 3 Models on How People Communicate  o 1. Linear Communication Model  Info flows in one direction  Made up of sender > message > channel (5 senses) >  noise (distractions that hinder receival of message) >  receiver  Simplistic but not the most salient (important)   Best example = text messages o 2. Interactive Communication Model   Incorporates senders & receivers, but relies on feedback  & fields of experience  Feedback = acknowledgement that message has been  received (ex: facial expressions, head nod)  Experience = changes the way the receiver thinks   Addresses most channels of communication but doesn’t  looks at the receivers’ role in constructing meanings o 3. Transactional Communication Model  Multi-directional  Communicators collaboratively construct meanings  Communication in every-day life ∙ Interpersonal Communication & Goals o 1. Self Presentation Goals  Goals on how you want to be perceived o 2. Instrumental Goal  Communicating in a way that helps you achieve some  thing/task o 3. Relationship Goals  Build, maintain, or end relationships ∙ IPC Competence (essay topic!!) o “Communicating in ways that…”  1. Are appropriate ∙ Degree to which communication matches  expectations of situation o Situational, relational, conceptual, cultural  (norms) ∙ Self-monitor people o High = prefers clear-cut expectations on how  to communicate 2o Low = prefers to act & communicate how they want  2. Are effective ∙ Communicating to achieve goals  3. Empathy ∙ “walking a mile in my shoes” ∙ Communicate understanding   4. Show adaptability ∙ Changes behaviors & goals to meet the needs of an  interaction ∙ Usually a person with high effectiveness has high  adaptability  5. Utilize conversation involvement ∙ Showing engagement in conversation ∙ Usually shown in feedback (facial expressions, head  nod)  6. Utilize conversation management ∙ Able to change or manipulate a situation Wed Jan 18 ∙ The “Self” o An evolving composite of:  1. Self-Awareness ∙ The ability to step outside yourself & reflect on your  own thoughts, feelings, & behavior ∙ “who am I?” ∙ Social comparison (social comparison theory,  Festinger 1954) o You determine social & personal worth by how you compare yourself with others  2. Self-Concept ∙ The overall perception of one’s identity based on  beliefs, attitudes, & values that he/she has about  his/herself ∙ “this is who I am” ∙ Self-fulfilling prophecies – our self concepts allow us to make predictions then if we believe it enough it  becomes our future) ∙ Looking-glass self – you see yourself based on how  you think others see you ∙ Culture is an overarching belief, self-concept is like  individual culture  Fri Jan 20 3 3. Self-Esteem ∙ The overall positive or negative value we assign to  ourselves ∙ The way we think about ourselves ∙ “Because this is who I am, what do I think of myself” ∙ Self-Discrepancy Theory o Ideal self = characteristics you want to possess o Ought self = what others want/expect you to be o *we want to find a balance bw the two so we  don’t feel inferior ∙ Negative beliefs lead to negative self-esteem which  leads to negative communication ∙ The Sources of Self o Outside forces such as…  Gender: women tend to see themselves in a relationship  (within the social filter) vs men who are more independent  from relationship ∙ Women chose responses based on interpersonal  obligations vs men state their position & offer their  opinion ∙ Self-Presentational Goals – more important in men than women o “I need to be presented in a certain way” ∙ Self-esteem is lowest for men in their 40s-50s when  they realize their goals/expectations were never met ∙ Most people, men & women, like their 60s-70s most  Culture: beliefs, attitudes, & values shared across people ∙ Culture influences things bc it influences self-esteem ∙ Individualistic culture – the individual is more  important (instrumental goal oriented people) o Value revealment over concealment (ex US) ∙ Collectivistic culture – focused on the large scale  greater good (expressive oriented people) o Value concealment over revealment (ex Japan)  Family: caregivers have the greatest impact on how we view  ourselves (especially during development) ∙ Study: Harsh Discipline at Home (Goughman) o Kids are more likely to have internalized conflict  & are more depressed when they are older ∙ The Public “Self” o Face = what we want people to see   Public self that is presented to others when communicating w them  Saving face vs Losing Face 4

SELF SAVING FACE Saving self’s face DAMAGE FACE Damage self’s face


o How can we teach it?



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o Mask = what we don’t want others to see  Public self designed to conceal what is private  ∙ Social Penetration Theory (SPT) o HUGE self disclosure theory o Peeling back the layers of the onion (self)  1. Peripheral (outermost) – demographics, age, name, etc  2. Intermediate – attitudes & opinions, things that  characterize you  3. Central (innermost) – self-awareness/concept/esteem,  fears, values ∙ Most personal o Based off levels of intimacy (closeness & union) o Breadth vs Depth of information  Breadth = range/# of topics  Depth = deepness of conversation OTHER Saving other’sDamage other’∙ Usually starts high breadth then evens out then more  depth than breadth as relationship becomes more  intimate  Mon Jan 23 ∙ Johari’s Window  o Peering into someone’s windows (different than SPT where you  peel back layers)

YOU KNOW YOU DON’T KNOW OTHERS KNOW Public Ex: physical appearance Blind Ex: you are rude & unaware OTHERS DON’T KNOW Hidden Ex: secrets Unknown Ex: subconscious; an experience you haven’t had


What are the short-term/long-term consequences of my actions?




What are the positives of this encounter?



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Wed Jan 25 ∙ Perception: the process of selecting, organizing, & interpreting info  from our senses o Selection  organization  interpretation  responds  Selection – focus our attention on specific senses in the  environment (salient/important – what attracts our  attention most) 5 Organization – formulating selection in to a coherent  pattern in your mind (punctuation – structure info in to  chronological order)  Interpretation – assign meaning to the info creating  explanation (schema – mental structures in your brain  based off previous experiences)  Response o Attributions: answers to the “why” question of everyday life  1. Internal attribution – attributing someone’s behavior to  their internal characteristics (personalist, attitudes,  values)  2. External attribution – attributing someone’s behavior to outside causes (in the environment) (unrelated to personal qualities/characteristics) o Attribution ERRORS  1. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) – tendency to only  attribute other’s behavior to internal causes (the kind of  person they are) ∙ Ex: romantic relationships, technology  ∙ Study  does the FAE cross cultures? Took people  from Canada & Korea, made them watch a video of  fish swimming.  o Individualistic cultures talked about fish  behavior  *way more likely to commit the FAE o Collectivistic culture noticed things in the  outside environment Fri Jan 27  2. Actor-Observer Error – the tendency of people to make  external attribution regarding their OWN behaviors  3. Self-Serving Bias – the tendency to credit ourselves  internally for our success instead of internally ∙ Driving force = ego protection  o Uncertainty Reduction Theory  Must reduce uncertainty about new communication  partner  Gather enough info  The less uncertainty the more likeable a person is  Strategies:  ∙ Active – asking 3rd parties about a person ∙ Passive – gather info by watching ∙ Interactive – starting a direct conversation with the  person 6 Kam & Lee (2012) Study: how to reduce alcohol & drug  use among adolescents ∙ Used interactive strategy but talking directly to the  parents about alcohol use ∙ Passive strategy would be “watching the videos”  which is apparently not influential enough ∙ Perception, Culture, & Gender o Culture: Ingoupers vs outgroupers  People similar to you vs people not similar to you  Gudykunst et al. (1987) came up with the idea o Gender  “when it comes to interpersonal communication, mean &  women respond in a similar manner 99% of the time” ∙ Personality & Perception o Openness – being able to consider other people’s ideas  (imaginative) o Conscientiousness –persistence about achieving goals  (dependable) o Extraversion – how much someone thrives off interpersonal  encounters o Agreeableness – how trusting & cooperative a person is o Neuroticism – how often we view ourselves negatively (insecure, emotional instability, NOT “crazy”) Mon Jan 30 ∙ Interpersonal Expressions: mental pictures of who people are & how  we feel about them o Gestalt (based off schemata) – general feelings about a person  based on your past experiences w them o Positivity bias – tunnel vision that people are good (ex seen a lot  in abusive relationships) o Negative effect – we only define someone based off their  negative aspects o Halo vs Horn Effect – halo is when someone does something  good we attribute it to their internal attributions; when  something is bad it’s attributed to external reasons (viewed like  an angle) VS Horn is the opposite (positive is external, negative  is internal) ∙ Improving Impressions o 1. Empathy o 2. World-Mindedness o 3. Perception-Checking (5 Steps) p.94 o *KNOW: implicit personality theories & stereotyping 7Wed Feb 1 ∙ Definition: an intense reaction to an event that involves interpreting  event meaning, becoming physiologically aroused, labeling the  experience as affective, managing reactions, & communicating  through emotion displays & disclosures  o Triggered by our perception of things ∙ Emotions & Communication o Technology & communication o Emotion sharing – how we talk about our emotional experiences  w other people o Emotional contagion – experiencing an emotion that spreads to  people around you ∙ Feelings vs Mood vs Emotion  o Feelings – short-term, produce limited arousal (small baby  emotion) o Mood – low-intensity, longer-lasting o Emotions – high-intensity, produces higher arousal; 6 primary  emotions  Jealousy is a blended emotion (anger, sadness, & fear) ∙ How We Shape Emotions o Culture – display rules o Gender – expressing emotions o Personality – the big 5 (OCEAN) ∙ Emotional Intelligence o Definition: “the ability to interpret emotions accurately & to use  this info to manage emotions, communicate them competently,  & solve relationship problems” o Skill sets  1. Self-awareness: knowing & labeling experiences &  emotions  2. Self-control: appropriateness  3. Motivation: you have to be motivated to use emotional  intelligence  4. Empathy: perspective taking  5. Social Skills: socially appropriate  Fri Feb 3 ∙ Studies Suggest… o Emotional intelligence is associated with success at work o Higher emotional learning scores  higher company rank &  greater merit pay increases ∙ Can you teach/improve emotional intelligence? 8o Yes!! But it’s very challenging o Focus on perception of, use of, understanding of emotions, &  managing of emotions  Understanding & managing are easiest  Perception & use are hardest because they involve  another person  o How can we teach it?  Role play, journal writing  The more you can incorporate other people, the better ∙ Managing & Preventing Emotions o Emotional Management  Suppression = internalizing  Venting = emotions dominate thoughts then we  explosively express them (typically leads to more anger) o Preventing Emotions (4 strategies)   1. Encounter Avoidance (people, places, etc)  2. Encounter Structuring (topics of conversation)  3. Attention Focus (only focus on parts of an encounter  that avoid the bad emotions) ∙ Ex: in a divorce, only focus on the kids  4. Deactivation (desensitize yourself to an experience) ∙ Reappraisal  o “Actively changing how you think about the meaning of emotion eliciting situations so that their emotional impact is change” o Before an actual emotion reaction begins…  1. What are the positives of this encounter?  2. What are the short-term/long-term consequences of my  actions? ∙ Anger o Primary emotion (but studies are starting to say otherwise) o Suppression in the easiest way to avoid anger o Passive-aggressive communication o Chronic Hostility – suppress anger so much that you become  chronically hostile o Catharsis – belief that venting will give you a temporary state of  satisfaction ∙ Grief Communication  o Grief: the intense sadness to a substantial loss (ex: death,  divorce, subjective to the person o Greif & communicating are related o Oscillation = to go back & forth  Should be what grieving people should be doing (loss oriented  restoration-oriented)  ∙ Passion 9o Blended emotion of positive feelings (ex joy, excitement, etc +  sexual attraction 10
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