GLG 108 – WATER PLANET EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Hydrologic Cycle – About mass balance / exchange of water ∙ Long term global average ∙ Evapotranspiration = Precipitation always balanced ∙ Evaporation rates HIGHER over oceans because there’s more water availability ∙ Atmosphere doesn’t hold moisture for very long Conservation of Ground WaterWe also discuss several other topics like a ________ is a structure consisting of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers.
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∙ Recharge – Fraction of water that seeps into the ground Potential Evaporation – The expected amount of evaporation in a given area Summer = more evaporation vs. precipitation ∙ Evapotransporation decreases in the Western US when temperature increases due to limited water availability Effective Precipitation – Precipitation available to us Precipitation – Warm air rises then cools Hydrologic Redistribution – roots of plants conxerve / store / group water available from the ground before other plants can Energy Limited vs. Water Limited ∙ Temperature increases from N to S ∙ Humidity increases W to E ∙ Eastern US = Energy Limited (PET) ∙ Western US = Water Limited Linear correlation between evaporation and oceans temperature ∙ Precipitation higher near equator o MORE HEAT = MORE EVAPORATION WHY / HOW does precipitable water and actual precipitation differ? ∙ Circulation Patterns Temperature decreases toward the poles because sun hits equator line directly ∙ Hotter in the tropics vs. the poles ∙ Heat energy transferred through ocean winds to poles Colder in the mountains/ high in the air because air is LESS DENSE = Unable to hold heat! ∙ Heat comes from ground up/ from the earth’s core. ∙ Hot air rises because it’s less dense ∙ Warm air can hold more water than cold air / holds more moisture Why does solar angle matter? ∙ Beam spreading ∙ Atmospheric beam depletion Energy Balance – Global energy budget = a balance between incoming solar radiation & outgoing terrestial radiation ∙ Conservation of Energy required in the longterm Atmosphere Energy Transfer – Light energy in / Heat energy radiates back out Global Energy Budget – A balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestial radiation Geothermal Heat Flow Cooling of Earth’s hot interior Albedo – Reflectivity of light ∙ How much absorbed vs. reflected ∙ High albedo = most amount of light reflected o White light Why does sunlight heat?∙ Converted to high vibrational energy through molecules Earth’s ALBEDO ∙ 30% = reflected / not influence temperature ∙ 70% = albedo is absorbed ∙ Stays in balance by radiating that energy back into space Surface – Atmosphere Energy Transfer ∙ Key Concept = Light in Heat out! Conservation of Energy – Flux of energy absorbed must be balanced by flux of energy radiated back ∙ KEY = hotter objects radiate MORE energy Planetary Temperature ∙ Planetary Distance o Duration of orbit o Intensity of Solar Radiation ∙ Size / Rate of Rotation o No influence ∙ Atmosphere o ALBEDO = reflect some energy into space ∙ Insulation ∙ Density ∙ VENUS hotter temperature due to cloud covered atmosphere that traps in the heat A cloudy day or night following a sunny day creates a warm temperature because it traps heat in Radiation – All objects emit radiation over a range of wave lengths SUN EMITS = 3.865 x 1026 W Sun energy intensity so strong b/c it only hits part of the Earth Blackbody – absorbs all radiation received Wein’s Law – Peak wavelength of radiation emitted decreases with rising temperature ∙ λ max = 2900 / T ∙ Sun mostly beams light because it’s so hot ∙ Visible light Why does distance from the sun matter? ∙ Intensity of energy reduces as it spreads out ∙ Total energy remains constant as it travels through space (nothing to interact with) Earth’s temperature / atmosphere temperature controls the intensity of outgoing energy ∙ Solar intensity at Earth’s position = ∏r2 ∙ Earth radiation intensity = 4∏r2 ∙ Outgoing intensity to achieve Energy Balance is less by a factor of 4 Boltzmann Law – Energy radiated per unit area per unit time is proportional to the fourth power of the black body’s temperature. ∙ I = σT4 σ = 5.67 x 108 ∙ Radiation intensity at the surface of the sun set by solar temperature Solar Constant – Total energy flux leaving the sun How is greenhouse energy balanced? ∙ When the greenhouse can no longer absorb any more heat, the incoming heat from outside will radiate off the glass keeping the house temperature balanced Water vapor an intense greenhouse gas ∙ Powerful greenhouse gas, yet doesn’t get as much attention as CO2 because it has a lifespan of up to 4 months in our atmosphere. CO2 can stay in our atmosphere for thousands of years Green House Gases ∙ Warm the planet ∙ 20% outgoing radiation – direct to space Storm Flow – Fast response / runoff / surface / shallow soil ∙ Enhanced by thin / rocky soils, antecedent moisture, bare soil, impervious areas Base Flow – Slow / seasonal response ( groundwater)