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who invented inductive reasoning

who invented inductive reasoning



○ What are the chief characteristics?

○ What role did it play in the home?

Chapter 22: The Secular Baroque in the North  February 6, 2016 ★ Characterize the tensions between Amsterdam’s  commercial prosperity and the doctrines of its Dutch  Reformed Church  ○ Holland asserted its independence from Spain (end of 16c) → Amsterdam replaces Antwerp as the  center of culture and commerce in the North  ○ Holland ascended to wealth durIf you want to learn more check out gvpp
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ing the  tulipmania (tulip madness)  ○ The forces that drove the tulip craze  balanced b the conservatism of the Dutch reformed  church  ★ Describe how developments in science and  philosophy challenged the authority of the Church  (Catholic and Protestant)  ○ England: Francis Bacon developed the  empirical method (deductive reasoning)  ○ France: Rene Descartes developed deductive reasoning  ○ Scientific discoveries supported Bacon and  Descartes philosophies  ■ Johannes Kepler: functional  properties of the human eye, optical properties of  lenses and the movement of the planets in the  solar system  ■ Galileo Galilei: perfected the  telescope, described the forces of gravity and  theorized the speed of light  ■ Antonie van Leeuwenhoek:  describes “little animals” (bacteria and protozoa)  using the newly invented telescope  ○ What's the difference between DEDUCTIVE  and INDUCTIVE reasoning? ■ Inductive: through direct and  careful observation one could draw general  conclusions from particular examples ○ Why did the church feel threatened by  Deductive and Inductive reasoning?  ○ How did the church react to Galileo’s  discoveries?  ★ Discuss the development of a vernacular style of  painting in portraiture, still life, landscape and genre  scenes  ○ Still lifes, landscapes and genre paintings  (like Vermeer’s: domestic life) were popular ○ Most popular: large scale group portraits by  Hals and Rembrandt  ■ Accomplishments of leaders,  miliaria, etc  ○ How does this Dutch style of painting reflect  Bacon;s philosophical principles ○ How does Rembrandt van Rijn’s mastery of  light and dark contribute to his painting’s liveliness  ★ Identify the chief characteristics of Baroque  keyboard music  ○ Prominent feature of Dutch domestic life  ○ What role did it play in the home?  ○ Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (Amsterdam)  developed a distinctly Baroque brand of keyboard  music called fantasia (the prelude) → heighten in Bach  (Germany’s) pieces  ○ What are the chief characteristics?  ■ Drive to create new and original  compositions at an unheard-of-pace  ○ What did Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier contribute to secular musical history  ----------------------------- ★ Intro  ○ 17c: Amsterdam is the best-known city in the world  ■ Invested in commerce ○ The Geographer: by Dutch artist  Johannes Vermeer  ■ Shows the Dutch attention to  detailed observation  ■ Shows the Dutch portraiture  characteristic of trying to capture the personality  of the figure  ■ Shows the Dutch art theme of  domestic interior  ■ Shows the Dutch interest in the  natural geography  ★ Calvinist Amsterdam: City of Contradictions  ○ Obsessed with the acquisition of goods of all  kinds/ rigid in its spiritual life  ○ Intolerant of religious heresy by Protestants/  tolerant of Catholics and Jews  ○ Avidly collected art for their homes/ forswore rt in the church  ★ Gaining Independence from Spain  ○ Charles I → Philip II (Spain) allows his sister  Margaret of Parma to control the northern provinces →  Charles tries to impose Catholic rule on the north from  Madrid → Northern Calvinists reject these attempts  (apen their dikes and flood the countryside to reel  Spanish forces) → Spanish Fury: Spanish massacre  citizens → the Netherlands united → Provinces of the  Netherlands → 1581 the northern Provinces declared  independence from Spain → after the 30 Years War the  Netherlands close off the port of Antwerp by closing  the River Scheldt ot commerce → what Antwerp had  been to the 16c, Amsterdam would be to the  seventeenth  ★ Tulipomania:  ○ The “tulip-madness of 1634-37” : nearly  ruined the entire Dutch economy  ○ Dutch desire for beauty:  ■ Love the “broken tulip”  ● Semper Augustus○ People sold everything for tulip bulbs →  economy crashes → people fall into debt  ★ The Dutch Reformed Church: Strict Doctrine and  Whitewashed Spaces ○ The strict doctrine of the Calvinist Dutch  Reformed Church countered the tulipomania ○ Did not become the official state religion but  all people in public service had to be a member of the  Dutch REformed CHurch  ■ Argument: could good deeds  overcome predestination?  ○ Since 1566; the Reformed CHurch had been  devoid of all artwork (shows its doctrinal rigidity and  reflects the purity of the Reformed Church and its  flock)  ★ The Science of Observation  ○ Attention to detail show in art reflect both  religious belief and scientific discovery  ■ Protestants thought all things had  inherent spiritual quality and the visual detail in  Northern art was seen as the worldly  manifestation of the divine ○ HOWEVER,  ■ New methods of scientific and  philosophical investigation focused on the world  in increasing detail  ● New instruments allow  better observation  ● Challenge the authority  of scripture  ● Scientia: (knowledge) is  found in the world rather than in scripture  ★ Francis Bacon and the Empirical Method  ○ Inductive REasoning: a type of reasoning  that moves from specific instances to general  principles and from particular truths to universal ones  (through direct and careful observation one could draw general conclusions from particular examples)○ Empirical method: a manner of inquiry  that combines inductive reasoning and scientific  experimentation  ○ Biggest advocate for Empirical method was  Francis Bacon (England) :  ■ Wrote New Method of Science  (Novum Organum Scientiarum)  ● People need to lay aside  their notions and begin to familiarize  themselves with facts  ● The greatest obstacle to  human understanding is superstition and the blind zeal of religion  ● Felt reliance on sensecs  → fundamental errors  ● 4 Idols:  ○ Idols of the  Tribe: fallacies of human nature that  come from when we, wrongly, trust our  sense  ○ Idols of the  Cave: come from our education,  upbringing and environment (religion,  ethnic, gender are examples)  ○ Idols of the  Marketplace: errors from  miscommunication; hidden assumptions  (the use of “man or mankind” → leads to an assumption of a gender hierarchy in  society  ○ Idols of the  Theatre: false dogmas of philosophy ● The point of the  Empirical method is to deconstruct these  idols  ○ Bacon's insistence → The ROyal Society of  London for Improving Natural Knowledge  ■ Still exists today ● Rene Descartes and the Deductive Method  ○ On the other end of the spectrum was Rene  Descartes  ■ Deductive Reasoning: opposite  that inductive reasoning because he started with  clearly established general principles and moved  from those to the establishment of particular  truths  ● Start up with some idea  of the world and then move downward to  decide certain truths  ■ Distrusted almost everything  ■ Meditation on the First  Philosophy : compares himself to an architect  ■ Discourse on Method:  ● “I think, therefore I am”  (he must exist in order to be able to  formulate ideas about his existance)  ● Cartesian (Cartesian  Dualism): absolute distinction between  mind and matter  ○ Wanted to  draw a distinction between mind and  matter. I cant depend on my body, but I  can depend on my mind  ● Proves there is a God  using logic → deism ( a brand of faith that  argues that the basis of belief in God is  reason and logic rather than revelation or  tradition)  ○ DId not  believe God was interested in human  affairs  ○ Referred to  God as the “Mathematical order of  natures”  ■ Optics: ● Predicts the decree of a  rainbow  ● Built on earlier  discoveries in optics of German  mathematician Johannes Kepler  ● Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and the Telescope:  ○ Kepler:  ■ Detailed records of the movements of the planets → support Copernicus’s  Heliocentric rather than geocentric theory  ■ Noticed the diameter of the moon  changed when observed directly rather than  through a camera obscura  ○ Galileo:  ■ Improved the design and  magnification of the telescope  ● Saw craters of the moon, jupiter's moons, etc  ■ Proposed objects fall at the same  rate of acceleration (GRAVITY)  ○ The Church and the Protestants were still a  bit skeptical  ■ Galileo was banned from  publishing  ■ Others were burned at the stake  ● Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke and the  Microscope  ○ Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: improves the  microscope so that it magnifies up to 200 times  ■ Finds ‘little animals” : bacteria and protozoa ■ Elected a full member of the Royal  SOciety for his findings  ● Dutch Vernacular Painting: Art of the Familiar  ○ Commissions from the church for art ended  in the 1620s but some paintings in the 17c were still  religious  ○ More secular paintings thrived: ■ Group portraiture: documentation  of their activities  ■ Materialism of Dutch character  was reflected  ■ Calvinist sat for portraits if the  final image showed their Protestant faith  ■ Technical developments in arts:  dramatic lighting  ○ Vernacular: was formed to accommodate  the taste of the buying public  ■ REFLECTED the actual time and  place in which they lived ● Still Lives: most popular subjects  ○ Paintings of common household objects and  food  ○ Meaning:  ■ Symbol of abundance and pleasure ■ Vanitas Paintings: remind the  viewer of the frivolous quality of human existence, the pleasure of life fades, the material world is  not as long-lived as the spiritual, the spiritual  should demand our attention  ● Memento mori:  reminder that we will all die  ● Announce to a visor or  the owners upright Protestant sensibility  ● Ie: Flowers in a Wan-Li Vase with a Blue-Tit by Johannes  Goedaert  ● Landscapes ○ Jacob van Ruisdael’s View of Haarlem  from the Dunes at Overveen : shows national pride  ■ Religious undertones:  ● GOthic church  ● Dominated by sky:  infinite heavens  ● Dutch thought of  themselves as the Nederlanden (the  children below) looked over by an almighty GOd with whom they had made an eternal  covenant ● Genre Scenes: depict events from everyday life  ○ The Dancing COuple: Jan Steen  ■ Shows merrymaking in a tavern  ■ Also has vanitas symbols to remind people  ○ Judith Leyster of Haarlem: one of the  most popular genre painters of the day  ■ The Proposition: light contrast;  contrasts the domestic world of women (virtue)  with the commercial world of men (lust and  greed); shows gender roles of Dutch society  ● Johannes Vermeer and the Domestic Scene  ○ (Painted the Geographer), seen as a great  master of Duth 17 art, revealed a moment in the  domestic life of women  ○ Illuminated and CELEBRATED the material  reality of Dutch life  ■ Woman with a Pearl Necklace:  self-confidence, nothing suggesting a moralistic  message, pearls may symbolise purity and  virginity  ■ Little Street: exercise in  contrasts, shows/symbolises domestic life (quiet  harmony, vines that hita t love, fidelity and  marriage)  ○ Marriage manuals were popular:  ■ Friendship between husband and  wife were advocated  ■ WOmen were true partners in their husmann's affairs  ■ Jacob Cat’s: Houweling  (Marriage)  ● The Group Portrait:  ○ Frans Hals: the leading portrait painter of  early 17c Holland ■ Conveyed his subject's vitality and  personality  ■ Banquet of the Officers of the  Saint George Civic Guard: turns group portrait  into a lively social event  ● Rembrandt van Rijn and the Drama of Light  ○ Rembrandt van Rijn: Hals student, also  painted the self portrait  ■ Captain Frans Banning cocq  Mustering His Company: (used to be known as  the Night Watch until it was restored)  ● Used light to animate his figures  ● Odd addition: woman  with chicken on her belt  ● ANIMATED! Even noisy  ■ Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulip ● Symbolic light for iroc  effect  ■ Christ Preaching: Hundred  Guilder Print  ■ Most interested in self portraiture ● Lived beyond his means,  declared bankruptcy, has tragedies in his life ● Slaughtered Ox of  1655 may be read as a self portrait  ○ However,  optimism is shown ‘ ● The Baroque Keyboard  ○ Varied as Baroque art of Rome and  Amsterdam  ○ Purposefully dramatic and committed to  arousing emotion in the listener  ○ Devoted to evoking the passion of Christ  ○ Wants the new and original  ■ New instruments ■ Golden age of the organ  ■ Violin and keyboard are popular ○ Lady at the Virginal with a Gentleman  (the Music Lesson)  ● Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Fantasias for the Organ  ○ Jan Pieterszoon: greatest keyboard master  of the 17c  ■ Official organist of Amsterdam  ■ Fantasias (preludes): keyboard  works that lack conventional structure but follow  the composer's free flight of fantasy  ● Purely instrumental  ● Equal to the Baroque  architecture in Francesco Borromini's  CHurch of San Carlo alle quattro Fontane  ● The North German School: Johann Sebastian Bach  ○ Greatest heir to Sweelinck is Johann  Sebastian Bach  ■ Convey the emotional piety of the  Protestant tradition through his religious music  ○ Vocal Music:  ■ Every sunday he composed a  cantata (multi movement musical commentary on chosen text of the day; sung by soloists and  chorus and accompanied by an instrument)  ● Include both recitative  parts and arias  ● Bach’s were based on  simple melodies of lutheran chorales but  transformed for counterpoint (the addition  of 1+ melodies above and below the main  melody)  ● 300 Cantatas  ● Jesu, der du meine  Seele (Cantata No.78)  ■ Oratorio: lengthy choral works  performed b a narrator c=soloists, chorus and  orchestra for Christmas and Easter  ■ The Passion According to St.  Matthew: a passion is similar to an oratorio but tells the story from the gospels of the death and  Resurrection of Jesus  ● 3 hrs long  ○ Instrumental Music:  ■ 6 Brandenburg Concertos for  the Margrave of Brandenburg (like a Duke)  ● Concerto Grosso:  (large concerto) a concerto featuring both  soloists and the larger ensemble ○ Ripieno: the  large or “full” ensemble ● Ripieno COncerto: no  solo instruments at all and is scored for all  strings  ■ THe Well-Tempered Clavier: an  attempt to popularize the idea of equal  temperament (a system of tuning that consists of dividing the octave into 12 half steps of equal  size) in musical tuning  ● Includes a fugue: a  genera that carries a single thematic idea for the entire length of the work  ○ Bach is successful in that he lays out a range of feeling with a virtually mathematical clarity  ------------------------------------------------------------ ● Galileo: do I trust the church? Or do I trust my own eyes?        ○ Sees blemishes on the sun. Conflict!         ○ This is dynamite because the Church is feeling threatened (following the  95 Thesis, etc)  ● Decartes: WHO IS THE AUTHORITY?! Who getst to decide and on what basis to they  get to decide? What is true? How do I know what’s true? What authority do I rely on to decide  what’s true?  ○ “Method­ist” there must be a secure and repicalbe method of obtaining  knowledge  ○ It is not what a person says… but HOW he says it. What (accurate) but  investigate (how) it gets said. What are the tools  ■ Ie: Decartes metaphor of the building  ● Analysis:  ○ What is being said → HOW is it being said  ○ Also, what is the context of what is being said and how does it influence? ● Decartes Study of Self: methodological skepticism  ○ Not radical skepticism  ○ Peramiters: ■ Never accept anything for true that he did not know for  himself ■ Break it down and find more basic truths thatn those that I know to be such  ■

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