Chapter 22: The Secular Baroque in the North February 6, 2016 ★ Characterize the tensions between Amsterdam’s commercial prosperity and the doctrines of its Dutch Reformed Church ○ Holland asserted its independence from Spain (end of 16c) → Amsterdam replaces Antwerp as the center of culture and commerce in the North ○ Holland ascended to wealth durIf you want to learn more check out gvpp
If you want to learn more check out What is the book freedom on my mind about?
If you want to learn more check out What determines the brightness of a LED?
If you want to learn more check out How is civil disobedience manifested?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are limit properties?
If you want to learn more check out two track mind psychology
ing the tulipmania (tulip madness) ○ The forces that drove the tulip craze balanced b the conservatism of the Dutch reformed church ★ Describe how developments in science and philosophy challenged the authority of the Church (Catholic and Protestant) ○ England: Francis Bacon developed the empirical method (deductive reasoning) ○ France: Rene Descartes developed deductive reasoning ○ Scientific discoveries supported Bacon and Descartes philosophies ■ Johannes Kepler: functional properties of the human eye, optical properties of lenses and the movement of the planets in the solar system ■ Galileo Galilei: perfected the telescope, described the forces of gravity and theorized the speed of light ■ Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: describes “little animals” (bacteria and protozoa) using the newly invented telescope ○ What's the difference between DEDUCTIVE and INDUCTIVE reasoning? ■ Inductive: through direct and careful observation one could draw general conclusions from particular examples ○ Why did the church feel threatened by Deductive and Inductive reasoning? ○ How did the church react to Galileo’s discoveries? ★ Discuss the development of a vernacular style of painting in portraiture, still life, landscape and genre scenes ○ Still lifes, landscapes and genre paintings (like Vermeer’s: domestic life) were popular ○ Most popular: large scale group portraits by Hals and Rembrandt ■ Accomplishments of leaders, miliaria, etc ○ How does this Dutch style of painting reflect Bacon;s philosophical principles ○ How does Rembrandt van Rijn’s mastery of light and dark contribute to his painting’s liveliness ★ Identify the chief characteristics of Baroque keyboard music ○ Prominent feature of Dutch domestic life ○ What role did it play in the home? ○ Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (Amsterdam) developed a distinctly Baroque brand of keyboard music called fantasia (the prelude) → heighten in Bach (Germany’s) pieces ○ What are the chief characteristics? ■ Drive to create new and original compositions at an unheard-of-pace ○ What did Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier contribute to secular musical history ----------------------------- ★ Intro ○ 17c: Amsterdam is the best-known city in the world ■ Invested in commerce ○ The Geographer: by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer ■ Shows the Dutch attention to detailed observation ■ Shows the Dutch portraiture characteristic of trying to capture the personality of the figure ■ Shows the Dutch art theme of domestic interior ■ Shows the Dutch interest in the natural geography ★ Calvinist Amsterdam: City of Contradictions ○ Obsessed with the acquisition of goods of all kinds/ rigid in its spiritual life ○ Intolerant of religious heresy by Protestants/ tolerant of Catholics and Jews ○ Avidly collected art for their homes/ forswore rt in the church ★ Gaining Independence from Spain ○ Charles I → Philip II (Spain) allows his sister Margaret of Parma to control the northern provinces → Charles tries to impose Catholic rule on the north from Madrid → Northern Calvinists reject these attempts (apen their dikes and flood the countryside to reel Spanish forces) → Spanish Fury: Spanish massacre citizens → the Netherlands united → Provinces of the Netherlands → 1581 the northern Provinces declared independence from Spain → after the 30 Years War the Netherlands close off the port of Antwerp by closing the River Scheldt ot commerce → what Antwerp had been to the 16c, Amsterdam would be to the seventeenth ★ Tulipomania: ○ The “tulip-madness of 1634-37” : nearly ruined the entire Dutch economy ○ Dutch desire for beauty: ■ Love the “broken tulip” ● Semper Augustus○ People sold everything for tulip bulbs → economy crashes → people fall into debt ★ The Dutch Reformed Church: Strict Doctrine and Whitewashed Spaces ○ The strict doctrine of the Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church countered the tulipomania ○ Did not become the official state religion but all people in public service had to be a member of the Dutch REformed CHurch ■ Argument: could good deeds overcome predestination? ○ Since 1566; the Reformed CHurch had been devoid of all artwork (shows its doctrinal rigidity and reflects the purity of the Reformed Church and its flock) ★ The Science of Observation ○ Attention to detail show in art reflect both religious belief and scientific discovery ■ Protestants thought all things had inherent spiritual quality and the visual detail in Northern art was seen as the worldly manifestation of the divine ○ HOWEVER, ■ New methods of scientific and philosophical investigation focused on the world in increasing detail ● New instruments allow better observation ● Challenge the authority of scripture ● Scientia: (knowledge) is found in the world rather than in scripture ★ Francis Bacon and the Empirical Method ○ Inductive REasoning: a type of reasoning that moves from specific instances to general principles and from particular truths to universal ones (through direct and careful observation one could draw general conclusions from particular examples)○ Empirical method: a manner of inquiry that combines inductive reasoning and scientific experimentation ○ Biggest advocate for Empirical method was Francis Bacon (England) : ■ Wrote New Method of Science (Novum Organum Scientiarum) ● People need to lay aside their notions and begin to familiarize themselves with facts ● The greatest obstacle to human understanding is superstition and the blind zeal of religion ● Felt reliance on sensecs → fundamental errors ● 4 Idols: ○ Idols of the Tribe: fallacies of human nature that come from when we, wrongly, trust our sense ○ Idols of the Cave: come from our education, upbringing and environment (religion, ethnic, gender are examples) ○ Idols of the Marketplace: errors from miscommunication; hidden assumptions (the use of “man or mankind” → leads to an assumption of a gender hierarchy in society ○ Idols of the Theatre: false dogmas of philosophy ● The point of the Empirical method is to deconstruct these idols ○ Bacon's insistence → The ROyal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge ■ Still exists today ● Rene Descartes and the Deductive Method ○ On the other end of the spectrum was Rene Descartes ■ Deductive Reasoning: opposite that inductive reasoning because he started with clearly established general principles and moved from those to the establishment of particular truths ● Start up with some idea of the world and then move downward to decide certain truths ■ Distrusted almost everything ■ Meditation on the First Philosophy : compares himself to an architect ■ Discourse on Method: ● “I think, therefore I am” (he must exist in order to be able to formulate ideas about his existance) ● Cartesian (Cartesian Dualism): absolute distinction between mind and matter ○ Wanted to draw a distinction between mind and matter. I cant depend on my body, but I can depend on my mind ● Proves there is a God using logic → deism ( a brand of faith that argues that the basis of belief in God is reason and logic rather than revelation or tradition) ○ DId not believe God was interested in human affairs ○ Referred to God as the “Mathematical order of natures” ■ Optics: ● Predicts the decree of a rainbow ● Built on earlier discoveries in optics of German mathematician Johannes Kepler ● Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and the Telescope: ○ Kepler: ■ Detailed records of the movements of the planets → support Copernicus’s Heliocentric rather than geocentric theory ■ Noticed the diameter of the moon changed when observed directly rather than through a camera obscura ○ Galileo: ■ Improved the design and magnification of the telescope ● Saw craters of the moon, jupiter's moons, etc ■ Proposed objects fall at the same rate of acceleration (GRAVITY) ○ The Church and the Protestants were still a bit skeptical ■ Galileo was banned from publishing ■ Others were burned at the stake ● Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke and the Microscope ○ Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: improves the microscope so that it magnifies up to 200 times ■ Finds ‘little animals” : bacteria and protozoa ■ Elected a full member of the Royal SOciety for his findings ● Dutch Vernacular Painting: Art of the Familiar ○ Commissions from the church for art ended in the 1620s but some paintings in the 17c were still religious ○ More secular paintings thrived: ■ Group portraiture: documentation of their activities ■ Materialism of Dutch character was reflected ■ Calvinist sat for portraits if the final image showed their Protestant faith ■ Technical developments in arts: dramatic lighting ○ Vernacular: was formed to accommodate the taste of the buying public ■ REFLECTED the actual time and place in which they lived ● Still Lives: most popular subjects ○ Paintings of common household objects and food ○ Meaning: ■ Symbol of abundance and pleasure ■ Vanitas Paintings: remind the viewer of the frivolous quality of human existence, the pleasure of life fades, the material world is not as long-lived as the spiritual, the spiritual should demand our attention ● Memento mori: reminder that we will all die ● Announce to a visor or the owners upright Protestant sensibility ● Ie: Flowers in a Wan-Li Vase with a Blue-Tit by Johannes Goedaert ● Landscapes ○ Jacob van Ruisdael’s View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen : shows national pride ■ Religious undertones: ● GOthic church ● Dominated by sky: infinite heavens ● Dutch thought of themselves as the Nederlanden (the children below) looked over by an almighty GOd with whom they had made an eternal covenant ● Genre Scenes: depict events from everyday life ○ The Dancing COuple: Jan Steen ■ Shows merrymaking in a tavern ■ Also has vanitas symbols to remind people ○ Judith Leyster of Haarlem: one of the most popular genre painters of the day ■ The Proposition: light contrast; contrasts the domestic world of women (virtue) with the commercial world of men (lust and greed); shows gender roles of Dutch society ● Johannes Vermeer and the Domestic Scene ○ (Painted the Geographer), seen as a great master of Duth 17 art, revealed a moment in the domestic life of women ○ Illuminated and CELEBRATED the material reality of Dutch life ■ Woman with a Pearl Necklace: self-confidence, nothing suggesting a moralistic message, pearls may symbolise purity and virginity ■ Little Street: exercise in contrasts, shows/symbolises domestic life (quiet harmony, vines that hita t love, fidelity and marriage) ○ Marriage manuals were popular: ■ Friendship between husband and wife were advocated ■ WOmen were true partners in their husmann's affairs ■ Jacob Cat’s: Houweling (Marriage) ● The Group Portrait: ○ Frans Hals: the leading portrait painter of early 17c Holland ■ Conveyed his subject's vitality and personality ■ Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Civic Guard: turns group portrait into a lively social event ● Rembrandt van Rijn and the Drama of Light ○ Rembrandt van Rijn: Hals student, also painted the self portrait ■ Captain Frans Banning cocq Mustering His Company: (used to be known as the Night Watch until it was restored) ● Used light to animate his figures ● Odd addition: woman with chicken on her belt ● ANIMATED! Even noisy ■ Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulip ● Symbolic light for iroc effect ■ Christ Preaching: Hundred Guilder Print ■ Most interested in self portraiture ● Lived beyond his means, declared bankruptcy, has tragedies in his life ● Slaughtered Ox of 1655 may be read as a self portrait ○ However, optimism is shown ‘ ● The Baroque Keyboard ○ Varied as Baroque art of Rome and Amsterdam ○ Purposefully dramatic and committed to arousing emotion in the listener ○ Devoted to evoking the passion of Christ ○ Wants the new and original ■ New instruments ■ Golden age of the organ ■ Violin and keyboard are popular ○ Lady at the Virginal with a Gentleman (the Music Lesson) ● Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck Fantasias for the Organ ○ Jan Pieterszoon: greatest keyboard master of the 17c ■ Official organist of Amsterdam ■ Fantasias (preludes): keyboard works that lack conventional structure but follow the composer's free flight of fantasy ● Purely instrumental ● Equal to the Baroque architecture in Francesco Borromini's CHurch of San Carlo alle quattro Fontane ● The North German School: Johann Sebastian Bach ○ Greatest heir to Sweelinck is Johann Sebastian Bach ■ Convey the emotional piety of the Protestant tradition through his religious music ○ Vocal Music: ■ Every sunday he composed a cantata (multi movement musical commentary on chosen text of the day; sung by soloists and chorus and accompanied by an instrument) ● Include both recitative parts and arias ● Bach’s were based on simple melodies of lutheran chorales but transformed for counterpoint (the addition of 1+ melodies above and below the main melody) ● 300 Cantatas ● Jesu, der du meine Seele (Cantata No.78) ■ Oratorio: lengthy choral works performed b a narrator c=soloists, chorus and orchestra for Christmas and Easter ■ The Passion According to St. Matthew: a passion is similar to an oratorio but tells the story from the gospels of the death and Resurrection of Jesus ● 3 hrs long ○ Instrumental Music: ■ 6 Brandenburg Concertos for the Margrave of Brandenburg (like a Duke) ● Concerto Grosso: (large concerto) a concerto featuring both soloists and the larger ensemble ○ Ripieno: the large or “full” ensemble ● Ripieno COncerto: no solo instruments at all and is scored for all strings ■ THe Well-Tempered Clavier: an attempt to popularize the idea of equal temperament (a system of tuning that consists of dividing the octave into 12 half steps of equal size) in musical tuning ● Includes a fugue: a genera that carries a single thematic idea for the entire length of the work ○ Bach is successful in that he lays out a range of feeling with a virtually mathematical clarity ------------------------------------------------------------ ● Galileo: do I trust the church? Or do I trust my own eyes? ○ Sees blemishes on the sun. Conflict! ○ This is dynamite because the Church is feeling threatened (following the 95 Thesis, etc) ● Decartes: WHO IS THE AUTHORITY?! Who getst to decide and on what basis to they get to decide? What is true? How do I know what’s true? What authority do I rely on to decide what’s true? ○ “Methodist” there must be a secure and repicalbe method of obtaining knowledge ○ It is not what a person says… but HOW he says it. What (accurate) but investigate (how) it gets said. What are the tools ■ Ie: Decartes metaphor of the building ● Analysis: ○ What is being said → HOW is it being said ○ Also, what is the context of what is being said and how does it influence? ● Decartes Study of Self: methodological skepticism ○ Not radical skepticism ○ Peramiters: ■ Never accept anything for true that he did not know for himself ■ Break it down and find more basic truths thatn those that I know to be such ■