Test 1 study guide 1) How does the epithelia barrier in the skin, gut, and lung differ from a mechanical, chemical and microbiological perspective? In the skin, you have sweat gland and
sebaceous glands secreating oils and lysozymes that break down peptidoglycan. You also have commensal microbes that produce fatty acids and inhibit the growth of other organisms ( competition of resources). On the lungs, you have cilia and mucous membranes to trap pathogens from the air. You also have goblet cells that secrete more mucus. On the gut ( gastrointestinal and urogenital lining ) you have specialized cells producing acids that kill of most bacteria, specialized cells that secrete microcidal molecules along with commensal microbes 2) What are the defensive chemical components present in the skin, the external epithelial surface? The skin possesses sweat glands that release salty environment, inhibiting growth of bacteria, it is slightly acidic, containing lysozymes and enzymes that break down peptidoglycan cell wall of many bacteria. Other chemical components are dry surface RNases DNases, keratinocytes and fatty acids. 3) What is a macrophage? Macrophages are phagocytic cells that migrate to all connective tissues of the body, they are the first to fight pathogents entering the system. 4) How are the differences between macrophages and neutrophils?
Go to area of inflammation
Response fast ( 04 hrs)
Slow response ( 4 hrs 4 days
Short lived ( within 5 days)
Present pathogen fragments on surface
Don’t present pathogen of their kills
One big round nucleus
3) What is a macrophage?
2) What are the defensive chemical components present in the skin, the external epithelial surface?
1) How does the epithelia barrier in the skin, gut, and lung differ from a mechanical, chemical and microbiological perspective?
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5) What are the events that take place once there is an infection and macrophages start fighting with the microbial invaders? 1 macrophage tries to kill invader, calls for help by secreting chemotactic factors to bring neutrophil and monocytes to the site of infection, 2 neutrophils will travel though blood vessels and arrive site by extravasation 3 monocytes will differentiate into macrophages and help destroy the pathogen 4 neutrophils and macrophages destroy pathogen by phagocytic activity. * if the pathogen is not killed the adaptive immune response is activated with naïve T and B cells become stimulated by antigen to proliferate and differentiate. The naïve cells are activate by dentritic cells by pathogen ptrsentation activating the active effectors in thelpter cells (CD4) and tcytotoxic ( CD8) **