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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psychology 101 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psychology 101 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image   PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE What is psychology? discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes  focuses on these processes are affected by an organism’s physocal state, mental state and 
external environment 
emperical, data driven (evidence)  Critical thinking: the ability and the willingness to access a claim and make judgements on the basis of 
well­supported reasons an evidence rather than the emotion or anecdote 
  what are guidelines of critical thinking? ­ ask questions    ­avoid emotional reasoning ­ define your terms (clarify)    ­dont oversimplify  ­ examine the evidence     ­ tolerate uncertainty
­ analyze assumptions and biases
­ consider other interpretations 
WILHELM WUNDT: established first psychology laboratory in 1879 (Leipzig, Germany) utilized “trained introspection” for data collection Biological perspective: focuses on how events within the body interact with the environment to influence 
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. (changes in hormonal levels)
Learning perspective: focuses on how the environment & experiences affect an organism’s actions Two theories of learning perspective Behaviorism: focus on how reward and punishment increases/decreases behaviors
Social­cognitive learning: focus on how behaviors are influenced by thoughts, feelings, expectations & 
intentions
Cognitive Perspective: how these thoughts influence feelings and behaviors. 
 
Structure of Neurons
 A neuron has three parts:
­dendrites: receive messages from other nerve cells
­cell body: nucleus contains genetic info. and helps the cell grow
­axon: transmit the message to wherever the message needs to go. aka (myelin sheath: helps the 
message transmit faster.)
Descriptive Methods i nclude case studies. They are detailed of a single person. Particularly useful when a topic is new or ethical considerations preclude researchers from gathering information any other way. 
They are also limited. 
Observational Studies  include researchers observes individuals in natural or laboratory environment  without any interference. The behavior is observed in a systematic way.  Psychological Test:  evaluate characteristic, emotions, interest, aptitude, or achievement ­Surveys can be unrepresentative (volunteer bias) and people lie during a survey   Correlational Studies Variable­  anything that can be measured or described (quantified) ­examines the relationship between two variables
­ amount of alcohol consumed(x) and desired to dance (y)
background image ­ age (x) and number of texts sent daily (y)
­ adult’s IQ (x) and shoe size(y)
***Correlation coefficient: measure of correlation ranges from 1.00 to ­1.00 perfect correlation +1.00 negative correlation ­1.00 (CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION) Experiments: controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to 
discover the effect on another
1) independent (IV)­ experimenter manipulates
2) dependent (DV)­ experimenter predicts will be impacted by the IV
Experiments: > Controlled test of hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover the  effect of another.
  Cross sectional: difference groups compared at the same time
  Longitudinal: same group compared a different times
Descriptive Statistics:  purpose is to organize and summarize your data (means & standard deviation)  Inferential Statistics:  statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw conclusions about the  meaningfulness of their study’s findings
 
Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe : where your conscious thinking takes place (make plans, think creatively) what makes  humans, humans Parietal lobe : sits on top of your head; receives info about (temp, taste and touch) from all over the body  Temporal lobe:  memory and emotion, located behind the ears Occipital lobe:  located behind you, back of the head and deals with vision Nervous System  gathers and process information, produces responses to  stimuli and coordinates the working of different cells.  The  Central Nervous  System (CNS)  is composed of brain and spinal cord.  Peripheral Nervous  System (PNS)  are all nervous outside the brain and outside of the spinal  cord.is in charge of sending information (touch, pull) to the spinal cord, then 
finally to the brain. 
PNS
-somatic nervous system (voluntary moment)
-autonomic nervous system
-sympathetic nervous system (energy output)
-parasympathetic nervous system (relaxes and controls energy)
Communication within the Nervous system -Neurons
- Glia Cells (greek for glue). Provide the neurons with nutrients, protect 
neurons. 
-support and strengthen a neuron
-play a huge role in learning and memory.
What is sociobiology?

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Name: Psychology 101 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the first 3 weeks of intro to psychology.
Uploaded: 02/07/2017
3 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
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