×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to OleMiss - CHEM 346 - Class Notes - Week 2
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to OleMiss - CHEM 346 - Class Notes - Week 2

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

apachment

apachment

Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: Chemistry
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Michelle cohen
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 2 Notes
Description: These notes will be on Exam 1
Uploaded: 02/08/2017
23 Pages 111 Views 0 Unlocks
Reviews



They refine the kick & prevent extraneous moKons – What’s happening at the contralateral LE?




– What’s happening at the contralateral LE?




Determining if a muscle (or muscle group) is contracting and, if so, how?



1/30/17  Ch. 2   NEUROMUSCULAR FUNDAMENTALS Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written coIf you want to learn more check out david dakake
Don't forget about the age old question of what is a major drawback of sole proprietorships?
If you want to learn more check out marketing concept era
We also discuss several other topics like the u.s. census bureau defines the family as
Don't forget about the age old question of eeob ucr
If you want to learn more check out ucr criminology definition
nsent of McGraw-Hill Education  Skeletal Muscles • Responsible for movement of body and joints  – Muscle contrac-on produces force that causes  joint movement  • Muscles also provide:   – protecKon  – dynamic stability of joints – posture & support   – produce a major porKon of total body heat  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology • Origin  – Structurally, the proximal aPachment of a muscle  or the part that aPaches closest to the midline or  center of the body  – FuncKonally & historically, the least movable part  or aPachment of the muscle  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  1  1/30/17  Muscle Terminology  • Origin  – Structurally, the proximal aPachment of a muscle  or the part that aPaches closest to the midline or  center of the body  – FuncKonally & historically, the least movable part  or aPachment of the muscle  Photo credit:  www.easynotecards.com Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology  • Inser*on  – Structurally, the distal aPachment or the part that  aPaches farthest from the midline or center of  body  – FuncKonally & historically, the most movable part  is generally considered the inserKon Photo credit:  www.easynotecards.com Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology • Inser*on  – Structurally, the distal aPachment or the part that  aPaches farthest from the midline or center of  body  – FuncKonally & historically, the most movable part  is generally considered the inserKon Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  2  1/30/17  Muscle Terminology  • Ac*on - specific movement of joint resulKng from a  concentric contracKon of a muscle which crosses joint  Example: biceps brachii has the acKon of flexion at elbow  Ac-ons are usually caused by a group of muscles   Ex: Biceps brachii, brachialis, & brachioradialis are “elbow flexors”  • Any muscle in the group can be said to cause the acKon, but it’s  usually effort of the enKre group  • A muscle may cause more than one acKon (either at the same joint  or a different joint) depending upon the characterisKcs of the joints  crossed by the muscle  Ex: Biceps brachii acKons: elbow flex., forearm sup., shoulder flex.  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology  • Innerva*on - segment of nervous system that  provides a sKmulus to muscle fibers    – A muscle may be innervated by more than one  nerve & a parKcular nerve may innervate more  than one muscle or porKon of a muscle  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology • Tendon - Fibrous connecKve Kssue, o]en cordlike in  appearance, that connects muscles to bones and  other structures  – Two muscles may share a common tendon  • Ex. Achilles tendon of gastrocnemius & soleus muscles  – A muscle may have mulKple tendons connecKng it to one  or more bones  • Ex. three proximal aPachments of triceps brachii Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  3  1/30/17  Muscle Terminology  • Gaster (AKA belly or body) – central, contracKle porKon of muscle that  generally increases in diameter as the muscle  contracts  – As a muscle contracts, it tends to shorten, pulling  both ends (O & I) toward the gaster Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  When a muscle contracts, it pulls both ends toward the gaster    • If neither of the bones to which a muscle is aPached are  stabilized, then both bones move toward each other upon  contracKon  • More o]en, one bone is more stabilized >> when the muscle  contracts, the less stabilized bone usually moves toward the  more stabilized bone…    Ex. biceps curl  – biceps brachii origin (least movable bone) on scapula and  its inserKon (most movable bone) on radius  In some movements this process can be reversed  Ex. pull-up  – Biceps brachii inserKon on radius is relaKvely stable &  scapula (biceps origin) moves  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology  • Intrinsic Muscles  • Extrinsic Muscles  Typically, muscles completely  within (or belonging solely to)  body part upon which they act  e.g., small intrinsic muscles found  en:rely within the hand or feet  Typically, muscles that arise or  originate outside of (proximal to)  body part upon which they act  e.g., forearm muscles  that a=ach proximally on  distal humerus and insert  on fingers Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  4  1/30/17  Muscle Terminology  • Aponeurosis – A tendinous expansion of dense fibrous connecKve Kssue that  is sheet- or ribbon-like in appearance and resembles a flaPened  tendon  – Aponeuroses serve as a fascia to bind muscles together or as a  means of connecKng muscle to bone  Ex: Palmaris Longus Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology  • Fascia – A sheet or band of fibrous connecKve Kssue that envelopes,  separates, or binds together parts of the body such as  muscles, organs, and other so] Kssue structures of the body  – In certain places throughout the body, such as around joints  like the wrist & ankle, fascia forms a re*naculum to retain  tendons close to the body  Ex: carpal tunnel  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Terminology Parallel Muscles – muscles with fibers that are arranged  parallel to length of muscle  • Categorized based on fiber – tendon arrangement  – Flat   – Fusiform   – Strap  – Radiate  – Sphincter   Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  5  1/30/17  Muscle Terminology  Pennate Muscles – muscles with fibers that are  arranged obliquely to their tendons (like a feather)  • Fibers are are typically shorter than parallel muscles   • Categorized based on fiber – tendon arrangement  – Unipennate – Bipennate – MulKpennate Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Do muscles with a parallel fiber  arrangement or those with a pennate arrangement …have stronger contracKons?  … have greater ROM? Muscle Nomenclature… • Visual appearance (shape, size) – Deltoid, Rhomboid, Gluteals  • Ac-on & Shape – Pronator Quadratus  • Loca-on – Rectus Femoris • Size & loca-on – Vastus Lateralis/Medialis • Number of divisions – Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii • Loca-on & number of divisions – Biceps Femoris • Depth – Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus • Ac-on & AHachment – Extensor DigiK Minimi, Extensor Digitorum Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus • Shape & loca-on – Serratus Anterior  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 6  1/30/17  SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION /  MUSCLE ACTION  1/30/17  19  Skeletal Muscle Contrac-on • Shortening of sarcomere  causes shortening of whole  muscle  – Occurs from both ends  toward center  • Contractile force produced  by sarcomere transmitted  to bone  – Produces joint motion  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Muscle Contrac-on “An ac-ve shortening of the muscle resul-ng in  a reduc-on in the distance between the two  ends of a muscle.”    Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 7  1/30/17  Muscle Ac-on “The development of muscle tension”   “It can be applied to any type of tension  development regardless of whether a muscle is  lengthening, shortening, or maintaining the  same length.”    May be more appropriate than ‘contrac:on’.    Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Types of Muscle Ac-on  Muscle Action  “development of muscle tension” Isometric Isotonic  Preven-ng  Mo-on  Concentric Eccentric  Causing  Mo-on  Controlling  Mo-on  Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-23 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon Structural Kinesiology  Iso-Metric • stays the same (iso- means “same”)  • muscle length (-metric refers to “unit of length”)   “Muscle ac-on that involves no change in length  of the muscle” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P. (1984)  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 8  1/30/17  IsoMetric • OUen used to prevent movement    – A “Sta-c” muscle ac-on  • Ac-ve muscle tension is developed to maintain joint angle    *To maintain the joint angle, the muscle tension may change & the energy  required may change  • Total muscle length stays the same under tension  (External) Resistance = Force (required by muscle)  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Isometric Examples Seen when staying sKll, staKonary, fixed posiKon  Examples:  • GymnasKcs crucifix posiKon, set posiKon in track/swim  • Wall sits, hold a plank, maintain dumbbell posiKon in hand   • To simply stand sKll, isometric hip & knee extensors & ankle PF  • Many yoga poses require isometrics     Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Types of Muscle Ac-on  Muscle Action  (under active tension) Isometric Isotonic  Preven-ng  Mo-on Concentric Eccentric  Causing  Mo-on  Controlling  Mo-on  Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-27 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon Structural Kinesiology  9  1/30/17  Iso-Tonic • Stays the same (iso-)  • Muscle tone or tension (-tonic)   “Muscle ac-on that involves the produc-on of a constant  force” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P. (1984)  Note: Although there is a constant muscle force/tension, the  overall muscle length changes (shorter/longer), which  causes/controls moKon   Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Concentric “Muscle shortening under (acKve) tension” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P. (1984)  Pulling the  weight up  (against gravity)   Joint angle  changes in the  direcKon of the  applied (muscle)  Causes or accelerates mo-on  against gravity or external forces force  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Concentric Total muscle length decreases under tension  Force > Resistance Shortening occurs when the force developed by a muscle   is greater than the resistance or external force acKng on the  segment to which the muscle is aPached   Muscle shortens under acKve tension to accelerate you / object   AKA “posiKve contracKons”  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  10  1/30/17  Concentric What is  happening in this  “Muscle shortening under (acKve) tension” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P. (1984)  picture??  Pushing down to  li] the weight Joint angle  changes in the  direcKon of the  applied (muscle)  force  Causes or accelerates mo-on  against gravity or external forces Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Concentric Examples • In pushing ac-ons, typically the pushing part  – Push-ups (up/push phase), bench press (up/press phase)  • With pulling ac-ons, typically the pulling part  – Pull-ups (up/pull phase)  • Sports examples…jump, kick, run, throw, li], tackle,  shoot…o]en quick acceleraKons to move self/opponent/  ball     Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Reversal of Muscle FuncKon A muscle group described to perform a given func-on can  contract to control the exact opposite mo-on  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 11  1/30/17  Eccentric “Muscle lengthening under (acKve) tension” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P.  (1984)  Lowering the  weight down…   Joint angle  changes in the  direcKon of the  resistance  Controls mo-on against gravity or  external forces Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Eccentric “Muscle lengthening under (acKve) tension” - Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P.  (1984)  Lowering the  weight down…   Joint angle  changes in the  direcKon of the  resistance  Controls mo-on against gravity or  external forces Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  PosiKve (concentric)/ NegaKve (eccentric)/ Midpoint (isometric) (2:17) • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuUdFJ5Gjhk  Basic eccentric workout (1:08-5:44):  • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZ2F0FYcVsU   Extreme eccentric workout with Sven (3:08):  • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rih1a2Z7gnU   Other videos:  Eccentric hamstrings training for athletes (1:10-4:03) • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gxs4Pkwvbh0   Partner-assisted negaKves Biceps Curls (2:44 -7:05)  • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jHUdq060vE   Partner-assisted eccentric Bench Press (:10-1:47) • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CESukBTMtog  Eccentric pull up (:10-3:35)  • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0YXJ2h0FlM 12  1/30/17  Appendix 5, p. 386  Also Table 2.2,  p. 43  Determining if a muscle (or muscle group) is contracting and, if so, how? Is Movement Occurring? No Yes Then is an external force (gravity, machine, inertia, etc.) causing the movement? Yes Is the joint moving Faster, Slower, or at the Same Speed that the external force would normally cause it to No Then internal force (muscle contraction) must be causing the movement which means the agonist muscle group is performing a concentric contraction to cause movement in the direction in which it is occurring. No Is the joint fully supported in its current position by external means? Yes move? Shortening Shortening Same Speed Then there must be internal force generated by an isometric muscle contraction to maintain the current position of the joint. Then no contraction is needed in any of the muscles to maintain the position, but muscle could be unecessarily contracting isometrically. Faster Then the contraction is concentric because the movement is being accelerated (caused or enhanced) by the muscles that cause movement (agonists) in the same direction as the occurring movement. Contracting muscle is Slower Then the contraction is eccentric because the movement is being decelerated (controlled) by the muscles that oppose movement (antagonists) in the direction of the occurring movement. Contracting muscle is Then there is no appreciable active contraction in either the shortening or lengthening muscle groups. All movement is passive and caused by the external force(s). If the sum of gravity & external forces were to cause the joint to move into flexion then the extensors must be contracting isometrically to maintain the position. Respectively substitute adduction & abductors or internal rotation & external rotators If the sum of gravity & external forces were to cause the joint to move into extension then the flexors must be contracting isometrically to maintain the position. Respectively substitute abduction & adductors or external rotation & internal rotators Manual of   lengthening Contracting muscle is neither Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-37 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon shortening Structural Kinesiology  shortening or lengthening MUSCLES PLAYING DIFFERENT ROLES  1/30/17  38  Roles of Muscles When a muscle contracts, it aPempts to pull the  the bones to which their aPached to toward each  other.  • Usually it doesn’t pull both bones toward each other  because one of the bones is usually more stable than the  other >>> the less stable bone moves toward the more  stable bone.  • When a muscle that can perform mulKple acKons  contracts, it aPempts to perform all of its acKons unless  other forces, such as those provided by other muscles,  prevent the undesired acKons Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 13  1/30/17  Roles of Muscles • Agonist muscles   – Muscle that cause joint moKon through a specified  plane of moKon when contracKng concentrically  – Primary/prime movers VS. assisters  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Roles of Muscles • Antagonist muscles  – located on opposite (contralateral) side of joint from  agonist & has opposite concentric acKon    Ex: biceps-triceps, quadriceps-hamstrings, wrist flex/ extensors  – Antagonists have “reciprocal inhibi-on” >> to work  in cooperaKon with agonist  • AcKvaKon of the motor units of the agonists causes a  reciprocal neural inhibiKon of the motor units of the  antagonists…. When agonist contracts, antagonist relaxes,  lengthening to allow agonist movement   Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Roles of Muscles • Synergist (“guiding muscles”)  – Work together to assist in acKon of agonists, but not  necessarily prime movers for the acKon  – Help refine movement & rule out undesired moKons  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 14  1/30/17  Roles of Muscles • Helping synergists   – have an acKon in common AND antagonisKc to each  other  • help another muscle move the joint in the desired manner  AND simultaneously prevent undesired acKons  e.g., Anterior & posterior deltoid  • Anterior deltoid acts as an agonist in glenohumeral flexion, while posterior deltoid acts as an extensor… so  they’re antagonisKc • They work in synergy with middle deltoid to accomplish  abducKon  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Roles of Muscles • True synergists   – contract to prevent an undesired joint acKon of agonist and  have no direct effect on agonist acKon    e.g., finger extensors are true synergist to wrist flexors for grasping  • Finger flexors are agonists for wrist flexion & finger flexion  – If you flex fingers & wrist  >> weak grasp  • So… Wrist extensors act contract to prevent wrist flexion  >> a neutral or slightly extended wrist posiKon during  grasp >> strongest, most funcKonal grasp   Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Roles of Muscles • Stabilizers (AKA fixators) - “muscle that acts to  stabilize a segment so the agonist can work”  EssenKal in establishing a relaKvely stable base upon  which the more distal joints can move    – e.g, biceps curl:  the antagonisKc muscles of scapula &  glenohumeral joint co-contract to stabilize shoulder complex  & humerus in a relaKvely staKc posiKon so that the biceps  brachii can more effecKvely perform curls  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 15  1/30/17  • Neutralizers Roles of Muscles – Contract to resist/counteract/neutralize the acKon  of another muscle to prevent undesirable  movements such as inappropriate muscle  subsKtuKons  • e.g., SupinaKon:  when only supinaKon acKon of biceps  brachii is desired, the triceps brachii contracts to  neutralize the flexion acKon of the biceps brachii • e.g., Biceps Curl: when only flexion of the elbow is desired,  pronator teres contracts to neutralize the supinaKon  component of biceps  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Roles of Muscles • Force Couples   – Force couples occur when two or more  forces are pulling in different direcKons on  an object, causing the object to rotate  about its axis  – Coupling of muscular forces together in  the body can result in a more efficient  movement  e.g., middle trapezius, lower trapezius, &  serratus anterior pull on scapula from different  direcKons to produce combined result of  upward rotaKon  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Tying Roles of Muscles All Together When a muscle contracts, it aPempts to perform all of it’s  acKons!  Which acKons are actually performed depend on:   • the motor units acKvated  • joint posiKon at the Kme of contracKon  • planes of moKon allowed in the joint  • axis of rotaKon possible in the joint • muscle length  • relaKve contracKon/relaxaKon of other muscles acKng on the  joint  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 16  1/30/17  The Kinema*c/Kine*c Chain Representa-on of a series of rigid segments   connected by a series of joints  • Open Kinema-c/Kine-c Chain (OKC)  – MoKon of one joint independent of others  – Distal segment free to move  – Non-weight-bearing  • Closed Kinema-c/Kine-c Chain (CKC)  – MoKon at one joint influences all others  – Distal segment fixed  – Weight-bearing  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Example: Chin-ups During the Up Phase:  • Agonist (at elbow):    • Antagonist:    During the Down Phase:  • Agonist (at elbow):    • Antagonist:    Note:  The elbow moKon in returning to hanging posiKon a]er  chinning is extension, but triceps & anconeus are not being  strengthened.  The elbow joint flexors contract concentrically to chin up AND eccentrically to lower you down.  Is this an Open Chain or Closed Chain acKvity?  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Example: Kicking A Ball • Break down the task:  • Name the key players:  – Agonist:    – Antagonist:   – Synergists:     – What’s happening at the contralateral LE?  – Is kicking an Open Chain or Closed Chain acKvity?  17  1/30/17  Example: Kicking A Ball  • Break down the task:  • Name the key players:  – Agonist:    – Antagonist:   – Synergists:     The lower extremity route & subsequent angle at the point of contact  (during forward swing) depend upon a certain amount of relaKve  contracKon or relaxaKon in the hip abductors, adductors, internal rotators  & external rotators (acKng in a synergisKc fashion to guide lower extremity  precisely).  These synergisKc muscles are not primarily responsible for knee  extension & hip flexion but contribute to accuracy of the total movement….  They refine the kick & prevent extraneous moKons – What’s happening at the contralateral LE?  Muscles in the contralateral hip & pelvic area must be under relaKve  tension to help fixate or stabilize the pelvis on side to provide a relaKvely  stable base for the hip flexors on the involved side to contract against  – Is kicking an Open Chain or Closed Chain acKvity?  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Understanding Muscle Ac-on • Palpa-on   – Using sense of touch to feel a muscle contracKon  • Models  – Rubber bands  – Skeletal model  • Electromyography  – Using electrodes to detect acKon potenKals   • Electrical Muscle SKmulaKon  – Using electrodes to cause muscle contract   • Lines of pull   – Consider joint design and muscle O & I  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Understanding Muscle AcKon: Lines of Pull Consider the following:  1. Muscle O & I - Exact locaKons of bony landmarks  to which muscles aPach proximally & distally and  their relaKonship to joints  2. What joint(s) the muscle crosses  3. Joint design  – Type of joint  – Possible acKons & planes of moKon    Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 18  1/30/17  Understanding Muscle AcKon: Lines of Pull  Example:  Rectus femoris O:  Anterior Ilium & I: Anterior Kbia  • It is posiKoned __________  to knee & hip.    • Hip is a(n) ____  joint & is __-axial.  It moves in _____ plane(s)  • Knee is a(n) ____ joint & is __-axial.  It moves in ___ plane(s)  So…., the rectus femoris moves the hip & knee in the _____ plane &  has the acKon of hip ___ & knee ___.    Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Understanding Muscle AcKon: Lines of Pull Also consider:  • As a joint moves the line of pull may change & result in  muscle having a different or opposite acKon than in the  original posiKon  • PotenKal effect of other muscles’ relaKve contracKon or  relaxaKon on a parKcular muscle’s ability to cause moKon  • Effect of a muscle’s relaKve length on its ability to generate  force (see insufficiency) • Effect of the posiKon of other joints on the ability of a  biarKcular or mulKarKcular muscle to generate force or allow  lengthening Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Uni-, Bi-, and Mul--Ar-cular Muscles Uniar-cular muscles  • Cross & act directly only on the joint that they cross  – Example: Brachialis  • O: anterior humerus & I: anterior-lateral ulna  • AcKon:  elbow flexion…. Concentrically pulls humerus & ulna closer  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 19  1/30/17  Uni-, Bi-, and Mul--Ar-cular Muscles Biar-cular muscles & Mul-ar-cular muscles  • Cross & act on two (or more) different joints  – May cause, control, or prevent moKon at either one /both joints  – Can maintain a relaKvely constant length >> conKnuing force  – Example:  Biceps Brachii (mulKarKcular)  • O: Lateral Scapula & I: radius  • AcKon:    – Shoulder flexion   – Elbow flexion  – Forearm supinaKon   Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Uni-, Bi-, and Mul--Ar-cular Muscles • Muscle does not actually shorten at one joint &  lengthen at other  – The concentric shortening of the muscle to move one  joint is offset by moKon of the other joint which moves  its aPachment of muscle farther away  – This maintenance of a relaKvely constant length results  in the muscle being able to conKnue its exerKon of  force  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Example of muscle length in BiarKcular Muscles  Remember the Rectus Femoris… O:  Anterior Ilium & I: Anterior Kbia  A: hip flexion & knee extension.    • Concurrent movement paPern occurs when both the knee &  hip extend at the same -me    • If only knee extension occurs, rectus femoris shortens &  decreases in its ability to exert force… but its relaKve length &  subsequent force producKon capability may be maintained  due to its relaKve lengthening at the hip joint during extension  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 20  1/30/17  Example of muscle length in BiarKcular Muscles  Remember the Rectus Femoris… O:  Anterior Ilium & I: Anterior Kbia  A: hip flexion & knee extension.    Counter-current movement paPern occurs in kicking  • During the swing phase the rectus femoris concentrically contracts  to flex the hip & extend the knee  • These two movements, when combined, increase the tension or  stretch on the hamstring muscles both at the knee & hip  Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Ac-ve & Passive Insufficiency As muscle shortens its ability to exert force diminishes  • Ac*ve insufficiency is reached when the muscle becomes  shortened to the point that it can not generate or  maintain acKve tension  – the muscle cannot shorten any farther  • Passive insufficiency is reached when the opposing  muscle becomes stretched to the point where it can no  longer lengthen & allow movement  – the muscle cannot shorten any farther  Easily observed in either biar-cular or mul-ar-cular muscles when  full ROM is aHempted in all joints crossed by the muscle  e.g., wrist & finger flexion  e.g., hip flexion & knee extension Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  Example:  Ac-ve & Passive Insufficiency Rectus Femoris: A: hip flexion & knee extension Can completely perform either acKon… but  acKvely insufficient to obtain full ROM at both joints simultaneously  Hamstrings:  A: hip extension & knee flexion  Similarly, hamstrings can not usually stretch  enough to allow both maximal hip flexion &  maximal knee extension due to passive  insufficiencyFloyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  21  1/30/17  Example:  Ac-ve & Passive Insufficiency Wrist & finger flexion:    • Flexors - acKvely insufficient  • Extensors - passively insufficient  Wrist & finger extension:    • Extensors – acKvely insufficient  • Flexors - passively insufficient  Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-64 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon Structural Kinesiology  AcKve & Passive Insufficiency Instructor explains acKve/passive insufficiency & then  does 2 labs: • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch? v=j9UeO5AfO5g&index=14&list=PLIn41TZZrm4Bhq5Qc LGrPz3s9-HP4gph  • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISrCI1mBi4I • hPps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FZiKMY5VM8   Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-65 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon Structural Kinesiology  Web Sites  Human Anatomy Online  hPp://innerbody.com/image/musfov.html    – An interacKve site with details on the muscular and nervous systems.  Loyola University Medical Educa-on Network Master Muscle List  www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/dissector/mml   – An interacKve & graphical review of muscles indexed alphabeKcally & by region.  Muscular System  www.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/musc/muscular.htm   – Cadavaric photos of the cat muscular system.  Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-66 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKonStructural Kinesiology  22  1/30/17  Web Sites  BBC Science & Nature hPp://bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interacKves/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml   – An interacKve site allowing you to select the innervaKon for the muscles.  Func-ons of the Muscular System  hPp://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular – Several pages with informaKon on skeletal muscle structure, types, and groups,  along with unit review and quizzes.  U.S. Na-onal Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project AnatQuest Anatomic Images  Online  hPp://anatquest.nlm.nih.gov/AnatQuest/AwtCsViewer/aq-cutaway.html    – A great resource using a cut-away viewer to see cadaver images throughout the  body to idenKfy the relevant anatomy.  The Physician and Sportsmedicine www.physsportsmed.com/index.php?arKcle=1476   – Refining rehabilitaKon with propriocepKon training: expediKng return to play.  Get Body Smart  www.getbodysmart.com/index.htm   – An online interacKve tutorial on the muscular and nervous systems.  Neurologic Exam: An anatomical approach  hPp://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/html/home_exam.html   – A very thorough site on neurological exams, including numerous movies with  both normal and pathological results.  Manual of   Neuromuscular Fundamentals  2-67 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon Structural Kinesiology  Web Sites  Cranial Nerves: Review info  www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/cn/cranial.htm   – A good resource on the cranial nerves.  University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Nerve tables  hPp://anatomy.uams.edu/anatomyhtml/nerves.html   – Numerous tables of all nerves throughout the body.  Dermatomes  www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/learnem/dermat/main_der.htm – An interacKve review of the body’s dermatomes.  Propriocep-on Exercises Can Improve Balance  hPp://sportsmedicine.about.com/library/weekly/aa062200.htm   – PropriocepKon.  Func-ons of the Nervous System  hPp://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/nervous – InformaKon on nervous system organizaKon, nerve structure, unit review, & quizzes.  Training for Propriocep-on & Func-on  www.coachr.org/proprio.htm   – InformaKon on improving body awareness movement efficiency.  Neuromuscular Fundamentals  Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill EducaKon. All rights reserved. No reproducKon or distribuKon without the prior wriPen consent of McGraw-Hill EducaKon References  ⦿ Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology  (19th ediKon).   ⦿ Hamilton, N, Weimar, W., & LuPgens, K.  (2011).  Kinesiology:  ScienKfic Basis of Human Movement McGraw-Hill EducaKon.  ⦿ Rodgers, M. & Cavanagh, P. (1984).  Glossary of Biomechanical  Terms, Concepts, and Units.  Physical Therapy, 64(12).    Note:  The material in this presentaKon has been copied and provided  to you on behalf of the Univerisity of Mississippi Copyright RestricKon  Policy and US Copyright Law.  Any further copying / distribuKon of this  material may violate copyright law.  Do not remove this noKce.     Floyd, R.T. & Thompson, C. (2015) Manual of Structural Kinesiology (19th edition). Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights  reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education  23  

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here