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eeob ucr

eeob ucr

Description

School: University of Nevada - Las Vegas
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology for Non-Majors
Professor: Michael webber
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Biology, Science, Life Science, cells, and Cell
Cost: 50
Name: Biology Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: This guide is based off of the first three chapters of the text.
Uploaded: 02/08/2017
31 Pages 112 Views 0 Unlocks
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1) What is a metabolism?




2) What are the two types of cellular organisms?




(1) What are the characteristics of life?



Sour Course: BIO 100 Exam #1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Humans in the World of Biology (1) What are the characteristics of life? 1. living things contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids 2. living things are composed of cells (2.1) What are cells? the smallest units of life (2.2) What are the two types of cellular organisms? (1) uniceIf you want to learn more check out webcampus unlv
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llular organisms- organisms that only have a single cell (2) multicellular organisms- organisms with trillions of cells 3. living things grow and reproduce 4. living things use energy and raw materials (4.1) What is a metabolism? all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things maintains life and allows organisms to grow 5. living things respond to their environment (5.1) stimulus leads to response 6. living things maintain homeostasis (6.1) What is homeostasis? the relatively constant and self-correcting internal environment of a living organism 7. populations of living things have adaptive traits and evolve • (7.1) What are adaptive traits? 1 of 31 traits that help it survive and reproduce in its natural environment (7.2) this is also known as natural selection (7.3) What are epiphytes? plants rooted on the surfaces of other plants (2) All organisms came from the first cells, but through evolution, diversity arose (3) Organisms with the greatest similarity are grouped together in domains (3.1) What are the domains of organisms? Domain Bacteria unicellular prokaryotic organisms Domain Archaea unicellular prokaryotic organisms most live in extreme environments Domain Eukarya eukaryotic cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and internal compartments (i.e. organelles) (3.2) What are the kingdoms in the domain eukarya? 1. Protists protozoans algae diatoms 2. Fungi molds mushrooms 3. Plants mosses 2 of 31 ferns seed plants 4. Animals invertebrates vertebrates humans are vertebrates What are vertebrates? animals with a nerve cord protected by a backbone humans are mammals What are the characteristics of mammals? we have hair we feed our young milk produced by mammary glands humans are primates What are the characteristics of primates? forward-looking eyes a well-developed brain opposable thumbs (4) What is an atom? a unit of matter that cannot be further broken down (5) What is a molecule? the chemical components of cells (6) What is an organelle? a component within the cell that carries out specific functions (7) What is a cell? 3 of 31 the smallest unit of life (8) What is tissue? a group of similar cells that perform the same function (9) What is an organ? a structure with two or more tissues working together to perform a function (10) What is an organ systems? at least two organs working (11) What is an individual? • a single organism (12) What is a population? all individuals of the same species in an area (13) What is a community? all the species in an ecosystem that can interact (14) What is an ecosystem? a community and its physical environment (15) What is a biosphere? the part of the earth that supports life (16) Atoms lead to molecules, which lead to organelles, which lead to the cell. Cells lead to tissue, which lead to an organ, which leads to organ systems. Organ systems lead to an individual, which leads to a population, which leads to a community, which leads to an ecosystem, which leads to the biosphere. (17) What is science? a systematic approach to answering those questions • a way of acquiring knowledge though carefully documented investigation and experimentation (18) What is the scientific method? 4 of 31 a way of learning about the natural world by applying certain rules of logic to the way information is gathered and conclusions are drawn (18.1) What are the steps of the scientific method? 1. make careful observations, and ask a question about the observation 2. develop a testable hypothesis (possible explanation) as a possible answer to your question what is a hypothesis? an answer to a scientific question a statement, not a question can be shown to be false, it can never be proved to be true 3. make a prediction based on your hypothesis, and test it with a controlled experiment what is a controlled experiment? ideally designed in such a way that there can be only one explanation for the results What are the two groups in a controlled experiment? Studs W (1) control group receives the placebo placebo-an innocuous, non drug substance made to look like the drug being tested • (2) experimental group • What are the difference types of variables found in a controlled experiment? independent variable- one factor given to one group but not the other 5 of 31 confounding variable- additional variable that has not been controlled for, and may have affected the outcome Draw a conclusion based on the results of the experiment What is a conclusion? an interpretation of the data What is statistical significance? a measure of the possibility that the results were due to change the lower the number, the more accurate the results 5. Make new predictions and test them experiments must be repeated and yield similar results What is a theory? a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe (19) What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Inductive Reasoning- facts are accumulated through observation until the sheer weight of the evidence allows some logical general statement to be made (19.1) Inductive= specific-> general claim Deductive Reasoning- begins with a general statement that leads logically to one or more deductions, or conclusions (19.2) Deductive= general-> specific claim described as an "if-then" series of associations (20) What are clinical trials? studies on humans (20.1) What are the phases of clinical trials? 6 of 31 Phase l: drug is screened for safety on fewer than 100 healthy people Phase II: a few hundred people with the target disease are given the drug to see whether it works for its intended purpose Phase III: the new drug will be compared with alternative treatments After all of these phases the FDA approves the drug (20.2) What is a double-blind experiment? an experiment where neither the researchers not the study participants know which people are receiving treatment and which are receiving the placebo (20.3) clinical traits require informed consent participants must also be mentally capable of understanding the treatment and risks (21) What is an epidemiological study? researchers look at patterns that occur within large populations (22) What are some questions that critical thinkers should ask? ? ds +1. Is the information consistent with information from other sources? 2. How reliable is the source of the information? 3. Was the information obtained through proper scientific procedures? 4. Were experimental results interpreted correctly? 5. Are there other possible explanations for the results? (23) What is information literacy? the ability to recognize what you need to know, locate relevant information, evaluate it, apply it to the problem at hand, and communicate it effectively Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes to Life (1) What is chemistry? 7 of 31 the branch of science concerned with the composition and properties of substances, including the stuff our bodies are built from (2) What is matter? anything that takes up space and has mass + (2.1) How is matter measured? often in grams or kilograms (or ounces and pounds) (2.2) What are the three states of matter? solids, liquids, and gases + (2.3) matter is made up of atoms (2.4) What are atoms? units of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means (2.5) What is the layout of the average atom? nucleus is at it's center, and a surrounding spherical “cloud" of electrons (2.6) Electrons move around the nucleus and occur at certain energy levels called shells + (2.7) What is a shell? 3 dimensional spaces (2.8) How many electrons does the shell closest to the nucleus have? + 2 electrons (2.9) How many electrons does the shell second closest to the nucleus have? + 8 electrons oms with more than 10 electrons have additional shells 8 of 31 (2.11) What does the number of electrons in the outermost shell determine? an atom's chemical properties (2.12) Electrons with the most energy are found farthest from the nucleus (2.13) What type of charge do electrons have? negative (2.14) What type of charge do neutrons have? no electrical charge, it's neutral (2.15) What type of charge does a proton have? positive (2.16) Most atoms have the same number of protons and electrons (3) What is an element? a pure form of matter containing only one kind of atom (3.1) What is an atomic number? the number of protons in the atom's nucleus (3.2) What is the approximate mass of protons and neutrons? 1 atomic mass unit (3.3) What is the approximate mass of electrons? (3.4) The atomic mass for any atom= the number of protons + the number of neutrons (3.5) What is the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes? isotopes- atoms that have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons (some elements have both stable & unstable isotopes) radioisotopes- unstable, radiation-emitting isotopes 9 of 31 (3.6) What are some examples of radioisotopes? radio waves, light, heat, and the excess energy or particles given off by unstable isotopes as they break down (3.7) How can radiation be dangerous? absorption can lead to damage of organs (i.e. skin) and development of some cancers it may alter the hereditary material in the cells of the reproduction system (3.8) How can radiation be useful? medical professionals use it for: diagnosis and therapy, and killing cancer cells (4) What is a compound? 2 or more elements combining to form a new chemical substance (4.1) How are atoms (or ions) held together in a compound? by chemical bonds (4.2) When atoms form bonds they lose, gain, or share the electrons in their outermost shell (4.3) What are the 2 types of chemical bonds found in compounds? (1) Covalent Bond-forms when 2 or more atoms share electrons in their outer shells (4.4) What is a molecule? a chemical structure held together by covalent bonds (4.5) What are the different types of covalent bonds? single covalent bond- a bond in which a single pair of electrons is shared double (or triple) covalent bonds- two atoms share two (or three pairs) of electrons 10 of 31 (4.6) How are covalent bonds represented in a structural formula? single covalent bond= single line double covalent bond (or two pairs of shared elements)=double lines 2) lonic Bond- results from the mutual attraction of oppositely charged ions "opposites attract" (4.7) What is an ion? an atom or group of atoms that carries either a positive (+) or a negative (-) * (4.8) How do ions form? the tendency of atoms to attain a complete outermost shell (4.9) Electrical charges result from the transfer (not sharing) of electrons between atoms (5) What are the unique properties of water? 1. its virtuosity as a dissolving agent 2.its high heat capacity 3.its high heat of vaporization 4. water molecules are cohesive (cling together) 5. is adhesive (they cling to other molecules) 6. is very interactive w/other elements 7. is a solvent 8. helps prevent dramatic changes in body temperature (5.1) Water's unusual qualities can be traced to its polarity • (5.2) What is polarity? 11 of 31 the tendency of its molecules to have positive and negative regions and the hydrogen bonds between its molecules (5.3) Unequal covalent bonds are called polar (5.4) What are polar molecules? molecules with unevenly distributed charges + (5.5) What is a hydrogen bond? the attraction between a slightly positively charged hydrogen atom and a slightly negatively charged atom nearby (5.6) Hydrogen bonds are weaker than ionic and covalent bonds (5.7) How are hydrogen bonds represented in a structural formula? dotted lines (6) What is the difference acids and bases? Acid- anything that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when placed in water increases the concentration of H+ in solution Base- anything that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when placed in water decreases the concentration of H+ in solution • (7) What is pH? a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution (8) What is the pH scale? ranges from 0 to 14 pH of 7 is neutral • the lower the pH the more acidic (9) What are buffers? keep pH values form changing dramatically • (10) What is acid precipitation? rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6 (the pH of natural precipitation) 12 of 31 (10.1) What are the major causes of acid precipitation? burning of fossil fuels in cars, factions, and power plants (10.2) What are some of the effects it can have on humans? irritation and respiratory illnesses such as asthma and bronchitis (10.3) It has been linked to the decline of forests, and to decreases in aquatic organisms (11) What are macromolecules? exceptionally large molecules (12) What are polymers? macromolecules that consist many small, repeating molecular subunits linked in a chain (12.1) How do polymers form? through dehydration synthesis (aka condensation reaction) (13) What are monomers? small molecular subunits that form the building blocks of the polymer (14) Hydrolysis requires the addition of water across the covalent bonds (14.1) What does the body use hydrolysis for? to break many polymers apart (15) What are carbohydrates? (aka sugars and starches) provide fuel (or energy) for the human body are made entirely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with each molecule having twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms (16) What are monosaccharides? the smallest molecular units of carbohydrates aka simple sugars (16.1) What is pentose? 13 of 31 • a sugar that contains 5 carbons (16.2) What is hexose? a sugar that contains 6 carbons (17) What is a oligosaccharide? Study Soul % chains of a few monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis oligo="few" (18) What is a disaccharide? a type of oligosaccharide; a double sugar that forms when two monosaccharides covalently bond to each other (19) What is a polysaccharide? a complex carbohydrate that forms when monosaccharides (most commonly glucose) join together in long chains (19.1) What is the purpose of polysaccharides? most store energy or provide structure (19.2) What is the storage polysaccharide called in plants and humans? starch for plants glycogen for humans (19.3) What is glycogen? a short-term energy source that can be broken down to release energy-laden glucose molecules (19.4) What is cellulose? a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants (20) What are lipids? compounds that don't dissolve in water (20.1) What type of charge do lipids have? nonpolar, no charge water shows no attraction for lipids and vice versa 14 of 31 (20.2) What are the three types of lipids that are important to human health? 1. Triglyceride-compounds made of one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids What are fatty acids? id udy Soup chains of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogens and having the acidic group COOH at one end What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? saturated fatty acids- have only single covalent bonds linking the carbon atoms saturated with hydrogen, because their carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible unsaturated fatty acids- fatty acids with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms not saturated with hydrogen What are trans fats? partially hydrogenated fats Where are trans fats normally found? in packaged snacks 2. Phospholipids-consists of a molecule of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a negatively charged phosphate group What is the different between hydrophobic or hydrophilic? + hydrophobic- (aka water fearing) the region made up of fatty acids is nonpolar + hydrophilic- (aka water loving) containing glycerol, phosphate, and the variable group is polar Sour La Are arranged in a double layer called bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads of each layer facing away from each other 15 of 31 3. Steroids- a type of lipid made up of four carbon rings attached to molecules that vary from one steroid to the next What is the most familiar steroid? + Cholesterol it's a component of the plasma membrane the foundation from which steroid hormones in human blood it comes from our liver and diet (21) What is a protein? + a polymer made of one or more chains of amino acids (21.1) How do protein chains look? twisted, turned, and folded to produce complicated structures (21.2) How many different amino acids are proteins made of? are from a set of only 20 different amino acids (21.3) What are amino acids? the building blocks of proteins + (21.4) What is the difference between nonessential and essential amino acids? nonessential amino acids- our bodies can synthesize + essential amino acids- our bodies cannot synthesized; must be obtained from the foods we eat + (21.5) What is a peptide? + chains containing only a few amino acids (21.6) What is a depitide? chains containing 2 amino acids (21.7) What is a tripeptide? chains containing 3 amino acids + (21.8) What is a polypeptide ? 16 of 31 chains containing 10 or more amino acids (21.9) What are the main structures of a protein? 1. Primary Structure- the particular sequence of amino acids • What determines what's in the primary structure of a cell? • genes What happens if there are slight changes in the primary structure? can alter a protein's shape and ability to function 2. Secondary Structure-consists of patterns known as helices and pleated sheets, which are formed by certain kinds of bends and coils in the chain; as a result of hydrogen bonding What happens if there are alterations in the secondary structure? can transform the protein into a prion • What is a prion? an infectious agent 3. Tertiary Structure-the overall 3-dimensional shape of the protein + What happens if there are changes in the environment of the tertiary structure? can cause denaturation What is a denaturation? the molecule unravels and loses its 3-dimensional shape 4. Quaternary Structure-results from the assembled subunits What are subunits? proteins that consist of two or more polypeptide chains • (22) What are enzymes? substances (almost always proteins) that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed in the process 17 of 31 (22.1) The equation that summarizes how an enzyme speeds up a chemical: enzyme+ substrate---> enzyme-substrate complex---> enzyme + product (22.2) What is a substrate? the substance at the start of the process (22.3) What is a product? the substance at the end + (22.4) What is an active site? the location where the substrate binds on the enzyme What is the result of the active site? an enzyme-substrate complex 8 Std Sou (22.5) Sometimes enzymes need cofactors What are cofactors? nonprotein substances that help them convert substrate to product some permanently reside at the enzymes active site at the same time as the substrate can be organic or inorganic (22.6) What is an example of enzyme deficiency? lactose deficiency (or intolerance) (23) What are coenzymes? organic cofactors (24) Genes, our units of inheritance, are segments of long polymers called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) + (24.1) What are the two types of nucleic acids in our cells? deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) 18 of 31 (24.2) Both DNA and RNA are polymers of smaller units called nucleotides, joined together into chains through dehydration synthesis (24.3) The sequence of bases in DNA and RNA determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein (24.4) What are the nitrogen containing bases of DNA? adenine (A) thymine (T) cytosine (C guanine (G) (24.5) What are the nitrogen containing bases of RNA? * cytosine (C) adenine (A) guanine (G) uracil (U) (24.6) What is the difference in how DNA and RNA are held together? DNA= a double-stranded chain, held together by a double-helix +RNA= single strange of nucleotides (24.7) What is the 5 carbon sugar of DNA and RNA? + DNA= deoxyribose RNA=ribose (25) What is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? a nucleotide where molecules are each splitting off a phosphate group Chapter 3: The Cell • (1) What is Cell Theory? a fundamental organizing principle of biology that guides the way biologists think about living things 19 of 31 (1.1) It states: a cell is the smallest unit of life cells make up all living things (unicellular & multicellular) new cells can arise only from preexisting cells (2) What are the two types of cells? + (1) Prokaryotic Cells structurally simpler and typically smaller than eukaryotic cells most are surrounded by a rigid cell wall lack organelles limited to bacteria and archaea + (2.1) What is archaea? include species that inhabit extreme environments (2) Eukaryotic Cells possess organelles → (2.2) What is an organelle? a component within a cell that carries out specific functions a.k.a "little organ" membrane bound organelles (3) What is the DNA formation of in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? prokaryotic-circular eukaryotic- coiled, linear strands (4) Where is the DNA located in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic- cytoplasm Eukaryotic-Nucleus (5) What are the organelles of the eukaryotic cell? 20 of 31 • plasma membrane- regulates movement of materials into and out of cell cytoplasm- the material surrounding the nucleus lysosome- digests substances brought into cell and destroys old parts of cells mitochondrion- provides cell with energy though the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration nucleus-contains DNA and controls cellular activity nucleolus- produces components of ribosomes (RNA and proteins) ribosome- site where protein synthesis begins rough endoplasmic reticulum-studded with ribosomes and produces membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum- detoxifies drugs and produces membrane Golgi complex-sorts, modifies, and packages proteins microfilament-plays a role in muscle contraction and cell division microtubule- maintains cell shape and forms tracks on which vesicles move centrioles- may function in cell division + (6) How are cells measured? usually measured in micrometers + (7) The small size of a cell is dictated by a physical relationship known as the surface-to-volume ratio (7.1) What happens as a cell gets larger? its surface area increases much more slowly than its volume (7.2) Why should cells remain small? the ratio of surface area to volume decreases rapidly as cell size increases (8) Cells can only be seen though microscopes (8.1) What are the two types of microscopes used on cells? (1) light microscopes 21 of 31 (2) electron microscopes (9) The structure of a cell exquisitely reflects its functions (9.1) What are some examples of this? a sperm is specialized to be highly mobile • an egg (human reproduction) is specialized to be large, immobile, and to be fertilized (10) What is the outer most surface of the cell called? • Plasma Membrane (10.1) The plasma membrane is remarkably thin (10.2) Which type of cells have plasma membranes? prokaryotic and eukaryotic, but only eukaryotic cells also contain internal membranes (10.3) The structure of the plasma membrane is composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. (10.4) What are the main structures within the plasma membrane structure? phospho-lipid bilayer-a double layer created as a result of molecules with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails extracellular fluid- the watery solution outside the cell interact with the hydrophilic heads facing outside the cell a.k.a interstitial fluid cytoplasm- the jellylike solution inside the cell includes all contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus interact with the hydrophilic heads facing inside the cell fluid mosaic- the structure of the plasma membrane the proteins are interspersed among the lipid molecules like tiles of different colors within a mosaic (11) What are the functions of the plasma membrane? 22 of 31 maintain structural integrity of the cell regulate movement of substances into and out of the cell provide recognition & communication between cells (11.1) How does the plasma membrane provide recognition & communication between cells? via receptors (11.2) What are receptors? specialized proteins in the plasma membrane (or inside the cell) that bind particular substances that affect cell activities stick cells together to form tissues and organs (11.3) How does the plasma membrane stick cells together? Through Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMS) + (11.4) What are Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)? extend from the plasma membranes of most cells and help attach the cells to one another, especially during the formation of tissues and organs in an embryo selectively permeable (12) What are the different types of movement methods across the plasma? (1) Simple Diffusion- the random movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (12.1) What is concentration? the number of molecules of a substance in a particular volume (12.2) What is concentration gradient? + a difference in the relative number of molecules or ions of a given substance in two adjacent areas 23 of 31 (2) Facilitated Diffusion- the movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration with the aid of a membrane protein • Doesn't require energy and is thus a form of passive transport (3) Osmosis- a type of diffusion in which water moves across a plasma membrane or any other selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration Oxudy sou Doesn't require energy and is thus a form of passive transport (12.3) What are the different types of osmosis solutions? hypertonic solution- a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside the bag isotonic solution-one with the same solute (sugar) concentration as inside the bag, there is no net movement of water in either direction, and the bag maintains its original shape hypotonic solution- the concentration of solute is lower than that inside the bag, more water moves into the bag than out, causing the bag to swell and possibly burst Active transport- a mechanism that moves substances across plasma membranes with the aid of a carrier protein and energy supplied by the cell occurs when cells need to concentrate certain substances in most cases, substances are moved from regions of lower concentration to higher concentration going "against the concentration gradient" (5) Endocytosis- a region of the plasma membrane engulfs the substance to be digested and then pinches off from the rest of membrane It encloses the substance in a saclike structure called a vesicle (12.4) What are the two types of endocytosis? • Phagocytosis-cells engulf large particles or bacteria "cell eating" 24 of 31 Pinocytosis- engulf droplets of fluid, thus brining all of the substances dissolved in the droplet into the cell "cell drinking" • (6) Exocytosis- the process by which large molecules leave cells • (12.5) What is the process of exocytosis? when the vesicle reaches the plasma membrane, the vesicle membrane fuses with the plasma membrane then the vesicle opens up to release the hormone outside the cell • nerve cells also release chemicals by exocytosis (13) What is a nucleus? it contains almost all of the cell's genetic information (13.1) What is a nuclear envelope? a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm (13.2) What are nuclear pores? openings in the envelope where communication between the nucleus and cytoplasm occur (13.3) What are chromosomes? threadlike structures made of DNA and associated proteins - the number of chromosomes varies from one species to another (13.4) What are chromatin? • genetic material in a dispersed state the chromatin and other contents of the nucleus constitute the nucleoplasm (13.5) What is the nucleolus? 25 of 31 a specialized region within the nucleus, forms and disassembles during the course of the cell cycle not surrounded by a membrane but is simply a region where DNA has gathered to produce a type of RNA called ribosomal RNA (TRNA) (13.6) What are ribosomes? sites where protein synthesis begins Ribosomal RNA is a component of this may be suspended in the cytoplasm (free ribosomes) or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (bound ribosomes) → (14) What is endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? is part of an extensive network of channels connected to the nuclear envelope and certain organelles studded with ribosomes proteins made by ribosomes bound to ER will be incorporated into membranes or eventually secreted by the cell proteins produced by free ribosomes (cytoplasm) will remain in the cell • (15) What is smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)? lacks ribosomes detoxifies alcohol and other drugs produces phospholipids used to make the RER membrane (which must be replenished constantly) (16) What is the Golgi complex? (10) estu the cell's protein processing and packaging center 26 of 31 consists of a series of interconnected, flattened membranes sacs (17) What are lysosomes? roughly spherical organelles consisting of a single membrane packed with about 40 different digestive enzymes (17.1) What happens when a cell engulfs a bacterium? + (1) Cell engulfs bacterium through phagocytosis (2) lysome fuses with vesicle containing bacterium (3) lysosomal enzymes break the bacterium down into smaller molecules that diffuse into cytoplasm + (4) some indigestible substances leave the cell by exocytosis (5) other indigestible substances remain in the cell (17.2) What happens when lysosomes digest the obsolete parts of the cell? (1) lysosome engulfs a damaged organelle (2) lysosomal enzymes break down the organelle into smaller molecules that will return to the cytoplasm for reuse (17.3) What happens when even a single kind of lysomal is absent? it can have devastating consequences (17.4) Lysomal storage diseases are inherited and progress with age • What is an example of a lysomal storage disease? Tay-Sachs disease What is Tay-Sachs disease? caused by the absence of the lysosomal enzyme hexosaminidase (Hex A) which breaks down lipids in nerve cells by 4 to 5 years old it can cause paralysis and death has no cure 27 of 31 carriers, these individuals do not have the disease, but could passs the gene to their offspring (18) What are the organelles where most of the cellular respiration occurs? mitochondria (18.1) Mitochondria provides energy that cells need (18.2) The number of mitochondria is roughly correlated with a cell's demand for energy + (18.3) What is cristae ? the inholdings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion (18.4) Mitochondria contain ribosomes and a small percentage of a cell's total DNA Why is this? they are likely descendants of once free-living bacteria that invaded or were engulfed by ancient cells (19) What is the cytoskeleton? a complex network of fibers (19.1) How is the cytoskeleton divided up? (1) Microtubules- straight, hollow rods made of the protein the thickest fiber some maintain cell shape form tracks along which organelles or vesicles travel play a role in the separation of chromosomes during cell division el Study Soup contain centrioles What are centrioles? a microtubule organizing center located near the nucleus 28 of 31 each composed of 9 sets of 3 microtubules arranged in a ring function in cell division and in the formation of cilia and flagella What are Cilia? numerous short extensions on a cell that move with the back-and-forth motion of cars singular, cilium smoking, destroys these cilia and hampers cleaning or respiratory surfaces What are flagellum? resembles a whip and moves in an undulating manner much longer than cilia the only cell with a flagellum in humans is the sperm cell What is the difference between cilia and flagellum? differ in length, number per cell, and pattern of movement (2) Microfilaments- solid rods made of the protein actin muscle contraction during cell division, form a bond that contracts and pinches the cell in two (3) Intermediate Filaments- a diverse group of ropelike fibers that maintain cell shape and anchor certain organelles in place 29 of 31 protein composition varies depending on the cell (20) What are the two ways cells break down glucose molecules apart for energy? (1) Cellular Respiration-requires oxygen (2) Fermentation- doesn't require oxygen (21) All of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell constitute its metabolism (22) Cellular respiration and fermentation are examples of catabolic pathways (22.1) What is the difference between catabolic and anabolic pathways? catabolic pathways-pathways in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler compounds, releasing energy anabolic pathways- conversely, build complex molecules from simpler ones and consume energy vler SA (23) What is the purpose of cellular respiration? cells breaking down glucose by using oxygen (24) What are the 4 phases of cell respiration? (1) Glycosis glyco= sugar; lysis=splitting begins with the splitting of glucose, a 6 carbon sugar, into 2 three carbon sugars 3 carbon sugars are then converted into 2 molecules of pyruvate, another 3 carbon compound (2) Transition Reaction once inside the inner compartment of the mitochondrion, pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A (COA) results in the removal of one carbon from each pyruvate (3) Citric Acid Cycle still in the inner compartment of the mitochondrion, acetyl CoA reacts with a 4 carbon compound in the first of a cyclic series of 8 chemical reactions 30 of 31 named after the first product (citric acid, or citrate) formed along its route SOSO a.k.a. Krebs cycle (4) Electron transport chain the molecules of NADH and FADH2 produced by earlier phases pass their electrons to a series of carrier proteins embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion energy is released and used to make ATP (25) Cellular respiration produces: 36 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose: • 2 ATP from glycolysis 2 ATP from the citric acid cycle 32 ATP from the electron transport chain (26) What is fermentation? the breakdown of glucose without oxygen (26.1) What are the products of fermentation? 2 molecules of ATP (26.2) It is very inefficient way for cells to harvest energy (26.3) What is the process of fermentation? it begins with glycosides in the cytoplasm the remaining fermentation reactions also take place in the cytoplasm, transferring electrons from NADH to pyruvate or a derivate of pyruvate (26.4) What is lactic acid fermentation? occurs in the human body during strenuous exercise, oxygen in our muscles run low as compensation cells increase lactic acid fermentation to ensure continued production of ATP 31 of 31

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