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OSU / Psychology / PSYCH 1100 / early evolutionary pressures favored humans who ___________, and by do

early evolutionary pressures favored humans who ___________, and by do

early evolutionary pressures favored humans who ___________, and by do

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School: Ohio State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Andre plate
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psych Final Study Guide
Description: Detailed book notes for class final. Student received an A.
Uploaded: 02/08/2017
16 Pages 464 Views 0 Unlocks
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How are attitudes influenced by others?




What is Social Psychology?




What is the biology behind it?



Psych Final Exam Study Guide: 1. The individual mind (personality and the self)  -Cultures differ in the emphasis on individualism vs. collectivism -The United States is not a very collectivistic culture (valuing the  needs of a group or a community over the individual) China is  collectivistic. -Looking at individualism- people carrying the S allele are attentiveWe also discuss several other topics like ashton waller
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to  negative information, might help them cope well within a collectivistic  culture -The L allele is associated with reduced responses to psychological and  social stress, which enhanced coping in an individualistic culture  (society which is characterized by individualism, not collectivism). The  US is individualistic. -Individual differences are an important aspect of behavior and  mental processing, but must be viewed within larger contexts of the  social and cultural environment. What is personality??? Personality- an individual’s characteristic style of behaving thinking  and feeling.  -Study of personality for the first half of the 20th century was  dominated by psychodynamic approached of Sigmund Freud  (personality shaped by early childhood experiences) - He incorporated his observations and interactions with his  patients into new theory = psychoanalysis -He said intrinsic personality moves among 3 compartments (id,  ego, and superego) 1. Id- present at birth and constraints primitive drives for  personality, hunger, thirst and sex. Id operates according to the  pleasure principal. 2. Ego- component of personality that is readily seen by others,  so it acts as the persons “self”. Job is to coordinate needs of Id, with  reality. 3. Superego- develops when child understands society’s rules  for right and wrong; forming conscience.  -Psychodynamic  (first used by Ernst Von Brucke) explanation or  interpretation (as of behavior or mental states) in terms of mental or  emotional forces or processes. - Went off of 1st law of thermodynamics {energy can change from one to another but can not be created nor destroyed} Original definition of personality- stable and consistent patterns of  behavior. Humanistic psychologists- more interested in process by which personality develops than in the actual characteristics that emerges.  Trait- a stable personality characteristic. (Often clustered together) Factor analysis- statistical method that identifies factors of traits that positively correlates and cluster together.  -Early efforts: selection of 4,500 words that describe observable  traits out of a dictionary -Some of these terms were defined as central traits (ex: smart;  hardworking, outgoing) -Using factor analysis, the list was reduced to 16 major  personality traits.  Normal distribution- traits fall on a continuum or spectrum  The Big Five Theory of Personality- a trait theory that identifies  five main characteristics that account for most individual differences in personality -Relatively few traits are required to describe and predict an  individual’s behavior accurately.  -To remember: OCEAN 1. Openness to experience- (interest in exploring new experiences  and ideas) -Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values. -Appreciation for the arts. -People who score high in O are curious, unconventional and  imaginative.  2. Conscientiousness- (organized, self-disciplined, and achievement  striving) -People who score high in C are organized, reliable, and hard  working. 3. Extroversion- (friendly, outgoing, social, seeks excitement and  positive emotions) -Warmth, assertiveness, excitement seeking, positive emotion -Tend to be intensive and overbearing -Introversion (opposite of extroversion) – cool, reserve, passive, cautious, sensitive, reflective and want time to themselves 4. Agreeableness- (trust, straightforwardness, compliance and  modesty) -People who score low on this tend to be cynical and  uncooperative 5. Neuroticism­ (experience unpleasant emotions easily) ­Anxiety, anger, hostility, depression, vulnerability ­Emotional stability – could be described as the opposite trait Is personality stable??? ­Learning theorists attempted to capture the effects of circumstances and situations on  personality developmentSocial cognitive learning theories­ theories of personalities that emphasize cognition,  emotions, and learning, especially in social environment. Behavior is shaped by  interactions with other people.  Locus of control­ tendency to perceive the outcomes in your life as internal to the self or  external due to the environment.  Internal­ outcomes are due to your own efforts External­ outcome’s due to chance, luck, or factors beyond your control Reciprocal determinism­ a social­cognitive learning theory of personality that features  the mutual influence of the person and that of the situation on each other (balance  between external, environmental factors, and internal traits). ­Albert Bandura believed that observations of others behaviors played an  important role in the development of personality ­ Bandura was particularly interested in self­efficiency  (level of confidence in  your own abilities to gain reinforcement) High self­efficiency­ strong expectations that positive outcomes are within reach Low self­efficiency­ doubt your abilities to reach your goals If­then relationships­ help explain differences in personalities across contexts and  situations ­“The stability we expect in a persons behavior arises from the individuals  characteristic way of interpreting situations” ­If a child experiences a particular situation (interacting with peers or adults), that  child then responds with a unique and stable set of behaviors (passive or aggressive) ­These if­then patterns are characteristics of an individual, leading to the stable  characteristics we think of as personality What is the biology behind it??? (Biological theories of personality attempt to build  bridges between observed traits and their underlying biological correlates) ­Scientists like to call the explanations behavioral phenotypes Temperament­ Childs pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness linked to  later personality ­Psychologists believe temperament is biological in origin, but quickly begins to  interact with social and physical environments 2 dimensions of temperament are important for adult personality:  1. Reactivity – describes differences in peoples responses to novel or challenging  stimuli, responses may vary in intensity and timing; higher reactivity associated  with introversion and neuroticism 2. Self­regulation­ the ability to control attention and inhibit responding to  perceived stimuli; associated with later conscientiousness Reinforcement sensitivity theory­ personality theory that attempts to explain individual  differences in approach, avoidance, and inhibition of behaviorBehavioral approach system (BAS)­ (the GO system, the approach system)  regulate appetitive motives, in which the goal is to move toward  something desired -Predict a person’s response to reward or impulsivity Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)­ (the STOP system)  regulate aversive motives, in which the goal is to move away from something unpleasant -Active when an organism senses learned signals from  punishment or lack of reward Fight-Flight Freeze system (FFF)- in traumatic situations,  fighting, fleeing or freezing -Active while organism is experiencing unlearned punishment or  lack of reward -Reasonable to assume that some individual differences in personality  are reflected in structures of the brain 2. The connected mind (social psychology)  -Overall, humans share more genes in common with spouses and  friends than strangers -Evolutionary history has left us with the ability to detect a genetic  compatibility in a partner, as well as more surface compatibilities -Early evolutionary pressures favored humans who chose to affiliate  with others, by doing so, sculpted much of the social behavior we  observe today -A mother’s ability to comfort her infant through touch has a greater  impact on the infant’s attachment to her than her ability to provide  food -We react negatively when social support is withdrawn What is Social Psychology??? Social Psychology­ the study of how the presence of others influences our thoughts,  feelings and behaviors First impressions and attributions??? First impressions­ formed very rapidly (less than a minute) on the basis of very limited  information, which helps us make predictions  ­Once we reach a conclusion about a person, we tend to stick with that assessment for a long timeHalo effects­ occur when one or a small number of characteristics have a large impact on overall perception  ­If people see characteristics they value or dislike they make thumbs­up or  thumbs­down assessments Attribution­ judgments about the causes of a person’s behavior {dispositional or  situational attributions} Dispositional attributions­ behavior was caused by his or her relativity­enduring  tendency to think, feel or act in a particular way (because of who they are) Situational attributions­ behavior was a result of some temporary aspect of the  situation in which it happened (because of the situation) ∙ Dispositional or situational attributions to consider nature v. nurture ∙ The weight placed on dispositional or situational variables as explanations for  behavior can vary dramatically from one case to the next Correspondence bias­ tendency to view behavior as the result of disposition {a  person's inherent qualities of mind and character} even when the behavior  can be explained by the situation in which it occurs ­Psychologists are still debating the reasons for this error ­People often believe the “you did it because that is the kind of person you are”  explanation is accurate *Fundamental attribution error (FAE)- failure to consider  situational variables, which lead to correspondence B. Overestimation  of dispositional contributions to the resulting, observed behavior Actor-observer bias- emphasizing dispositional factors to explain  others behaviors while emphasizing situational factors to explain the  same behavior in ourselves -Ex: If me and matt both failed a test; I failed because I was sick,  he failed because he didn’t study Self-serving bias- attributing our success to dispositional factors  while attributing our failures to situational factors -Can prevent efforts for self-improvement -Ex: If you get an A on exam, you’ll congratulate yourself on your smartness and working hard. BUT, if you fail, you’ll say its because the  professor was bad -Group-serving bias  same as self but in groups (sports teams) Just-world hypothesis/belief- belief that good things happen to  good people and bad things happen to bad people -“You get what you deserve” or “your behavior reflects your  disposition” -Strong Just-world beliefs correlated with negative attitudes  towards the poor, people with HIV/AIDS, the elderly, and the  unemployed Cultural influences on attribution??? Collectivistic cultures (Asian nations)- more emphasis on situationfactors, more likely to show group-serving bias, attribute more success  to the group than it deserves -Focus on the big picture, situation Individualistic cultures (US and western nations)- more  emphasis on dispositional factors, more likely to use correspondence  bias, self-serving bias and the just-world belief -Focus on objects in the big picture How are attitudes influenced by others??? Attitudes- enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations of an object  or event -Decision-making is simple, faster and less stressful when we  have attitudes to serve as a guide * Attitudes share three basic elements (The ABC’s) A- affect (emotion): addresses emotional responses B- behavior: the way you respond to an object C- cognition (thoughts): what you believe about the object Form attitudes from: personal experience, relationship with those  around us, and sometimes genetics {traditionalism vs. non traditionalism is heritable} -Operant conditioning states approval or disapproval shape a  persons attitudes (likely to form positive attitudes towards stimuli  associated w positive outcomes) Cognitive dissonance- uncomfortable state that occurs when our  behaviors and our attitudes do not match (Ex: smoking even though  you know the harm) -Change attitudes by producing an unpleasant state of arousal,  caused by persons feeling responsible for helping to bring about a  negative event -Ways to reduce cognitive dissonance: change actions, change  cognition {thoughts}, introduce a third cognition to resolve  inconsistency  Persuasion- a change in attitude in response to info provided by  another person Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)- organized and predicts  our responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing between the  central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Motivation determines  which you use Central route- occurs when a person considers persuasive  arguments carefully and thoughtfully (more time, attention and  motivation) Peripheral route- occurs when a person responds to peripheral  or external cues, rather than carefully examining the quality argument (less time and attention) -Peripheral is used when we have limited time, knowledge, and  cognitive resources -Rules of thumb What influences persuasion? Education, time, emotions, motivation,  characteristics of person, how message is communicated Prejudice and Stereotypes: Groups- collection of people who have something in common that  distinguishes them from others  Stereotypes- positive or negative belief of another person based on  their group membership “the thoughts” Prejudice- positive or negative evaluation (feeling) of another person  based on their group membership “the attitudes” Discrimination- positive or negative behavior toward another person  based on their group membership “the behavior” -Humans organize information and experience into schemas made up  of categories or concepts - Humans generalize from our known concepts when faced with new  information -Stereotypes conflict with our valid desires to be view and treated as  individuals -If you see an exception to a stereotype you might view it as the result  of situational variables -Prejudice can result from personal experiences - Prejudice affects not only the way we view others but also the way we view our own behavior Stereotypical threat- fear of confirming a negative group stereotype  can sometimes lead people to act in accordance with the stereotype Groups??? Social norms- rules for behaviors within groups Conformity- tendency to do what others do simply because they are  doing it (reduces risk of rejection by a social group) -Asch Paradigm: participants of a trial conformed to one person even though they knew their answers were wrong -Stanford prison experiment: guard and prisoner roles, study  dropped after 6 days because participants conformed too much into  their characters Compliance- agreeing to do something because someone asks us to  do it, even if they have no authority over us  -Compliance is higher when factors that normally form relationships are present (attraction) Reciprocation- we feel obligated to give something back to  people who have given something to us (one of the most powerful  tools of social influence) Door-in-the-face technique- compliance with a target request  is preceded by a large, unreasonable request (Ex: asked to donate a  large amount to an organization followed by “give what you can  afford”)  Foot-in-the-door technique- start with small request followed  by a large one (Ex: “can I have a dollar” “can I have a hundred  dollars”)  Obedience- tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do  -Mailgram’s Obedience study- participant had to shock  confederate when he was wrong, all of the participants administered  the fake shocks even though they didn’t want to. 65% of Americans  would fully comply with his experiment  *A single individuals willingness to take an opposing view may  encourage others to also resist the pressure to conform to a misguided  action Social facilitation- “the audience effect” the presence of others  changes our performance -One of the functions of an audience is to increase performers  level of arousal -Improvements in performance are more likely to occur when  people are engaged in simple, well-practiced activities  Social loafing- when a person has reduced motivation and effort  when working in a group -Individual, gender, cultural, and task variables interact to  produce social loafing -Individuals are less likely to social loaf on tasks they find  enjoyable to perform Deindividuation- when you immerse yourself in a group, you loose  some of you “personal identity” and feel more anonymous -This can lead to law-abiding behaviors because anonymous  people feel less accountable for their actions Group polarization- when in a group, discussion leads people to take  more extreme positions and make their attitudes more extreme -Conformity and exposure to new topic both lead for individuals  to take more extreme positions following a group discussion Groupthink- type of flawed decision-making where group does not  question its decisions critically; may account for a number or  unfortunate group decisions -More likely in groups with high morale whose members already  share similar attitudes3. The troubled mind (psychological disorders) –>  Overview and diagnostics Psychological disorder- “a syndrome characterized by clinically  significant disturbance in an individuals cognition, emotional  regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological,  biological or development process underlying mental functioning” *Psychological symptoms exist on a continuum Abnormal psychology- the study of psychological disorders  Statistical approach- using number to determine what is  normal vs. abnormal (Ex: IQ<70 is intellectual disability) -Different in one culture to another -Fails to capture the distress that comes with the disorder Deviation from ideal- behaviors/thoughts that cause harm to  self or others Comorbid disorders- more than one disorder occurs at the  same time *Psychological disorders are higher in young adults than the general  population Diagnostics Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)- a  system for classification of psychological disorder published by the  American psychiatric association -Promotes consistency in diagnosis of disorders Where do disorders come from? Biological factors, psychological  factors, environmental factors Diathesis-stress model- model that suggests that the experience of  stress interacts with a person’s biological predisposition to produce a  psychological disorder Children disorders: Neurodevelopmental disorders- disorders that are typically  diagnosed in childhood yet often continue throughout lifespan 1. Autism spectrum disorder- characterized by deficits in social  relatedness and communication skills or behaviors -Sometimes accompanied by intellectual disability (severity can  widely from individual to individual) -Social: do not look people in the eye, difficulty-maintaining  conversations with people, repetitive routine behaviors (rocking,  flapping, clapping, banging) 2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: characterized by  unusual inattentiveness and hyperactivity, or both -Inability to maintain attention, or on-task behavior -Not patient, noisy, active and boisterous -Causes? Biological factors- genetics; Environmental factors contamination Schizophrenia- disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions,  disorganized thought and speed, disorders of movement, restricted  affect, and ant sociality (positive and negative symptoms)  Positive symptoms- undesirable additions to mental life 1. Delusions- a false, illogical belief 2. Hallucinations- false perceptual experience, compelling  sense of being real despite the absence of external  stimulation 3. Illusions- misperception of real external stimulus Negative symptoms- behaviors that are seen in healthy people but not in patients 1. Diminished emotional expression 2. Social withdrawal  3. Flat affect- person expresses no emotion  4. Poverty of speech Disorganized speech- severe disruption of verbal communication in  which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another  unrelated topic Catatonic behavior- behavior that is inappropriate for the situation,  often, specific motor disturbances -Also includes grossly disorganized motor behavior (some people  may be unusually active, some might not move at all) Biological factors causing schizophrenia- if previous family  member have it, more likely to get it, twins, schizophrenic patients  have different brain activity (lower frontal lobe activity), abnormalities  in dopamine activity (extra drugs in brain that produce dopamine also  create hallucinations) Environmental factors causing schizophrenia- extreme stress  contributes to it, prenatal environment (pregnant women’s exposure to illness)  Mood disorders: Bipolar disorder- mood disorder characterized by alternating periods  of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression) -Mania increases productive, goal-directed behavior -Affects 2.6% of American adults  -Genetic predispositions play significant role (twins high  concordance rates 70%) also environmental factors Major depressive disorder (MDD/ unipolar depression)- mood  disorder characterized by length periods of depressed mood and or  loss of pleasure in normal activities  Hedonist- person who is a pleasure seekerAnhedonia- persons disinterest in activities that previously  provided pleasure *To be diagnosed you must show five symptoms 1. Learned helplessness- experiencing random or uncontrolled  consequences can lead to feelings of helplessness and pos depression 2. Negative thoughts about the self, world and future 3. Depressed individuals tend to make attributions about themselves  that are- their own fault (internal), not likely to change (stable), and  wide spread (gloabal) 4. Social explanations- sadness may facilitate social connection 5. Biological explanations- genes associated with serotonin, heritability  coefficient =.40 Anxiety disorders- disorder featuring anxiety that is NOT  proportional to a persons circumstances (exaggeration of person  normal response, strong negative emotions, tensions because  anticipation of danger) 1. Specific phobia- fears of objects or situations other than  those associated with agoraphobia or social anxiety disorder  (Exs: animals, storms, blood) -Might be an exaggeration of a useful sense of caution -May form through imitation and observation 2. Social anxiety disorder- disorder characterized by an  unrealistic fear of being scrutinized and criticized by others 3. Panic disorder- intense fear and arousal in the absence of  real threat (repeated panic attacks and fear of future attacks) -Biological explanations- disturbances involving the orexins  (released by cells in hypothalamus) lead to attacks -Cognitive explanations- increased heart rate to increased  anxiety to attack -Social explanations- people worrying  4. Agoraphobia- unrealistic fear of open spaces, being  outside or home alone or in a crowd (3 out of 7 patients also  have panic disorder) 5. Generalized anxiety disorder- excessive anxiety and  worry that is not correlated with particular objects or  situations (restlessness, fatigue, irritability) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- disorder characterized by  repetitive, altruistic, thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors  (compulsions)  Obsessions- contaminations, doubts, worrying impulses,  sexual imagery Compulsions- counting checking, arraignment, washing  hands -May arise from head trauma, they have low levels of  serotoninBody dysmorphic disorder- unrealistic perception of physical flaws -Hereditary Posttraumatic stress disorder- “shell shock or battle fatigue”  experience of trauma, recurrent unwanted remembering of the trauma  and avoiding things that can call the trauma back to mind Symptoms: re-experiencing the event, avoidance, physical  symptoms Biological factors: smaller hippocampus, low levels of  benzodiazepine Environmental factors: low social support Eating disorders: Anorexia nervosa- maintenance of unusually low body weight and  distorted body image Bulimia nervosa- binging, purging, and feelings of depression Binge eating- eating large amounts at one sitting then feeling that  the eating is out of control 4. The healing and troubled mind (psychological treatments)  Early attempts to treat psychotherapy- hysteria, hypnosis and Sigmund Freud’s- psychoanalysis {suggested using learning as way to increase  desirable behaviors and decrease unwanted behaviors} Counseling- focuses more on personal strengths and development Psychotherapies- involve a conversation between the professional  providing therapy and the person seeking help, often combined with  biological treatments; such as medication Behavioral therapy- applications of classical and operant  conditioning principals to the treatment of symptoms of psychological  disorders and adjustment problems The goal? To change maladaptive behavior into constructive  behavior  Applied behavior analysis (ABA)- focuses on what can be  observed and makes assumptions about few unseen factors as an  unconscious mind (used to reduce unwanted habits) *Behavior modification- reinforcement to increased desired  behaviors *Exposure therapy- confronting an emotion-aroused stimulus  directly and repeatedly *Behaviors activation- eliminates bad behavior, and promotes  good behaviorsCognitive therapy- a form of psychotherapy that involves helping a  client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or  the world -Situations do not cause abnormal behavior, be the way we think  about situations might do so -Aaron Beck “people run into psychological trouble when they  adopt irrational, self defeating ways of thinking” Cognitive restructuring- therapeutic approach that teaches clients  to 1- question the automatic beliefs, assumptions and predictions that  often lead to negative emotions and 2- replace negative thinking with  more realistic beliefs Rational emotional behavioral theory (REBT)- worked by  Albert Ellis, resolving emotional and behavioral problems and  disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling  lives Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)- combines behavioral  and cognitive techniques; the “gold standard” treatment today;  therapists wanted to help client’s initiate behavioral changes  (encourage clients to provide self-rewards for using more positive  rational patterns of thoughts) How do psychologists provide therapy??? Biopsychological approach- combines elements of therapies  designed to address the biological, psychological, and social  underpinnings of an individual case (what works for the individual  client) Evidence based practice (EBP)- EBP is the integration of clinical  expertise, patient values, and the best research evidence into the  decision making process for patient care Types of therapists? Practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, social  workers, psychiatric nurses, and councilors  Psychiatrist- M.D. or D.O. degree, 4 years of med school, 3-4 yr  residency, CAN prescribe medication Vs. Psychologist- Ph.D. or Psy. D. Degree, 5-6 years graduate, 1  year internship, can NOT prescribe medication Psychotherapy in today’s society??? Why seek therapy? Mental health issues impact individuals and society Who seeks therapy? 20% of Americans Who benefits from it? Patients with anxiety, disorders, and patients  motivated to change Why don’t people seek help? May not know they need it, lack family  support, financial obstacles, negative attitude Biological therapies???  (Include medication, ECT, psychotherapy, deep brain stimulation and  neuro-feedback) Medication- most common medical approach to treat psychological  disorders (works on brains neurotransmitters) Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)- treatment that involves inducing  a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain from  electrodes on the head ∙ Patients are unconscious while shock applied to scalp (<1  second) ∙ Between 6-12 treatments at rate of 3 per week ∙ Used to treat schizophrenia, major depressive, and mania {part  of bipolar disorder} ∙ Memory loss is common side effect ∙ Most patients experience and increase in responsiveness to  dopamine and norepinephrine, along with reduced feelings of  depression ∙ ECT is considered as safe as any minor surgery Psychosurgery- attempt to improve symptoms of psychological  disorders through brain surgery  ∙ One of most frequent types is aimed at changing behavior  through frontal lobe {participate in highest order cognitive  functions} ∙ “Socially awkward and antisocial people have problems with their frontal lobes” ∙ Once the brain is damaged from surgery there is no going back Deep brain stimulation- electrical stimulation applied through  surgically implanted electrodes  ∙ For patients with Parkinson’s disease, OCD and depression ∙ Microelectrodes implanted to specific arts of brain  Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)- placing a pulsed  magnet over personals scalp, which alters neuronal activity in brain ∙ Low frequency magnetic impulses change activity in cortical  regions  ∙ Used for depression  Neurofeedback- biofeedback that focuses on activity of brain  (learning to relax instead of becoming tense in situations, people can  reduce their blood pressure) ∙ Concentrates on activity of brain ∙ Recording of brain from EEG or more from fMRI, are displayed for  patient, then they teach the client to keep measures of brain  activity within certain rangeTreating specific disorders??? 1- neurodevelopmental disorders {a group of disorders in which  the development of the central nervous system is disturbed} a) Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD)- ∙ Medication: antipsychotic/antidepressant} and MOST  COMMON: applied behavior analysis (ABA)  ∙ Psychotherapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy (early  interaction is best) b) ADHD- ∙ Medication: stimulant medications (Ritalin, Adderall)  {drugs that induce temporary improvements in  either mental or physical functions or both.  Examples of these kinds of effects may include  enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion,  among others} ∙ Psychotherapy: behavioral parent training {builds  the skills of parents and children to use operant  conditioning methods, which extends classical  conditioning into the school setting} 2- schizophrenia and bipolar disorder c) Schizophrenia- ∙ Medication: “Atypical” antipsychotics {also known as  second generation antipsychotics a group of  antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general  are also known as major tranquilizers and  neuroleptics) used to treat psychiatric conditions}  and dopamine antagonists ∙ Psychotherapy: social skill training and  psychoeducation d) Bipolar disorder-  ∙ Medication: lithium carbonate {increases grey matter in brain} and omega 3-fatty acids ∙ Psychotherapy: mostly medication but some coping  skills 3- Depression and anxiety disorders e) Depression- ∙ Medication: antidepressants and SSRI {Selective  serotonin re-uptake inhibitors; drugs that increase  the extracellular level of serotonin by limiting its  reabsorption into the presynaptic cell}  ∙ Psychotherapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT),  evidence based practice (EBP), cognitive  restructuring f) Anxiety disorders- ∙ Medication: meds that enhance the effects of GABA  {major inhibitory neurotransmitter};  benzodiazepines, barbiturates, SSRIs ∙ Psychotherapy: exposure therapy, CBT 4- OCD and PTSD g) OCD- ∙ Medication: anti-depressants ∙ Psychotherapy: CBT h) PTSD-  ∙ Medication: SSRIs ∙ Psychotherapy: exposure therapy

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