CHD 3243 Study Guide Exam 1
1. Define Adolescents.
2. When does Adolescents begin?
3. Describe the “boundaries” of adolescent.
4. Explain the three Phases of Adolescence Development. 5. Define Juvenile.
6. Explain the Approaches to Studying Adolescents.
7. How is the American adolescent population changing? 8. Where are more adolescents living today?
9. Define Cohorts
10. List the adolescent cohorts since the early 1900’s 11. Define emerging adulthood
12. Why are adolescents often being prolonged? 13. Explain the evolving communication and information
technologies in today’s world.
14. What could be some hazards of the Internet? 15. How does the evolving world of work and consumption
effect adolescent lives?
16. Can you expect to put in more or fewer hours on the job
than your parents?
17. How have education rates evolved over time? 18. How has average marriage age changed over time from
1970 to 2008?
19. Does waiting to get married later affect the chances of
20. Has the number of children per family increased or
decreased over time?
21. What are some of the changes in family dynamic over
22. How have divorce rate changed since 1960 to now? 23. How has Sexual Landscape evolved over time? 24. What are some of the Negative Effects of the Sexual
25. What are some of the Evolving safety concerns in today’s
26. How do we Understand Adolescent Research Methods? Don't forget about the age old question of What is sociological imagination in your own words?
27. What are the research designs that measure developmental change?
28. Who was G. Stanley Hall and what is he known as? 29. How did the first psychologist who studies adolescence
30. Describe the Biological view of Adolescence
31. Explain the “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” and
“Sturm und Drang” (aka “storm and stress”)
32. What are Arnold Gesell’s views on development? 33. What are the Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of Don't forget about the age old question of How does a nerve cell communicate with another nerve cell?
34. According to Freud what is puberty?
35. Define Identification and how identification for boys works? 36. Define Individuation
37. What is the psychoanalytic theory? What are Anna Freud’s
38. What is Anna Freud’s Instinctual Theory?
39. What is Anna Freud’s Defense Mechanism?
40. Explain Erik Erikson’s Stages of Personality
41. Define Identity Search, Identity Diffusion, Psychosocial
Moratorium, Cognition, and Emerging Adulthood.
42. What are the Cognitive Views of Jean Piaget? 43. What are the Five Dynamics of Development? 44. What are Jean Piaget’s four stages of cognitive
45. What are Lev Vygotsky descriptions of the zone of proximal development and Scaffolding? Don't forget about the age old question of How are wavelength frequency and energy related to each other?
46. Explain the different types of Reinforcement
47. Define mental operations
48. List the life tasks of adolescents named by Robert
49. List Uri Bronfenbenner’s Ecological model
50. Describe Mead and Benedict’s Anthropological views. Chapter 3
51. How is the racial/ethnic composition of the United States changing?
52. What are the two specific aspects of the living conditions of
low socioeconomic status?
53. What percent of African Americans adolescents are living
below the poverty line? Asian American adolescents? 54. What race has the poorest adolescents? Why? 55. Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status have limited
access to what?
56. What percentage of Native Americans, Blacks, Latinos,
Asian Americans, and White adolescents are in poverty? 57. What are 4 limitations of low SES?
58. What is the cycle of poverty?
59. How do the lives of low-socioeconomic-status adolescents
differ from the lives of middle-class adolescents?
60. How do low SES adolescents relate to peer orientation,
social outcasts, mental health, and physical health? 61. Are pregnancy, divorce, and separation rate higher or
lower in low SES households?
62. How has homelessness rates been changing recently? 63. In what ways have the lives of African Americans improved If you want to learn more check out How does moment-to-moment affect development?
over the past 20 years?
64. Is African American adolescent girls more or less likely to
get pregnant than white adolescent girls?
65. What are some of the strengths commonly seen within
66. What is arguably the greatest problem facing American
67. Define Colonias or Barrios
68. Are Mexican families more patriarchal or matriarchal? 69. In Puerto Rican Americans what is one of the most
important cultural values?
70. Puerto Rican Americans have the notion of marianismo,
which means what?
71. What values and beliefs distinguish Native American
72. Many Native American tribes are matrilineal, which means
73. What are some advantages of Chinese American adolescents?
74. How many American children are from an immigrant
75. Define immigrant and refugee.
76. How many former Southeast Asian refugees live in the
77. From which area of the world have the most recent immigrants to the United States come? From which area have the
most recent refugees to this country come? We also discuss several other topics like How long does voluntary army service last?
78. Define Resiliency
79. Define Acculturation stress
80. What do endocrine glands do?
81. How is the hypothalamus related to puberty and what does
82. What is the pituitary gland and what hormones does it
produce? What is each of these hormones responsible for? 83. Where and how are the female sex hormones produced?
What are each of these hormones expected to do? We also discuss several other topics like What were the three main parts of the treaty of versailles?
84. What are the adrenal glands?
85. Where are male sex hormones are produced? What are the
male sex hormones?
86. How are sex hormones regulated?
87. How and what parts of the male sex organs mature? 88. How and what parts of the female sex organs mature? 89. What is menarche and when does it begin?
90. At what point in the menstrual cycle are FH, estrogen, LH,
and progesterone high?
91. What is Metrorrhagia? What is it caused by?
92. What are secondary sexual characteristics? Give examples. 93. What are some of the primary and secondary
characteristics of girls and boys going through puberty? 94. What are the stages of the female development of breasts? 95. Girl’s growth spurts are typically how long before boys? 96. What are some of the determinants of height? 97. What are some of the physical sex differences between
males and females?
98. What are the different body types/Ideals?
99. What are the advantages or disadvantages of Early maturing boys, late maturing boys, early maturing girls, and late
100. What are the main adolescent mortalities?
101. What are some reasons adolescents often have
102. How much exercise do adolescents need on most days of
103. What causes acne?
104. Define the following: Gonads, Spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells, Epididymis, Hymen, Anovulatory, Leptin, Gynecomastia, Axillary hair, Osteoporosis, Melatonin.
105. List Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development and the
components of each stage.
106. What are the effects of adolescent thought on personality
107. What are some critiques of Piaget’s theory?
108. What can we retain from formal operations?
109. What is the information approach and what are the steps in
110. How does current research differ from Piaget’s? 111. What are Ross’s five skills for decision-making? 112. What are some barriers to good decision-making? 113. What is the Four-Level Scheme of Epistemic development? 114. Describe the main parts of the brain that are developing
115. What three hemispheres continue to develop into
116. What are the components of the “Triarchic Theory”? 117. What do intelligence tests measure and how is IQ
118. What are achievement tests?
119. What are some of the factors that influence the results of
120. What are some of the uses and misuses of IQ tests? 121. Define the following: Transductive reasoning, syncretism,
animism, centering, hierarchical classifications, transitive
inference, conservation, seriate, processing speed, self-serving bias, negation, affirmation, metacognition, epistemology, Naturalistic intelligence, psychometric approach.
1. The period of growth between childhood and adulthood; usually between 11-13 years; the transition from one stage to the other
is gradual and uncertain.
2. Adolescents begins when a child starts to physically mature and
become capable of reproduction; puberty
3. The lower boundary of adolescence is considered between ages 11-13
The upper boundary of adolescents is less clear…
Legal status as an adult
Attainment of financial & emotional independence 4. Early adolescence ages 11 to 14
Middle adolescence ages 15 to 17
Late adolescence adolescents who are 18 or older, with full recognition that some 18-, 19-, and 20-year-olds are truly adults 5. Generally used in a legal sense to signify one who is not yet
considered an adult in the eyes of the law (anyone up to age 18) 6. Eclectic: Interdisciplinary approach; emphasizes not one aspect
of adolescent development, but all of them
Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, immigrant
Puberty, nutritional needs, etc.
Memory, problem solving, interests, etc.
Emotions, sense of self, sexuality, etc.
Friendships, parent-child relations, etc.
7. There are increasingly more adolescents in the United States, they now make up a smaller proportion of the total population because people are living longer and the birthrate is dropping. The racial/ ethnic makeup of American adolescents is also changing, with more and more African, Hispanic, or Asian
descent (Relatively fewer Caucasians).
8. More adolescents are living in western and southern states (Less
in the Midwest and northeast)
9. Similarly aged persons who experience the same historic events; a group of individuals who are born at approximately the same time and who share traits because they experienced the same
10. Adolescent Cohorts:
The Lost Generation: born between the mid-1880s and 1900
The G.I. Generation: children during the Great Depression and adolescents or young adults during World War II The Silent Generation: Born between 1925 and 1940; characterized as conservative and traditionalist
The Baby Boomers: born from the mid-1940s until the early- to mid-1960s
Generation X: 1960s until about 1980
Generation Y: Millennial Generation, born from about 1980 until 2000
Generation? Born after 2000; not adolescents yet
11. The stage of life between adolescents and young
12. Many adult life transitions are delayed
Stay in school longer
Financial dependence on parents
Move out of parents’ home later
Good jobs require skills
Parents willing to support longer
13. Evolving Communication and Technology Computers
Most adolescents use computers at home or at school The Internet
E-mail, information, chat rooms, IM
Change the nature of social relations
Access to the Internet
Continuous communication with social peers Influenced family relations
14. Hazards of the Internet
Inappropriate sexual material
Violent and destructive material
Creation of “virtual selves”
Helpful or harmful?
Increased gap between rich and poor
15. Evolving World of Work and Consumption Longer work hours
Increased employment of women, including mothers Increased adolescent employment
Leading to increase in adolescent advertisement Leading to more teen consumption, i.e. buying power 16. If current record trends continue, you will likely spend more
hours on the job than your parents do or your grandparents did. 17. There is now a higher high school graduation rate,
increased classroom technology, Awareness of the need for career preparation while in high school, and increased use of
18. The age at which people marry has gone up; more than one-third of the men and one-fourth of the women in the U.S.
have not married by age 30.
19. Those who do wait until their mid- to late-twenties to marry have a greater chance of marital success than those who wed
20. The number of children per family has decreased. 21. Changes in Family Dynamics
More teens will have been raised by single mothers The number of children per family has decreased Teens will more likely come from democratic families Increase in non-marital cohabitation
22. From 1960 to 1980 divorce rates went up; From 1980 to
2004 they have slightly decreased
23. Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution
a. Acceptance of Sexual Desire
b. Scientific Knowledge About Sexual Functioning
d. More awareness of rape and sexual violence
e. Flexible gender roles
24. Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution
a. Flexible gender roles
b. Earlier premarital sexual behavior
c. Non-marital pregnancy
d. High rates of SDTs and AIDS
e. Confusion about sex
25. Evolving safety concerns:
Increased fears of terrorism
High fear of violent crime:
In the Home
Violence a major cause of adolescent mortality
Accidents, homicides, and suicides
26. Adolescent Research Methods:
Correlations: a relationship between two variables Positive correlations: as X increases, so does Y
Negative correlations: as X increases, Y decreases Correlations DO NOT imply causation
True vs. Quasi Experiments
In true experiments, researcher have control
Randomly assign subjects
Keep all but one factor constant
Study pre-existing groups
E.g., age, gender, race
27. Research Designs That Measure Developmental Change: Cross-Sectional Research
Cohort effects; quasi-experiment in which a group of people who are one age are compared with a group of people who are
Testing effects; quasi-experiment in which people are tracked over time as they age
Subjects at several different ages are tracked
28. The “Father of Adolescent Psychology”; First person to take
scientific approach to the study of adolescence
29. G. Stanley Hall thought that adolescence was by nature
emotionally volatile and unstable.
30. Defines this period as one of physical and sexual maturation, during which important growth changes take place in
the child’s body.
31. “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”: Like Charles Darwin’s beliefs, Hall believed that an individuals growth or development mirrors or parallels the evolutionary history of its species “Sturm und Drang” (aka “storm and stress”): Period of
adolescence that refers to the turbulent nature of adolescence; believed adolescence are on an emotional seesaw
32. Spiral growth patterns: Gesell believed that development was characterized by both upward and downward changes that cause some repetition at different ages.
Genes and maturation: Believed that genes determined the order of appearance of behavioral traits and development trends
33. Oral: infancy:
Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come from oral activity (Ex. Mothers breasts)
Anal: ages 2-3
Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come from anal activity and elimination
Phallic: ages 4-5
Phallic stage: a time of identification with same-sex parent
a. Oedipal Complex in males
b. Castration anxiety
c. Electra Complex in females
d. Penis envy
Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come from the genital area
Latency: ages 6 to puberty
Sexual interests remain hidden as the child focuses on school and other activities
Genital: beginning of adolescence
Sexual urges result in seeking other persons as sexual objects to relieve sexual tension
34. The culmination of a series of changes destined to give
infantile sexual life its final, adult form
35. Identification: taking on of parental values, beliefs, and behaviors
∙ Identification for Boys
Reduces castration anxiety
Reduces conflict between father and son
Teaches the boy how to behave like a man
Enabling him to find a wife of his own when he matures 36. Individuation: the formation of personal identity by the development of the self as a unique person separate from parents or others
o Differentiation of behavior, feelings, judgments, and thoughts from those of his or her parents
o Parent-child relationship moves toward growing
cooperation, equality, and mutuality as the child
becomes an autonomous person within the family
context (Mazor & Enright, 1988)
37. Psychoanalytical theory: Freud’s theory that the structure of personality is composed of the id, ego, and superego and that mental health depends on keeping the balance among them Psychoanalytic Views: Anna Freud
∙ Adolescence: a time of internal conflict, psychic
disequilibrium, and erratic behavior
∙ Reasons for conflicting behavior: re-emergence of instinctual drives & sexual maturation at puberty
38. Anna Freud’s Instinctual Theory:
∙ Id: these instinctual urges present a direct challenge to the individual’s ego
o Leave my room a mess
∙ Ego: the sum of those mental processes that aim to safeguard the individual; it’s the evaluative, reasoning power of the individual
∙ Superego: the conscience that results from identification with the same-sex parent
o Clean your room, make you parents proud
39. Anna Freud’s Defense Mechanism:
∙ The ego:
o Denies, and
o Reverses the instincts against the self
∙ Balance is achieved if the superego is sufficiently developed during the latent period
40. Erik Erikson’s Stages of Personality:
1. Infants (0-2)
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddlers (2-4)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Preschoolers (4-6)
Initiative vs. guilt
4. Grade-Schoolers (6-11)
Industry vs. inferiority
5. Adolescences (11-20)
Identity vs. diffusion
6. Young Adults (20-40)
Intimacy vs. isolation
7. Middle-Aged Adults (40-65)
Generality vs. stagnation
8. Elderly (65+)
Ego identity vs. despair
41. Identity Search: a normative crisis
Identity Diffusion: lack of personal identity
Psychosocial Moratorium: a societal sanctioned intermediary
period between childhood and adulthood
Cognition: The act or process of knowing
Emerging Adulthood: late twenties
42. Cognitive Views of Jean Piaget:
a. Organismic psychologist: he believed that both brain maturation and personal experience drive cognitive
b. Interested in human cognitive development
c. Was interested in how children reached conclusion rather than if the answers were correct
43. Five Dynamics of Development:
∙ Schema: The original patterns of thinking
∙ Adaptation: Including and adjusting to new information that
∙ Assimilation: Incorporating a feature of the environment into
an existing mode or structure of thought
∙ Accommodation: Adjusting to new information by creating
new structures to replace old ones
∙ Equilibrium: Achieving a balance between schemas and
44. Jean Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development: a. Sensorimotor Period (birth-2)
∙ Coordinate their physical actions and sensory experiences
b. Preoperational Period (2-7)
∙ Deal with the world symbolically but still cannot think logically
c. Concrete Operations (7-11)
∙ Capacity for logical reasoning
d. Formal Operations (11 on)
∙ Begin to think in more logical, abstract terms 45. Lev Vygotsky
a. The zone of proximal development
∙ The level of learning at which a task that is too difficult for a child to complete by himself or herself is manageable with help
∙ Assistance provided to help a child master a task; it is gradually withdrawn as the child gains competence 46. Reinforcement:
a. Positive reinforcements are influences that increase the
probability that the preceding response will occur again b. Negative reinforcements are influences that increase the
probability that the preceding response will stop
c. Vicarious Reinforcement- learning from observing the positive or negative consequences of another persons behaviors
47. Abstract reasoning principles that allow children to think logically
48. The life tasks of adolescents:
∙ Accept one’s physique
∙ Develop new, mature relationships
∙ Develop a social gender role
∙ Acquire emotional independence
∙ Prepare for a career
∙ Prepare for marriage & family
∙ Develop socially responsible behavior
∙ Develop a set of values
49. Uri Bronfenbenner’s Ecological model:
∙ The world as a series of nested systems
a. Those within immediate contact
a. Reciprocal relationships among
a. Settings in which the adolescent does nor have an active role as a participant but that influence
him or her nevertheless
a. Ideologies, attitudes, mores, customs, and laws of a particular culture that influence the
50. Anthropological Views:
Emphasize the importance of the broader social environment in determining the personality, development of the child. Also emphasize the sociocultural milieu determines the course of adolescence and strongly influences the degree to which adolescents feel welcomed by the adult community.
51. The United States is becoming more Asian and more Latino. Whereas the percentages of Americans in these groups
are increasing, the Black and Native American populations are expected to remain stable and the White population is expected
52. Low social standing and low income
53. 30% of African American and 15% of Asian American
adolescents live below the poverty line
54. More poor white adolescents than either Asian American, African American, Hispanic American, and Native American adolescents; Mostly just because there are more White
∙ A greater proportion of non-White adolescents are
55. Leisure facilities, Educational advantages, Work opportunities, Health and medical care, and desirable living
56. Native Americans: 25%; Blacks: ~23%; Latinos: ~20%;
Asian Americans: ~10%; Whites: ~8%
57. Limited Alternatives: low-SES are not exposed to a variety
of social and cultural settings
∙ Helplessness, Powerlessness: exercise little
autonomy or influence in improving their conditions; little opportunity or knowledge to receive additional
∙ Deprivation and Hardship: media make them
constantly aware of their own abject status and
“failure”; more likely to be immersed in unhealthy,
∙ Insecurity: at the mercy of life’s unpredictable events 58. Cycle of Poverty refers to the vicious circle that
characterizes the experiences of impoverished people, who find it difficult to move into the middle class. Ex. If you are poor, you will likely go to an inadequate school. Even if you work hard, you will likely learn less than a middle class student. Because of this, you will be less likely to go to college or get a job. If you can’t get
a job you will have no way to earn enough money to raise you
standard of living.
59. Low SES adolescents are less likely than middle-class youths to be raised by both biological parents. Their parents are also less likely to be home after school and more likely to be strict when they are. Low SES adolescents are also more likely to experience both physical and psychological illnesses, and the are
also less likely lo finish high school.
60. Peer Orientation: do not gain status through their familial identifications; Since low SES adolescents tend to have less of a relationship with their parents, they form stronger, more
influential bonds with their peers
∙ Social Outcasts: socialized differently from middle-class
∙ Mental Health: lack of emotional security & lack of stability in
∙ Physical Health: substandard nutrition and exposure to
61. Pregnancy rates especially unintended pregnancy rates, are higher among those of lower SES. Divorce and separation
rates are higher as well.
62. Homelessness has increased in recent years due to decreased availability in low cost housing, government aid cuts, and escalating health care costs.
63. African Americans are less likely to live in segregated housing, less likely to be poor, and more likely to attend college
than they were 20 years ago.
64. African American adolescent girls are about 2 ½ times
more likely to get pregnant then adolescent white girls 65. Family, strong kinship bond, favorable attitude toward the
elderly, adaptable roles, and strong religious orientation 66. The mismatch between Latino children and the schools
they attend. As a result of language difficulties, inadequate funding, and cultural misunderstanding, needed skills are not
being learned and diplomas are not being earned.
67. Colonies or districts of Spanish speaking people 68. Mexican families are more patriarchal and have traditional
69. Fatalism, or the belief that one cannot change one’s
destiny or fate
70. Marianismo- presents the virgin Mary as a role model; the implication that a woman finds her greatest satisfaction through
71. Native Americans value cooperation and modesty more than individual achievement and bravado. They also show great respect for the elderly. Native Americans are not materialistic. They believe on focusing on the here and now, rather than
worrying about the future.
72. Matrilineal- descent though the mothers line 73. Well educated, lower divorce rates, mental illness, and
public assistance, higher family incomes than the general U.S. population, value collectivism (belief that an individual is less
important than the family as a whole)
74. One out of every five
75. Immigrants- people who leave their native land to come
live in the U.S. for any reason
∙ Refugees- people who leave their native land to come live in
the U.S. because they are fleeing political oppression or death 76. More than 1.8 million
77. Within the past decade, most immigrants to the United States have come from Latin America whereas most refugees have come from Africa. Both of these trends will likely change as
the political and social situations in other nations fluctuate. 78. Resiliency- an individuals ability to succeed in spite of
adversity and hardship
79. Acculturation stress- the psychological impact of adaptation to a new culture. For Hispanics who come to the United States, there are a number of significant stressors that are likely to be pervasive, intense, and lifelong.
80. Puberty is triggered by a change in the endocrine glands and the hypothalamus.
o Endocrine glands
Production of hormones
Hormones are chemical messengers that
flow through the bloodstream and affect
what other cells do
81. Puberty is triggered by a change in the endocrine glands and the hypothalamus.
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) causes the pituitary gland to produce gonadotropic
Controls the secretion of the hormones LH
and FSH by the pituitary
Becomes more active and begins to direct the
body to produce more sex hormones
Part of the brain that control pain, pleasure,
emotion, and motivation
Eating, drinking, hormonal production,
menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, sexual
82. Pituitary Gland- Master gland of the body located at the base of the brain
∙ FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)
Growth of eggs and sperm
Some female sex hormones
∙ LH (Luteinizing hormones)
Some female and male sex hormones
a. Stimulates development of the ovum and
estrogen and progesterone in females and sperm
and testosterone in males
∙ HGH (Human Growth Hormone)
Regulates body growth
83. Female sex hormones are produced by the ovaries, and secrete estrogen and progesterone and produces mature egg cells
Secondary sex characteristics
Development of sex organs
Produced by the ovaries
Produced by corpus luteum
a. Corpus Luteum- a yellow body that grows from
the ruptured follicle of the ovary and becomes an
endocrine gland that secrets progesterone
84. Adrenal Glands:
∙ Located just above the kidneys
∙ Present in males and females
∙ Produce both male and female sex hormones
o Allows males to have some female hormones and vice versa
85. Male sex hormones:
∙ Produced by the testes
o The androgens
Class of masculinizing sex hormones produced by the testes and to a lesser extend, the adrenals
o Especially testosterone
o Control secondary sex characteristics
o Control development of male sex organs
o Spermatogenesis- the follicle stimulating hormone stimulates sperm growth in the testes
86. Sex hormone regulation:
∙ Negative feedback loops
o In males, GnRH decreases when testosterone levels are high
∙ An additional substance, inhibin, regulates FSH levels in another negative feedback loop
o Sertoli cells- Cells in the testes that produce inhibin In females, estrogen and progesterone decrease FSH
and LH levels
87. Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs: a. Scrotum
∙ Testes, epididymis, part of vas deferens
Epididymis- a system of ducts, running from the testes to the vas deference in which the sperm mature and
b. Seminal vesicles
c. Prostate gland
∙ Doubles in length and girth during adolescence, with the most rapid growth taking place between ages 14 and 16 f. Cowper’s gland
∙ Secrete an alkaline fluid that lubricates and neutralizes the acidity of the urethra for easy and safe passage of semen g. Nocturnal Emissions
∙ “Wet dreams”
88. Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs:
a. The vulva
∙ The mons, the labia majora and labia minor, Bartholin’s glands
b. The vagina
∙ Matures at puberty
Increases in length and its mucous lining becomes thicker and more elastic and turns a deeper color
d. Fallopian tubes
89. Menarche is the onset of menstruation. It usually does not signal the beginning of puberty in girls; it neither is in the middle of the process and does nor occurs until after maximum growth rates in height and weight have been achieved.
90. Menstrual Cycle
a. FSH and estrogen high in 1st half of cycle
b. LH and progesterone high in 2nd half of cycle
91. Metrorrhagia- excessive bleeding
∙ Believed to be caused by an excess of prostaglandins, which are hormones that cause smooth muscle contractions Antiprostaglandins can be taken to destroy or inhibit these hormones
a. Ibuprofen, aspirin, etc.
92. Secondary Sexual Characteristics- The features that although not absolutely necessary for reproduction, differentiation male and female bodies
∙ Ex. Presence or absence of body hair, enlarger or smaller
voice box, increased muscle mass or body fat
93. Primary and Secondary Sexual Characteristics: a. Boys:
∙ Age 11.5-13
Beginning growth of testes, scrotum, pubic hair
Height spurt begins
Beginning growth of penis (Primary)
∙ Age 13-16
Straight pigmented pubic hair
Some deepening of voice
Kinky pubic hair
First ejaculation of semen (Primary)
Rapid growth of penis, testes, scrotum, prostate (Primary)
∙ Age 16-18
Marked voice changes
Rapid growth of axillary hair
Growth of bread
Identification of frontal hairline
∙ Age 10-11
Height spurt begins
Slight growth of pubic hair
Breast, nipples, elevated to form “bud” stage ∙ Age 11-14
Straight pigmented pubic hair
Some deepening of voice
Rapid growth of vagina, ovaries, labia, and uterus
Kinky pubic hair
Age of maximum growth
∙ Age 14-16
Growth of axillary hair
Filling out breasts
94. Female development of Breasts:
a. Prepubertal stage
b. Bud Stage
c. Primary Stage
d. Secondary or Mature Stage
e. Adult Stage
95. 2 years before boys
96. Determinants of height
∙ Age one enters puberty
97. Physical Sex Differences between Males and Females: a. Due to testosterone, males have…
∙ Thicker, larger bones
∙ Enlarged larynxes
∙ Larger muscles
∙ More body hair
∙ Higher basal metabolic rates
b. Due to estrogen, females have…
∙ Subcutaneous fat layer
∙ Slower metabolisms
∙ Lessened risk of strokes and heart attacks
98. Body Types and Ideals
∙ Ectomorphs- tall, long, thin
Tall, slender body
∙ Endomorphs- round, plump
Short, heavy body
∙ Mesomorphs- square, strong shoulders, muscled bodies
Medium, athletic body
99. Early-Maturing Boys
∙ Considerable athletic advantage
∙ Become stronger and more muscular
∙ Better coordination
∙ Socially induced inferiority
∙ Tend to feel awkward and self-conscious
∙ Social disadvantage in middle school and high school 100. Mortality- probability of dying
∙ Car accidents: 38%
∙ Medical Causes: 25%
∙ Homicide: 14%
∙ Suicide: 12%
∙ Other accidents: 11%
101. Don’t have time to eat breakfast, Rely on snacks, Eat only small quantities of nutrition, Inadequate knowledge of nutrition
influence, Social pressure
102. At least 30 minutes on most days of the week 103. Maturing sebaceous glands
104. Gonads- Sex glands (tested and ovaries)
Spermatogenesis- the follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates sperm growth in the testes
Sertoli cells- Cells in the testes that produce inhibin Epididymis- a system of ducts, running from the testes to the vas deference in which the sperm mature and are stored Hymen- a fold of connective tissue that partly closes the vagina in the virginal female
Anovulatory- without ovulation
Leptin- a hormone that helps trigger puberty
Gynecomastia- a temporary enlargement of their breasts resulting from an excessive amount of estrogen in their system (7% of boys experience this)
Axillary hair- grows about 2 years after pubic hair; generally coarser and darker
Osteoporosis- a condition in which the bones become brittle due to calcium loss
Melatonin- hormone that the brain produces to induce sleep
105. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: ∙ Sensorimotor Stage: birth – 2
o Learning is related to the mastery of sensory-motor
o The individual cannot think without performing
movement: to think is to move.
o Thought is quite inflexible.
o Does not engage in logic
o The infant moves from a self-centered, body-centered
world to an object-centered world.
o Intrigued with simple motor activities
∙ Preoperational Stage: 2 – 7
o Period when language is acquired.
o Symbolic play, or internalized imitation, emerges o Transductive reasoning: infer cause and effect when
none exists; making no generalizations
o Thinking is also egocentric; That is children cant understand why others cannot see something in the
same way that they do
o Syncretism- trying to link ideas that are not always
o Animism- assumptions that inanimate object have
feelings and are alive
o Centering- Tendency of children to focus attention on one detail
∙ Concrete Operational Stage: 7 – 11 or 12
o Greater capacity for logical reasoning, at concrete level o Hierarchical classifications- ability to divide objects
into nested series of categories
o Class inclusion relationship- understanding that
objects can be put into different levels of hierarchies o Transitive inference- ability to solve problems o Conservation- the recognition that properties of things
such as weight and volume are not altered by changing
their shape or the container they are in
o Four important mental operations:
Reversibility: All actions, even mental actions,
have an opposite
Identity or nullifiability: the object is
Associativity: same outcome can result from
different combinations or clusterings or actions.
Combinativity: Classes can always be combined to form larger, broader categories
∙ Formal Operational Stage: 11/12 & older
o Two Parts:
Substages III-A, almost full formal function (ages
11–12 to 14–15), a preparatory stage
Substage III-B, full formal function (ages 14–15
and up). Many adolescents and adults never truly
reach the second substage.
o (1) Introspection (thinking about thought)
o (2) Abstract thinking (going beyond the real to the
o (3) Combinatorial thinking (being able to consider all
important facts and ideas)
o (4) Logical reasoning (the ability to form correct
conclusions using induction and deduction)
o (5) Hypothetical reasoning (formulating hypotheses and examining the evidence for them, considering numerous variables)
106. Effects of Adolescent Thought on Personality and Behavior: ∙ Idealism: what it might be like
o Idealistic- insisting upon high standards of behavior ∙ Hypocrisy: pretending to be what they are not
o Discrepancy between what people say and do
∙ Pseudostupidity: approaching problems at much too complex
a level and failing
∙ Egocentrism: Inability to take the perspective of another o Imaginary audience- adolescents belief that others are constantly paying attention to them
o Personal fable- adolescents belief that they are
invulnerable and that their feelings are special and unique
∙ Introspection- thinking about ones thoughts and feelings
107. Critiques of Piaget’s Theory:
∙ Age and Universality
o Formal operational abilities do not emerge at a set time,
nor is their emergence guaranteed.
o Lack of consistency
∙ Beyond Formal Operations
o No one, consistent, uniform conception of post-formal
o Advanced reasoning called dialectics
108. What Can We Retain from Formal Operations? a. Significantly and qualitatively more intelligent beginning at
about age 11
b. Deductive reasoning improves during adolescence c. Hypothetical or blatantly untrue situations improves
d. Use of prepositional logic increases
e. Exhaustive combinatorial reasoning improves
f. Metacognition- the ability to think about one’s own thoughts; improves during adolescents
109. Information processing approach: study how individuals perceive, attend to, retrieve, and manipulate information. o Steps in Information Processing:
Sensory Storage- Information is received
and transduced by the senses, usually in a
fraction of a second
Short Term Storage- Information is still in the
conscious mind, being rehearsed and
Long Term Storage- Information is perceived
and processed deeply so it passes into the
layers of memory below the conscious level
Higher-Order Thought Processes
∙ The most basic of the thought
∙ The ability to generate new thoughts
from old information
∙ Conscious deliberate coordination of
o Negative information:
information that refutes their
o Rely on negation rather than
o Use an elimination strategy
o Self-serving bias
∙ Logical, constrained, useful thinking
o Problem solving
110. Current research differs from Piaget:
a. Focused on a micro-level analysis
b. Change is more gradual and continuous
c. A belief that knowledge and skills are domain specific
d. Emphasizes the progressive steps, actions, and operations that take place when the adolescent receives, perceives, remembers, thinks about, and utilizes information
111. Ross’s five skills of decision making:
∙ (1) Identifying alternate courses of action
∙ (2) Identifying appropriate criteria for considering
∙ (3) Assessing alternatives by criteria
∙ (4) Summarizing information about alternatives
∙ (5) Evaluating the outcome of the decision making process 112. Barriers to Good Decision making:
a. Heuristics: rules of thumb
∙ Rely to much on anecdotal evidence and too little upon more rigorous evidence
c. Rely upon intuitive rather than analytic reasoning. d. Researchers advocate a dual process theory of decision
∙ Intuitions and the use of heuristics often trump logic and deliberation
113. Four-Level Scheme of Epistemic development: ∙ Level 1: age of 6 or 7
Children are naive realists
a. Believe that there are absolute, universal truths
∙ Level 2: middle childhood
a. Believing that there are actual truths, but people are biased
∙ Level 3: adolescents
Dogmatists or skeptics
a. Skeptics have lost faith in logic:
i. Intolerant of other views
ii. Do not want to question their own
iii. Insist that their way of thinking is
∙ Level 4: Post-skeptical rationalism
Understand that absolute certainty of the truth is not
needed for rational behavior
Some possibilities are more likely right than others Do the best you can with the information available
114. Brain Development During Adolescents:
∙ Cerebrum: connected by the corpus callosum
o Largest part of the human brain
o Corpus Callosum- A fibrous band of tissues that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain ∙ Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes
o Parietal lobe: spatial reasoning
o Frontal lobe: planning & impulse control
o Temporal lobe: language and nonverbal
Hippocampus: involved with learning, memory,
The amygdala interprets incoming sensory
information and causes us to respond in primal,
emotional ways to that information
o Occipital lobe: vision
115. Parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe 116. The “Triarchic Theory”:
o Componential intelligence
Learning, critical thinking
o Experiential Intelligence
o Contextual Intelligence
Practical problem solving
117. Intelligence Tests:
∙ Measure primarily componential, linguistic, and
∙ Wechsler Scales
∙ Score may change greatly between early childhood and
adolescence; by adolescence they’re usually stable ∙ Intelligence Quotient (IQ)- calculated by dividing the
mental age (MA) by the chronological age (CA) and multiplying by 100
118. Achievement Tests- tests designed to assess mastery of specific subject matters or skills
∙ Scholastic Reasoning Test (SAT)
o Two primary objections:
SES, gender, and ethnic effects
Test measures basic abilities acquired over a
119. Factors Influencing Results:
∙ Actual intelligence
∙ Test anxiety
∙ Sociocultural factors/bias
o Dynamic testing
120. Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests:
a. A test score reflects, at best, a snapshot of a person’s
ability at a particular point in time.
b. May not reflect his or her intelligence per se, but instead
his or her attitude or background.
c. May reflect motivation or physical state more than
d. Measures only a narrow range of intelligence.
121. Transductive reasoning- Infer cause an effect when non exists; making no generalizations
Syncretism- Trying to link ideas that are not always related Animism- assumptions that inanimate object have feelings and are alive
Centering- Tendency of children to focus attention on one detail Hierarchical classifications- ability to divide objects into nested series of categories
Transitive inference- ability to solve problems
Conservation- the recognition that properties of things such as weight and volume are not altered by changing their shape or the container they are in
Seriate- act of lining things up in order from large to small or small to large
Processing speed- the pace at which the brain perceives and manipulates information
Self-serving bias- looking at the world in a way that favors one’s own opinion
Negation- a strategy used to disprove
Affirmation- A strategy to confirm
Metacognition- the awareness and ability to think about ones own thinking
Epistemology- one’s beliefs about knowledge
Naturalistic intelligence- the ability to identify plants and animals Psychometric approach- approach to cognitive development that focuses on the measurement of knowledge and ability