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When does adolescence begin?

When does adolescence begin?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Home Economics: Child Development
Course: Contexts of Adolescent Development
Professor: Jenna scott
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: CHD 3243 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the materials from chapters 1-5, class and book notes.
Uploaded: 02/09/2017
35 Pages 245 Views 3 Unlocks
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CHD 3243 Study Guide Exam 1


When does adolescents begin?



Questions:  

Chapter 1

1. Define Adolescents.  

2. When does Adolescents begin?  

3. Describe the “boundaries” of adolescent.

4. Explain the three Phases of Adolescence Development. 5. Define Juvenile.

6. Explain the Approaches to Studying Adolescents.  

7. How is the American adolescent population changing?  8. Where are more adolescents living today?  

9. Define Cohorts

10. List the adolescent cohorts since the early 1900’s 11. Define emerging adulthood

12. Why are adolescents often being prolonged?  13. Explain the evolving communication and information  

technologies in today’s world.  

14. What could be some hazards of the Internet? 15. How does the evolving world of work and consumption  


How is the american adolescent population changing?



effect adolescent lives?

16. Can you expect to put in more or fewer hours on the job  

than your parents?

17. How have education rates evolved over time?  18. How has average marriage age changed over time from  

1970 to 2008?

19. Does waiting to get married later affect the chances of  

marital success?  

20. Has the number of children per family increased or  

decreased over time?  

21. What are some of the changes in family dynamic over  

time?  

22. How have divorce rate changed since 1960 to now? 23. How has Sexual Landscape evolved over time? 24. What are some of the Negative Effects of the Sexual  

Revolution?


Where are more adolescents living today?



25. What are some of the Evolving safety concerns in today’s  

world?  

26. How do we Understand Adolescent Research Methods? Don't forget about the age old question of What is sociological imagination in your own words?

27. What are the research designs that measure  developmental change?

Chapter 2

28. Who was G. Stanley Hall and what is he known as? 29. How did the first psychologist who studies adolescence  

characterize them?

30. Describe the Biological view of Adolescence

31. Explain the “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” and  

“Sturm und Drang” (aka “storm and stress”)

32. What are Arnold Gesell’s views on development?  33. What are the Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of  Don't forget about the age old question of How does a nerve cell communicate with another nerve cell?

development?  

34. According to Freud what is puberty?  

35. Define Identification and how identification for boys works? 36. Define Individuation

37. What is the psychoanalytic theory? What are Anna Freud’s  

Psychoanalytical views?  

38. What is Anna Freud’s Instinctual Theory?  

39. What is Anna Freud’s Defense Mechanism?  

40. Explain Erik Erikson’s Stages of Personality

41. Define Identity Search, Identity Diffusion, Psychosocial  

Moratorium, Cognition, and Emerging Adulthood.

42. What are the Cognitive Views of Jean Piaget? 43. What are the Five Dynamics of Development?  44. What are Jean Piaget’s four stages of cognitive  

development?  

45. What are Lev Vygotsky descriptions of the zone of proximal development and Scaffolding? Don't forget about the age old question of How are wavelength frequency and energy related to each other?

46. Explain the different types of Reinforcement

47. Define mental operations

48. List the life tasks of adolescents named by Robert  

Havighurst  

49. List Uri Bronfenbenner’s Ecological model  

50. Describe Mead and Benedict’s Anthropological views.  Chapter 3

51. How is the racial/ethnic composition of the United States  changing?

52. What are the two specific aspects of the living conditions of

low socioeconomic status?

53. What percent of African Americans adolescents are living  

below the poverty line? Asian American adolescents?  54. What race has the poorest adolescents? Why?  55. Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status have limited  

access to what?  

56. What percentage of Native Americans, Blacks, Latinos,  

Asian Americans, and White adolescents are in poverty? 57. What are 4 limitations of low SES?

58. What is the cycle of poverty?

59. How do the lives of low-socioeconomic-status adolescents  

differ from the lives of middle-class adolescents?

60. How do low SES adolescents relate to peer orientation,  

social outcasts, mental health, and physical health? 61. Are pregnancy, divorce, and separation rate higher or  

lower in low SES households?

62. How has homelessness rates been changing recently? 63. In what ways have the lives of African Americans improved  If you want to learn more check out How does moment-to-moment affect development?

over the past 20 years?

64. Is African American adolescent girls more or less likely to  

get pregnant than white adolescent girls?  

65. What are some of the strengths commonly seen within  

African Americans?

66. What is arguably the greatest problem facing American  

Latinos?

67. Define Colonias or Barrios

68. Are Mexican families more patriarchal or matriarchal? 69. In Puerto Rican Americans what is one of the most  

important cultural values?

70. Puerto Rican Americans have the notion of marianismo,  

which means what?

71. What values and beliefs distinguish Native American  

culture?

72. Many Native American tribes are matrilineal, which means  

what?

73. What are some advantages of Chinese American  adolescents?

74. How many American children are from an immigrant  

family?

75. Define immigrant and refugee.

76. How many former Southeast Asian refugees live in the  

United States?  

77. From which area of the world have the most recent  immigrants to the United States come? From which area have the

most recent refugees to this country come?  We also discuss several other topics like How long does voluntary army service last?

78. Define Resiliency

79. Define Acculturation stress

Chapter 4

80. What do endocrine glands do?  

81. How is the hypothalamus related to puberty and what does

it control?  

82. What is the pituitary gland and what hormones does it  

produce? What is each of these hormones responsible for?  83. Where and how are the female sex hormones produced?  

What are each of these hormones expected to do?  We also discuss several other topics like What were the three main parts of the treaty of versailles?

84. What are the adrenal glands?  

85. Where are male sex hormones are produced? What are the  

male sex hormones?  

86. How are sex hormones regulated?  

87. How and what parts of the male sex organs mature?  88. How and what parts of the female sex organs mature?  89. What is menarche and when does it begin?  

90. At what point in the menstrual cycle are FH, estrogen, LH,  

and progesterone high?  

91. What is Metrorrhagia? What is it caused by?  

92. What are secondary sexual characteristics? Give examples. 93. What are some of the primary and secondary  

characteristics of girls and boys going through puberty?  94. What are the stages of the female development of breasts? 95. Girl’s growth spurts are typically how long before boys?  96. What are some of the determinants of height?  97. What are some of the physical sex differences between  

males and females?

98. What are the different body types/Ideals?

99. What are the advantages or disadvantages of Early  maturing boys, late maturing boys, early maturing girls, and late  

maturing girls?  

100. What are the main adolescent mortalities?  

101. What are some reasons adolescents often have  

inadequate diets?  

102. How much exercise do adolescents need on most days of  

the week?

103. What causes acne?  

104. Define the following: Gonads, Spermatogenesis, Sertoli  cells, Epididymis, Hymen, Anovulatory, Leptin, Gynecomastia,  Axillary hair, Osteoporosis, Melatonin.  

Chapter 5

105. List Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development and the  

components of each stage.  

106. What are the effects of adolescent thought on personality  

and behavior?  

107. What are some critiques of Piaget’s theory?  

108. What can we retain from formal operations?  

109. What is the information approach and what are the steps in

information processing?  

110. How does current research differ from Piaget’s?  111. What are Ross’s five skills for decision-making?  112. What are some barriers to good decision-making? 113. What is the Four-Level Scheme of Epistemic development? 114. Describe the main parts of the brain that are developing  

during adolescence?  

115. What three hemispheres continue to develop into  

adolescence?  

116. What are the components of the “Triarchic Theory”?  117. What do intelligence tests measure and how is IQ  

calculated?  

118. What are achievement tests?

119. What are some of the factors that influence the results of  

these tests?  

120. What are some of the uses and misuses of IQ tests?  121. Define the following: Transductive reasoning, syncretism,  

animism, centering, hierarchical classifications, transitive

inference, conservation, seriate, processing speed, self-serving  bias, negation, affirmation, metacognition, epistemology,  Naturalistic intelligence, psychometric approach.  

Answers:  

Chapter 1

1. The period of growth between childhood and adulthood; usually  between 11-13 years; the transition from one stage to the other  

is gradual and uncertain.

2. Adolescents begins when a child starts to physically mature and  

become capable of reproduction; puberty  

3. The lower boundary of adolescence is considered between ages  11-13

The upper boundary of adolescents is less clear…

 Physical maturity

 Legal status as an adult

 Attainment of financial & emotional independence  4. Early adolescence ages 11 to 14

Middle adolescence ages 15 to 17

Late adolescence adolescents who are 18 or older, with full  recognition that some 18-, 19-, and 20-year-olds are truly adults 5. Generally used in a legal sense to signify one who is not yet  

considered an adult in the eyes of the law (anyone up to age 18) 6. Eclectic: Interdisciplinary approach; emphasizes not one aspect  

of adolescent development, but all of them

 Sociological/Cultural

 Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, immigrant  

adolescents

 Biological

 Puberty, nutritional needs, etc.

 Cognitive

 Memory, problem solving, interests, etc.

 Psychosexual

 Emotions, sense of self, sexuality, etc.

 Social Relationship

 Friendships, parent-child relations, etc.

7. There are increasingly more adolescents in the United States,  they now make up a smaller proportion of the total population  because people are living longer and the birthrate is dropping.  The racial/ ethnic makeup of American adolescents is also  changing, with more and more African, Hispanic, or Asian  

descent (Relatively fewer Caucasians).  

8. More adolescents are living in western and southern states (Less  

in the Midwest and northeast)  

9. Similarly aged persons who experience the same historic events;  a group of individuals who are born at approximately the same  time and who share traits because they experienced the same  

historical events.  

10. Adolescent Cohorts:  

 The Lost Generation: born between the mid-1880s and  1900

 The G.I. Generation: children during the Great Depression  and adolescents or young adults during World War II  The Silent Generation: Born between 1925 and 1940;  characterized as conservative and traditionalist

 The Baby Boomers: born from the mid-1940s until the  early- to mid-1960s

 Generation X: 1960s until about 1980

 Generation Y: Millennial Generation, born from about 1980  until 2000

 Generation? Born after 2000; not adolescents yet

11. The stage of life between adolescents and young  

adulthood  

12. Many adult life transitions are delayed

 Stay in school longer

 Financial dependence on parents

 Move out of parents’ home later

 Marry later

 Good jobs require skills

 Sexual Permissiveness

 Parents willing to support longer

 Maturity

 Emerging adulthood

13. Evolving Communication and Technology  Computers  

 Most adolescents use computers at home or at school  The Internet

 E-mail, information, chat rooms, IM

 Cell Phones

 Change the nature of social relations

 Access to the Internet

 Continuous communication with social peers  Influenced family relations

14. Hazards of the Internet

 Inappropriate sexual material  

 Violent and destructive material

 Creation of “virtual selves”

 Helpful or harmful?

 Increased gap between rich and poor

15. Evolving World of Work and Consumption  Longer work hours

 Internet

 Increased employment of women, including mothers  Increased adolescent employment

 Leading to increase in adolescent advertisement  Leading to more teen consumption, i.e. buying power 16. If current record trends continue, you will likely spend more

hours on the job than your parents do or your grandparents did.  17. There is now a higher high school graduation rate,  

increased classroom technology, Awareness of the need for  career preparation while in high school, and increased use of  

Web resources.  

18. The age at which people marry has gone up; more than  one-third of the men and one-fourth of the women in the U.S.  

have not married by age 30.

19. Those who do wait until their mid- to late-twenties to marry have a greater chance of marital success than those who wed  

earlier.  

20. The number of children per family has decreased. 21. Changes in Family Dynamics

 More teens will have been raised by single mothers  The number of children per family has decreased  Teens will more likely come from democratic families  Increase in non-marital cohabitation  

 Out-of-wedlock births

22. From 1960 to 1980 divorce rates went up; From 1980 to  

2004 they have slightly decreased

23. Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution

a. Acceptance of Sexual Desire

b. Scientific Knowledge About Sexual Functioning

c. Contraceptives

d. More awareness of rape and sexual violence

e. Flexible gender roles

24. Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution

a. Flexible gender roles

b. Earlier premarital sexual behavior

c. Non-marital pregnancy

d. High rates of SDTs and AIDS  

e. Confusion about sex

25. Evolving safety concerns:

 Increased fears of terrorism

 High fear of violent crime:  

 In Society

 In the Home

 In Schools

 Violence a major cause of adolescent mortality

 Accidents, homicides, and suicides

26. Adolescent Research Methods:  

 Correlations: a relationship between two variables  Positive correlations: as X increases, so does Y

 Negative correlations: as X increases, Y decreases  Correlations DO NOT imply causation

 True vs. Quasi Experiments

 In true experiments, researcher have control

 Randomly assign subjects

 Keep all but one factor constant

 Quasi-experiments

 Study pre-existing groups

 E.g., age, gender, race

27. Research Designs That Measure Developmental Change:  Cross-Sectional Research

 Cohort effects; quasi-experiment in which a  group of people who are one age are  compared with a group of people who are

another age

 Longitudinal Research

 Testing effects; quasi-experiment in which  people are tracked over time as they  age

 Cross-Sequential Research

Subjects at several different ages are tracked  

over time  

Chapter 2

28. The “Father of Adolescent Psychology”; First person to take

scientific approach to the study of adolescence  

29. G. Stanley Hall thought that adolescence was by nature  

emotionally volatile and unstable.  

30. Defines this period as one of physical and sexual  maturation, during which important growth changes take place in

the child’s body.  

31. “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”: Like Charles Darwin’s beliefs, Hall believed that an individuals growth or development  mirrors or parallels the evolutionary history of its species  “Sturm und Drang” (aka “storm and stress”): Period of  

adolescence that refers to the turbulent nature of adolescence;  believed adolescence are on an emotional seesaw

32. Spiral growth patterns: Gesell believed that development  was characterized by both upward and downward changes that  cause some repetition at different ages.  

Genes and maturation: Believed that genes determined the order of appearance of behavioral traits and development trends

33. Oral: infancy:  

 Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come  from oral activity (Ex. Mothers breasts)

Anal: ages 2-3

 Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come  from anal activity and elimination

Phallic: ages 4-5

 Phallic stage: a time of identification with same-sex  parent

a. Oedipal Complex in males

b. Castration anxiety  

c. Electra Complex in females

d. Penis envy

 Childs chief source of pleasure and satisfaction come  from the genital area

Latency: ages 6 to puberty

 Sexual interests remain hidden as the child focuses on  school and other activities  

Genital: beginning of adolescence

 Puberty  

 Sexual urges result in seeking other persons as sexual  objects to relieve sexual tension

34. The culmination of a series of changes destined to give  

infantile sexual life its final, adult form  

35. Identification: taking on of parental values, beliefs, and  behaviors

∙ Identification for Boys

 Reduces castration anxiety

 Reduces conflict between father and son

 Teaches the boy how to behave like a man

 Enabling him to find a wife of his own when he matures 36. Individuation: the formation of personal identity by the  development of the self as a unique person separate from  parents or others

o Differentiation of behavior, feelings, judgments, and  thoughts from those of his or her parents

o Parent-child relationship moves toward growing  

cooperation, equality, and mutuality as the child  

becomes an autonomous person within the family  

context (Mazor & Enright, 1988)

37. Psychoanalytical theory: Freud’s theory that the structure  of personality is composed of the id, ego, and superego and that  mental health depends on keeping the balance among them Psychoanalytic Views: Anna Freud

∙ Adolescence: a time of internal conflict, psychic  

disequilibrium, and erratic behavior

∙ Reasons for conflicting behavior: re-emergence of instinctual  drives & sexual maturation at puberty

38. Anna Freud’s Instinctual Theory:

∙ Id: these instinctual urges present a direct challenge to the  individual’s ego

o Leave my room a mess

∙ Ego: the sum of those mental processes that aim to  safeguard the individual; it’s the evaluative, reasoning power  of the individual

o

∙ Superego: the conscience that results from identification  with the same-sex parent

o Clean your room, make you parents proud  

39. Anna Freud’s Defense Mechanism:

∙ The ego:  

o Represses  

o Displaces

o Denies, and  

o Reverses the instincts against the self

∙ Balance is achieved if the superego is sufficiently developed  during the latent period

40. Erik Erikson’s Stages of Personality:

1. Infants (0-2)

 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust

2. Toddlers (2-4)

 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

3. Preschoolers (4-6)

 Initiative vs. guilt

4. Grade-Schoolers (6-11)

 Industry vs. inferiority  

5. Adolescences (11-20)

 Identity vs. diffusion  

6. Young Adults (20-40)  

 Intimacy vs. isolation  

7. Middle-Aged Adults (40-65)

 Generality vs. stagnation  

8. Elderly (65+)  

 Ego identity vs. despair

41. Identity Search: a normative crisis

Identity Diffusion: lack of personal identity  

Psychosocial Moratorium: a societal sanctioned intermediary  

period between childhood and adulthood

Cognition: The act or process of knowing

Emerging Adulthood: late twenties  

42. Cognitive Views of Jean Piaget:

a. Organismic psychologist: he believed that both brain  maturation and personal experience drive cognitive  

development.

b. Interested in human cognitive development

c. Was interested in how children reached conclusion rather  than if the answers were correct  

43. Five Dynamics of Development:

∙ Schema: The original patterns of thinking  

∙ Adaptation: Including and adjusting to new information that  

increases understanding

∙ Assimilation: Incorporating a feature of the environment into  

an existing mode or structure of thought  

∙ Accommodation: Adjusting to new information by creating  

new structures to replace old ones  

∙ Equilibrium: Achieving a balance between schemas and

accommodation  

44. Jean Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development: a. Sensorimotor Period (birth-2)  

∙ Coordinate their physical actions and sensory  experiences

b. Preoperational Period (2-7)  

∙ Deal with the world symbolically but still cannot think logically

c. Concrete Operations (7-11)  

∙ Capacity for logical reasoning

d. Formal Operations (11 on)  

∙ Begin to think in more logical, abstract terms 45. Lev Vygotsky

a. The zone of proximal development

∙ The level of learning at which a task that is too difficult for a  child to complete by himself or herself is manageable with  help  

b. Scaffolding  

∙ Assistance provided to help a child master a task; it is  gradually withdrawn as the child gains competence 46. Reinforcement:

a. Positive reinforcements are influences that increase the  

probability that the preceding response will occur again  b. Negative reinforcements are influences that increase the  

probability that the preceding response will stop  

c. Vicarious Reinforcement- learning from observing the  positive or negative consequences of another persons  behaviors

47. Abstract reasoning principles that allow children to think  logically

48. The life tasks of adolescents:

∙ Accept one’s physique

∙ Develop new, mature relationships

∙ Develop a social gender role

∙ Acquire emotional independence

∙ Prepare for a career

∙ Prepare for marriage & family

∙ Develop socially responsible behavior

∙ Develop a set of values

49. Uri Bronfenbenner’s Ecological model:

∙ The world as a series of nested systems

 Microsystem

a. Those within immediate contact

 Mesosystem

a. Reciprocal relationships among  

 Exosystem

a. Settings in which the adolescent does nor have  an active role as a participant but that influence  

him or her nevertheless

 Macrosystem

a. Ideologies, attitudes, mores, customs, and laws  of a particular culture that influence the  

individual  

50. Anthropological Views:

Emphasize the importance of the broader social environment in  determining the personality, development of the child. Also  emphasize the sociocultural milieu determines the course of  adolescence and strongly influences the degree to which  adolescents feel welcomed by the adult community.  

Chapter 3

51. The United States is becoming more Asian and more  Latino. Whereas the percentages of Americans in these groups

are increasing, the Black and Native American populations are  expected to remain stable and the White population is expected  

to decrease.  

52. Low social standing and low income

53. 30% of African American and 15% of Asian American  

adolescents live below the poverty line  

54. More poor white adolescents than either Asian American,  African American, Hispanic American, and Native American  adolescents; Mostly just because there are more White  

adolescence  

∙ A greater proportion of non-White adolescents are  

poor

55. Leisure facilities, Educational advantages, Work  opportunities, Health and medical care, and desirable living  

conditions.  

56. Native Americans: 25%; Blacks: ~23%; Latinos: ~20%;  

Asian Americans: ~10%; Whites: ~8%

57. Limited Alternatives: low-SES are not exposed to a variety  

of social and cultural settings

∙ Helplessness, Powerlessness: exercise little  

autonomy or influence in improving their conditions;  little opportunity or knowledge to receive additional  

training

∙ Deprivation and Hardship: media make them  

constantly aware of their own abject status and  

“failure”; more likely to be immersed in unhealthy,  

objectionable environments

∙ Insecurity: at the mercy of life’s unpredictable events 58. Cycle of Poverty refers to the vicious circle that  

characterizes the experiences of impoverished people, who find  it difficult to move into the middle class. Ex. If you are poor, you  will likely go to an inadequate school. Even if you work hard, you  will likely learn less than a middle class student. Because of this,  you will be less likely to go to college or get a job. If you can’t get

a job you will have no way to earn enough money to raise you  

standard of living.  

59. Low SES adolescents are less likely than middle-class  youths to be raised by both biological parents. Their parents are  also less likely to be home after school and more likely to be  strict when they are. Low SES adolescents are also more likely to  experience both physical and psychological illnesses, and the are

also less likely lo finish high school.

60. Peer Orientation: do not gain status through their familial  identifications; Since low SES adolescents tend to have less of a  relationship with their parents, they form stronger, more  

influential bonds with their peers  

∙ Social Outcasts: socialized differently from middle-class  

youths

∙ Mental Health: lack of emotional security & lack of stability in  

low-SES homes

∙ Physical Health: substandard nutrition and exposure to  

environmental toxins

61. Pregnancy rates especially unintended pregnancy rates,  are higher among those of lower SES. Divorce and separation  

rates are higher as well.  

62. Homelessness has increased in recent years due to  decreased availability in low cost housing, government aid cuts,  and escalating health care costs.  

63. African Americans are less likely to live in segregated  housing, less likely to be poor, and more likely to attend college  

than they were 20 years ago.  

64. African American adolescent girls are about 2 ½ times  

more likely to get pregnant then adolescent white girls 65. Family, strong kinship bond, favorable attitude toward the  

elderly, adaptable roles, and strong religious orientation 66. The mismatch between Latino children and the schools  

they attend. As a result of language difficulties, inadequate  funding, and cultural misunderstanding, needed skills are not

being learned and diplomas are not being earned.  

67. Colonies or districts of Spanish speaking people  68. Mexican families are more patriarchal and have traditional  

sex roles

69. Fatalism, or the belief that one cannot change one’s  

destiny or fate  

70. Marianismo- presents the virgin Mary as a role model; the  implication that a woman finds her greatest satisfaction through  

motherhood

71. Native Americans value cooperation and modesty more  than individual achievement and bravado. They also show great  respect for the elderly. Native Americans are not materialistic.  They believe on focusing on the here and now, rather than  

worrying about the future.  

72. Matrilineal- descent though the mothers line  73. Well educated, lower divorce rates, mental illness, and  

public assistance, higher family incomes than the general U.S.  population, value collectivism (belief that an individual is less  

important than the family as a whole)  

74. One out of every five

75. Immigrants- people who leave their native land to come  

live in the U.S. for any reason  

∙ Refugees- people who leave their native land to come live in  

the U.S. because they are fleeing political oppression or death 76. More than 1.8 million  

77. Within the past decade, most immigrants to the United  States have come from Latin America whereas most refugees  have come from Africa. Both of these trends will likely change as  

the political and social situations in other nations fluctuate.  78. Resiliency- an individuals ability to succeed in spite of  

adversity and hardship  

79. Acculturation stress- the psychological impact of  adaptation to a new culture. For Hispanics who come to the  United States, there are a number of significant stressors that  are likely to be pervasive, intense, and lifelong.

Chapter 4

80. Puberty is triggered by a change in the endocrine glands  and the hypothalamus.

o Endocrine glands

 Production of hormones

 Hormones are chemical messengers that  

flow through the bloodstream and affect  

what other cells do  

81. Puberty is triggered by a change in the endocrine glands  and the hypothalamus.

o Hypothalamus:  

 Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) causes  the pituitary gland to produce gonadotropic  

hormones

 Controls the secretion of the hormones LH  

and FSH by the pituitary  

 Becomes more active and begins to direct the  

body to produce more sex hormones  

 Part of the brain that control pain, pleasure,  

emotion, and motivation  

 Eating, drinking, hormonal production,  

menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, sexual  

response  

82. Pituitary Gland- Master gland of the body located at the  base of the brain  

∙ FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)

 Growth of eggs and sperm  

 Some female sex hormones

∙ LH (Luteinizing hormones)

 Some female and male sex hormones

a. Stimulates development of the ovum and  

estrogen and progesterone in females and sperm  

and testosterone in males  

∙ HGH (Human Growth Hormone)

 Regulates body growth  

83. Female sex hormones are produced by the ovaries, and  secrete estrogen and progesterone and produces mature egg  cells

∙ Estrogens

 Secondary sex characteristics

 Development of sex organs

 Produced by the ovaries  

∙ Progesterone

 Produced by corpus luteum

a. Corpus Luteum- a yellow body that grows from  

the ruptured follicle of the ovary and becomes an

endocrine gland that secrets progesterone  

 Maintains pregnancy

84. Adrenal Glands:  

∙ Located just above the kidneys  

∙ Present in males and females  

∙ Produce both male and female sex hormones

o Allows males to have some female hormones and vice  versa

85. Male sex hormones:  

∙ Produced by the testes

o The androgens

 Class of masculinizing sex hormones produced by  the testes and to a lesser extend, the adrenals  

o Especially testosterone

o Control secondary sex characteristics

o Control development of male sex organs

o Spermatogenesis- the follicle stimulating hormone  stimulates sperm growth in the testes  

86. Sex hormone regulation:  

∙ Negative feedback loops

o In males, GnRH decreases when testosterone levels are  high  

∙ An additional substance, inhibin, regulates FSH levels in  another negative feedback loop

o Sertoli cells- Cells in the testes that produce inhibin  In females, estrogen and progesterone decrease FSH  

and LH levels

87. Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs: a. Scrotum

∙ Testes, epididymis, part of vas deferens

 Epididymis- a system of ducts, running from the testes  to the vas deference in which the sperm mature and  

are stored

b. Seminal vesicles

c. Prostate gland

d. Urethra

e. Penis

∙ Doubles in length and girth during adolescence, with the  most rapid growth taking place between ages 14 and 16  f. Cowper’s gland

∙ Secrete an alkaline fluid that lubricates and neutralizes the  acidity of the urethra for easy and safe passage of semen  g. Nocturnal Emissions  

∙ “Wet dreams”  

88. Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs:

a. The vulva

∙ The mons, the labia majora and labia minor, Bartholin’s  glands

b. The vagina

∙ Matures at puberty

 Increases in length and its mucous lining becomes  thicker and more elastic and turns a deeper color  

c. Uterus

d. Fallopian tubes

e. Ovaries

89. Menarche is the onset of menstruation. It usually does not  signal the beginning of puberty in girls; it neither is in the middle  of the process and does nor occurs until after maximum growth  rates in height and weight have been achieved.  

90. Menstrual Cycle

a. FSH and estrogen high in 1st half of cycle

b. LH and progesterone high in 2nd half of cycle

91. Metrorrhagia- excessive bleeding

∙ Believed to be caused by an excess of prostaglandins, which  are hormones that cause smooth muscle contractions   Antiprostaglandins can be taken to destroy or inhibit  these hormones  

a. Ibuprofen, aspirin, etc.  

92. Secondary Sexual Characteristics- The features that  although not absolutely necessary for reproduction,  differentiation male and female bodies  

∙ Ex. Presence or absence of body hair, enlarger or smaller  

voice box, increased muscle mass or body fat  

93. Primary and Secondary Sexual Characteristics: a. Boys:

∙ Age 11.5-13

 Beginning growth of testes, scrotum, pubic hair

 Height spurt begins

 Beginning growth of penis (Primary)  

∙ Age 13-16

 Straight pigmented pubic hair

 Some deepening of voice  

 Kinky pubic hair  

 First ejaculation of semen (Primary)  

 Rapid growth of penis, testes, scrotum, prostate  (Primary)

∙ Age 16-18

 Marked voice changes

 Rapid growth of axillary hair

 Growth of bread  

 Identification of frontal hairline  

b. Girls:  

∙ Age 10-11

 Height spurt begins

 Slight growth of pubic hair

 Breast, nipples, elevated to form “bud” stage  ∙ Age 11-14

 Straight pigmented pubic hair

 Some deepening of voice  

 Rapid growth of vagina, ovaries, labia, and uterus  

(Primary)

 Kinky pubic hair  

 Age of maximum growth  

∙ Age 14-16

 Growth of axillary hair

 Filling out breasts  

94. Female development of Breasts:  

a. Prepubertal stage

b. Bud Stage

c. Primary Stage

d. Secondary or Mature Stage

e. Adult Stage

95. 2 years before boys

96. Determinants of height

∙ Heredity

∙ Nutrition

∙ Age one enters puberty

97. Physical Sex Differences between Males and Females:  a. Due to testosterone, males have…

∙ Thicker, larger bones

∙ Enlarged larynxes

∙ Larger muscles

∙ More body hair  

∙ Higher basal metabolic rates

b. Due to estrogen, females have…

∙ Breasts

∙ Subcutaneous fat layer

∙ Slower metabolisms

∙ Lessened risk of strokes and heart attacks

98. Body Types and Ideals

∙ Ectomorphs- tall, long, thin  

 Tall, slender body  

∙ Endomorphs- round, plump

 Short, heavy body

∙ Mesomorphs- square, strong shoulders, muscled bodies  

 Medium, athletic body  

99. Early-Maturing Boys

∙ Considerable athletic advantage  

∙ Become stronger and more muscular  

∙ Better coordination  

Late-Maturing Boys

∙ Socially induced inferiority  

Early-Maturing Girls

∙ Tend to feel awkward and self-conscious  

Late-Maturing Girls

∙ Social disadvantage in middle school and high school  100. Mortality- probability of dying  

∙ Car accidents: 38%

∙ Medical Causes: 25%

∙ Homicide: 14%

∙ Suicide: 12%

∙ Other accidents: 11%

101. Don’t have time to eat breakfast, Rely on snacks, Eat only  small quantities of nutrition, Inadequate knowledge of nutrition  

influence, Social pressure

102. At least 30 minutes on most days of the week 103. Maturing sebaceous glands

104. Gonads- Sex glands (tested and ovaries)  

Spermatogenesis- the follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates sperm growth in the testes

Sertoli cells- Cells in the testes that produce inhibin Epididymis- a system of ducts, running from the testes to the vas  deference in which the sperm mature and are stored Hymen- a fold of connective tissue that partly closes the vagina in  the virginal female

Anovulatory- without ovulation  

Leptin- a hormone that helps trigger puberty  

Gynecomastia- a temporary enlargement of their breasts resulting  from an excessive amount of estrogen in their system (7% of boys  experience this)

Axillary hair- grows about 2 years after pubic hair; generally coarser and darker

Osteoporosis- a condition in which the bones become brittle due to  calcium loss

Melatonin- hormone that the brain produces to induce sleep  

Chapter 5

 105. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development:  ∙     Sensorimotor Stage: birth – 2 

o Learning is related to the mastery of sensory-motor

sequences.

o The individual cannot think without performing  

movement: to think is to move.

o Thought is quite inflexible.

o Does not engage in logic

o The infant moves from a self-centered, body-centered  

world to an object-centered world.

o Intrigued with simple motor activities

 ∙     Preoperational Stage: 2 – 7 

o Period when language is acquired.

o Symbolic play, or internalized imitation, emerges o Transductive reasoning: infer cause and effect when  

none exists; making no generalizations  

o Thinking is also egocentric; That is children cant  understand why others cannot see something in the  

same way that they do  

o Syncretism- trying to link ideas that are not always  

related  

o Animism- assumptions that inanimate object have  

feelings and are alive  

o Centering- Tendency of children to focus attention on  one detail  

 ∙     Concrete Operational Stage: 7 – 11 or 12 

o Greater capacity for logical reasoning, at concrete level o Hierarchical classifications- ability to divide objects  

into nested series of categories  

o Class inclusion relationship- understanding that  

objects can be put into different levels of hierarchies  o Transitive inference- ability to solve problems  o Conservation- the recognition that properties of things  

such as weight and volume are not altered by changing  

their shape or the container they are in  

o Four important mental operations:

 Reversibility: All actions, even mental actions,  

have an opposite

 Identity or nullifiability: the object is

unchanged

 Associativity: same outcome can result from  

different combinations or clusterings or actions.

 Combinativity: Classes can always be combined  to form larger, broader categories

 ∙     Formal Operational Stage: 11/12 & older 

o Two Parts:

 Substages III-A, almost full formal function (ages  

11–12 to 14–15), a preparatory stage  

 Substage III-B, full formal function (ages 14–15  

and up). Many adolescents and adults never truly  

reach the second substage.

o (1) Introspection (thinking about thought)

o (2) Abstract thinking (going beyond the real to the  

possible)

o (3) Combinatorial thinking (being able to consider all  

important facts and ideas)

o (4) Logical reasoning (the ability to form correct  

conclusions using induction and deduction)

o (5) Hypothetical reasoning (formulating hypotheses and  examining the evidence for them, considering numerous variables)

106. Effects of Adolescent Thought on Personality and Behavior:  ∙ Idealism: what it might be like

o Idealistic- insisting upon high standards of behavior  ∙ Hypocrisy: pretending to be what they are not

o Discrepancy between what people say and do  

∙ Pseudostupidity: approaching problems at much too complex  

a level and failing

∙ Egocentrism: Inability to take the perspective of another  o Imaginary audience- adolescents belief that others are  constantly paying attention to them

o Personal fable- adolescents belief that they are  

invulnerable and that their feelings are special and  unique  

∙ Introspection- thinking about ones thoughts and feelings  

107. Critiques of Piaget’s Theory:

∙ Age and Universality  

o Formal operational abilities do not emerge at a set time,

nor is their emergence guaranteed.

o Lack of consistency

∙ Beyond Formal Operations

o No one, consistent, uniform conception of post-formal  

cognitive development

o Advanced reasoning called dialectics

108. What Can We Retain from Formal Operations? a. Significantly and qualitatively more intelligent beginning at

about age 11

b. Deductive reasoning improves during adolescence c. Hypothetical or blatantly untrue situations improves  

substantially

d. Use of prepositional logic increases

e. Exhaustive combinatorial reasoning improves

f. Metacognition- the ability to think about one’s own  thoughts; improves during adolescents  

109. Information processing approach: study how individuals  perceive, attend to, retrieve, and manipulate information.  o Steps in Information Processing:  

 Stimuli

 Selection  

 Interpretation

 Memory  

 Sensory Storage- Information is received  

and transduced by the senses, usually in a

fraction of a second

 Short Term Storage- Information is still in the

conscious mind, being rehearsed and  

focused on

 Long Term Storage- Information is perceived

and processed deeply so it passes into the  

layers of memory below the conscious level

 Higher-Order Thought Processes

 Inference

∙ The most basic of the thought  

processes

∙ The ability to generate new thoughts  

from old information  

 Thinking

∙ Conscious deliberate coordination of  

information

o Negative information:  

information that refutes their  

hypotheses  

o Rely on negation rather than  

affirmation  

o Use an elimination strategy  

o Self-serving bias

 Reasoning

∙ Logical, constrained, useful thinking  

o Analog

o Deductions

o Induction

o Problem solving

 Action  

110. Current research differs from Piaget:

a. Focused on a micro-level analysis

b. Change is more gradual and continuous

c. A belief that knowledge and skills are domain specific

d. Emphasizes the progressive steps, actions, and operations  that take place when the adolescent receives, perceives,  remembers, thinks about, and utilizes information

111. Ross’s five skills of decision making:  

∙ (1) Identifying alternate courses of action

∙ (2) Identifying appropriate criteria for considering  

alternatives

∙ (3) Assessing alternatives by criteria  

∙ (4) Summarizing information about alternatives

∙ (5) Evaluating the outcome of the decision making process 112. Barriers to Good Decision making:  

a. Heuristics: rules of thumb

∙ Rely to much on anecdotal evidence and too little upon more  rigorous evidence  

b. Overestimate

c. Rely upon intuitive rather than analytic reasoning. d. Researchers advocate a dual process theory of decision  

making  

∙ Intuitions and the use of heuristics often trump logic and  deliberation

113. Four-Level Scheme of Epistemic development: ∙ Level 1: age of 6 or 7

 Children are naive realists

a. Believe that there are absolute, universal truths

∙ Level 2: middle childhood

 Defensive realists

a. Believing that there are actual truths, but people  are biased

∙ Level 3: adolescents

 Dogmatists or skeptics

a. Skeptics have lost faith in logic:

i. Impulsively

ii. Intuitively

iii. Indifferently

b. Dogmatists

i. Intolerant of other views

ii. Do not want to question their own  

beliefs

iii. Insist that their way of thinking is  

right

∙ Level 4: Post-skeptical rationalism

 Understand that absolute certainty of the truth is not  

needed for rational behavior

 Some possibilities are more likely right than others  Do the best you can with the information available

114. Brain Development During Adolescents:

∙ Cerebrum: connected by the corpus callosum

o Largest part of the human brain  

o Corpus Callosum- A fibrous band of tissues that  connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain  ∙ Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes

o Parietal lobe: spatial reasoning

o Frontal lobe: planning & impulse control

o Temporal lobe: language and nonverbal  

communication

 Hippocampus: involved with learning, memory,  

and motivation  

 The amygdala interprets incoming sensory  

information and causes us to respond in primal,  

emotional ways to that information

o Occipital lobe: vision

115. Parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe 116. The “Triarchic Theory”:

o Componential intelligence

 Learning, critical thinking

o Experiential Intelligence

 Creativity, insight

o Contextual Intelligence  

 Practical problem solving

117. Intelligence Tests:  

∙ Measure primarily componential, linguistic, and  

logical/mathematical intelligence

∙ Stanford-Binet

∙ Wechsler Scales  

∙ Score may change greatly between early childhood and  

adolescence; by adolescence they’re usually stable ∙ Intelligence Quotient (IQ)- calculated by dividing the  

mental age (MA) by the chronological age (CA) and  multiplying by 100

118. Achievement Tests- tests designed to assess mastery of  specific subject matters or skills  

∙ Scholastic Reasoning Test (SAT)

o Two primary objections:  

 SES, gender, and ethnic effects  

 Test measures basic abilities acquired over a  

student’s lifetime

119. Factors Influencing Results:  

∙ Actual intelligence

∙ Test anxiety

∙ Motivation

∙ Sociocultural factors/bias

o Dynamic testing

120. Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests:  

a. A test score reflects, at best, a snapshot of a person’s

ability at a particular point in time.

b. May not reflect his or her intelligence per se, but instead  

his or her attitude or background.

c. May reflect motivation or physical state more than  

intelligence.

d. Measures only a narrow range of intelligence.

121. Transductive reasoning- Infer cause an effect when non  exists; making no generalizations  

Syncretism- Trying to link ideas that are not always related  Animism- assumptions that inanimate object have feelings and are  alive

Centering- Tendency of children to focus attention on one detail  Hierarchical classifications- ability to divide objects into nested  series of categories  

 Transitive inference- ability to solve problems  

Conservation- the recognition that properties of things such as  weight and volume are not altered by changing their shape or the  container they are in

Seriate- act of lining things up in order from large to small or small  to large  

Processing speed- the pace at which the brain perceives and  manipulates information  

Self-serving bias- looking at the world in a way that favors one’s  own opinion  

 Negation- a strategy used to disprove  

Affirmation- A strategy to confirm  

 Metacognition- the awareness and ability to think about ones own  thinking  

Epistemology- one’s beliefs about knowledge  

Naturalistic intelligence- the ability to identify plants and animals  Psychometric approach- approach to cognitive development that  focuses on the measurement of knowledge and ability

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