BIOL 11100 Exam 3 Study Guide
BIOL 11100 Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL111
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Friday April 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL111 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Bos in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 820 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 04/17/15
BIOL 11100 Exam 3 Study Guide Summarize the types structure and functions of neurons and glial cells a Sensory neurons afferent detect stimuli i Mechanoreceptors touchpressure ii Propioreceptors spatial body awareness iii Nocireceptors painheat Motor neurons efferent carry out responses Schwann cells myelin sheath in PNS transmission of nerve impulse Oligodendrocytes myelin sheath in CNS transmission of nerve impulse Astrocytes metabolic supports repair CNS structure transmission of nerve impulse f Microglia immune defense promote repair in CNS Describe the basic sensory integration and motor functions of the PNS and CNS a Central Nervous System brain and spinal cords receives and integrates info coordinates complex response b Peripheral Nervous System nerves and ganglia outside the CNS main job is to send info gathered by the body s sensory receptors to the CNS Then the PNS relays speci c orders back out to the body to trigger actions sensory and motor divisions Identify the ions involved in nerve impulse transmission and their relative concentrations inside and outside the neuron a Ions involved in nerve impulse Na and K b Concentration difference exists in and out of cell at 400 mV very large c Lots of Na outside going out 1 Lots of K inside going in Roles of the NaK pump and the K leak channel in maintaining the resting potential a The NaK pump is ATP driven it pumps Na out and K in by active transport b The K leak channel can move K in or out depending on the concentration gradient forces high 9 low Summarize the types and properties of graded potentials and explain how graded potentials are produced a Physical chemical stimuli cause neurons to alter resting membrane potential this causes LGICs to open and change permeability to ions charge cell b Properties can vary in strength and duration can be summed LGIC for Na is stimulated to create depolarizing graded potentials makes voltage closer to threshold Sequence of events during an action potential a An action potential begins when the cell depolarizes and threshold voltage is reached i Na activation gate opens 1 Rapid in ux temporary of Na causes the membrane to depolarize ii Na activation loop closes and stops the in ux iii K channel opens repolarization of membrane occurs Membrane potential changes ion gradients do not How neurotransmitters are used to convey signals from neurons to other cells a When action potentials reach the axon terminus it triggers an in ux of Ca2 ions b The terminus contains synaptic vesicles packed with neurotransmitters c The Ca2 in ux causes exocytosis of vesicles neurotransmitters get released into the synaptic cleft and bind to LGIC of other cells to relay the message 1 The release may be excitatory acetylcholine or glutamate or inhibitory GABA Relate the role of the nervous system to sensory and motor functions in your body a The PNS is responsible for sensing stimuli and sending info to the CNS b The CNS receives the signal interpretsintegrates the info and sends back the appropriate message to PNS which performs motor actions 9900quot Relate the concentration of ions and membrane proteins to resting potential maintenance a To maintain resting potential 50 to 70 mV which is a difference in electrical charge on either side of the membrane the concentration of ions Na outside and K inside is maintained in a way that the cell is polarized inside outside b 2 proteins N aK pump works through active transport with ATP and K leak channels balance the concentration and ow of ions and thus the charge Graded potentials may increase or decrease the chances of creating an action potential a Graded potentials can vary in strength and magnitude They can be used to reinforce or negate another graded potential i Summation increases the chances of an action potential if added together ii If separated the chances of action potential are low Explain how various ion channels in the membranes of neurons are associated with resting potentials graded potentials and action potentials a Resting potential K leak channel b Graded potential ligand gated ion channels c Action potential voltage gated ion channels What myelination does for action potentials and how action potential signals move along an axon a Myelination allows a cell to do saltatory conduction cell jumping and action potential is only produced at nodes of Ranvier instead of each little step along the axon i Na diffuses inside an axon causes depolarization ii Depolarization at next node stimulates a new action potential Proteins important for exocytosis and why exocytosis is important to neuron function a SNARE proteins required for fusion of besicles with membrane at axon terminals during exocytosis important because fusion is needed so that neurotransmitters can be released in the synaptic cleft and relay the signal to the next cell diffuse through the cleft i SNAP 25 ii Syntaxin iii Synaptobrevin Summarize events that create synaptic signaling a Neurotransmitter must be synthesized and stored in vesicles b Action potential arrives at terminal NR is released into synaptic cleft c NR recognized by receptors on next cell so the signal can be passed on and another action potential can be initiated neurotransmitters can be inhibitory also Organization and composition of the levels of muscle anatomy Starting with muscles attached to tendons a Skeletal muscle made of fascicles b Fascicles made of muscle fibers c Muscle f1bers muscle cells d Muscle cells made of myof1brils e Myof1brils made of sarcomeres composed of thick and thin filaments Filaments and proteins that are involved in muscle contraction and the regulation of muscle contraction a Muscle contraction relies on interaction between protein structures called thick and thin filaments i Filaments involved 1 Thin filaments mostly actin 2 Thick filaments mostly myosin ii Proteins etc involved 1 Ca 2 ions bind to troponin 2 Tropomyosin moved off by troponin 3 Troponin moves tropomyosin off actin binding sites Sarcomere in the relaxed vs contracted state a Sarcomere repeating unit of striated muscle the basic unit of muscle contraction b In the relaxed state the Z bands are far apart distance present between thin laments actin c In the contracted state the Z bands are relatively closer and the thin laments overlap but do NOT decrease in length The sliding lament mechanism of muscle contraction a A muscle contracts and shortens because the myo brils inside in contract and shorten b How it works i In each single sarcomere the thick myosin and thin actin laments interact and slide past each other to overlap and change the distance between the 2 bands The role of calcium in muscle contraction a At rest tropomyosin covers the binding sites along the thin lament and actin and myosin cannot interact with each other b When calcium accumulates in the cytosol it binds to troponin which causes the tropomyosin on actin sites to shift and expose them so myosin and actin can bind i Calcium concentration increases 9 contraction occurs ii Calcium concentration decreases 9 contraction stops c The release of calcium in the cytosol is driven by motor neurons Steps of cross bridge cycle according to the sliding lament model a Myosin head is bound to ATP low energy state b Myosin head makes ATP 9 ADP Pi now in high energy state c Myosin head binds to actin forms cross bridge d Myosin head releases Pi moves in power stroke and slides actin e Myosin head releases ADP and the actin as it binds to a new ATP molecule Sarcomere structure Bundles of laments between 2 lines Made of two protein structures thick myosin and thin actin laments A band length of thick laments H band distance between the thin laments I band distance between 2 lines and thick laments Z band whole length of the sarcomere Molecules amp mechanisms that control muscle contraction a To cause muscle contraction myosin head must bind to actin and pull it b Myosin and tropomyosin compete for the same actin binding site c In ux of Ca ions in the cytosol causes Ca to bind to troponin which binds to tropomyosin and moves of actin so myosin can bind to actin and contract the muscle d For this we need ATP troponin tropomyosin Ca ions and thick and thin laments in a sarcomere Sequence of events that occur at the neuromuscular junction to stimulate muscle contraction Na VGICs cause depolarization of axon terminal Ca in ux occur at the axon terminal SNARE proteins allow neurotransmitter vesicles containing acetylcholine to be released Ach binds to Na LGICs Na diffuses into muscle bers Na goes down in Ttubules through bers Ca channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum open due to muscle depolarization Ca binds troponin Predict the consequences given a disruption to molecules involved in muscle contraction a Eg 1 With no ATP myosin cannot release actin constant muscle contraction rigor mortis rho 90 9 VW rm 90 cs b Eg 2 With no Ca ions in cytosol troponin cannot move tropomyosin off actin no muscle contraction The two circuits to the mammalian circulatory system a b Pulmonary blood takes 02 to the lungs tofrom heart Systemic blood goes to and from body tissues to heart Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide a Exhaled air i P02 120 ii PC02 27 Pulmonary arteries iii P02 40 iv PC02 45 Systemic veins V P02 40 vi PC02 45 Pulmonary veins vii P02 104 viii PC02 40 Systemic arteries ix P02 104 x PC02 40 Body tissues xi P02 lt40 xii PC02 gt45 Structure and function of hemoglobin a b C d e f Hemoglobin a respiratory pigment protein that binds to 02 for transportation purposes 02 carrier increases solubility of 02 in blood by 40x In vertebrates it is present in erythrocytes and is made of 4 polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta Each chain has a non protein cofactor called a heme group that has an iron molecule on it in the center Each iron binds one 02 so one hgb molecule can hold 4 02 molecules Hbg binds 02 reversibly and one binding increases the affinity for others to bind pH changes affect the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen a b C Called the Bohr shift As pH decreases this leads to weaker 02 binding and Bohr curve shifts right hgb lets go of 02 easily and delivers 02 to tissues in the body As pH increases this leads to stronger 02 binding an Bohr curve shifts left hgb holds on to 02 harder to let it go How carbon dioxide is transported by the blood a b c d e Most of it is carried as HC03 bicarbonate ion Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from C02 and H20 Reaction 1 PC02 in uences Reaction 2 diffusion out of blood is favored 1 2 C02 H20 lt gt H2C03 lt gt H2C03 H in RBCs in lungs Circulation and diffusion of both circuits of the circulatory system a b c d Right ventricle contracts and pumps blood to lungs via pulmonary arteries As blood goes through capillary beds in left and right lungs loads 02 and unloads C02 02 rich blood comes from lungs to left atrium via pulmonary veins 02 rich blood goes to left ventricle which pumps it to body tissues via the systemic circuit Worm Blood leaves via aorta Branches lead to capillary beds in body Net diffusion of 02 blood 9 tissue and C02 in blood 02 low blood goes to vena cava and to right atrium and then right ventricle Calculating partial pressures and its relation to diffusion of gases in the human body Partial pressure of a gas total air pressure X fraction of air made up of that gas P02 lungs 10488 tissues 40 PC02 lungs 3952 tissues 46 At lung capillaries C02 goes out 02 comes in At tissue capillaries C02 comes in 02 goes out Hemoglobin equilibrium curve hog g Graphical representation of how hemoglobin saturation changes with P02 changes Also called bindingdissociation curve P50 P02 level where 50 hemoglobin is saturated After 80 mmHg complete saturation at line Between 0 and 60 mmHg hgb is very responsive to P02 100 mmHg P02 lungs 4046 mmHg P02 tissues Given changes in the environment pH and or temperature predict the affinity of hemoglobin binding to oxygen a b As temperature increases or pH decreases 02 binding affinity weakens As temperature decreases or pH increases 02 binding affinity gets stronger Summarize mechanism of carbon dioxide transport and function of carbonic anhydrase qowopocg Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from C02 and H20 PC02 of blood decreases when C 02 H20 gt H2 C 03 Maintains pressure gradient favoring entry of C02 into RBCs Hgb binds to H made by H2 C 03 gt H2 C 0339 H acting as buffer In lungs PC02 decreases and favors reversal of the first reaction and release if H from hgb Go from H and HC03 all the way to H20 and C02 C02 diffuses out of lungs due to gradient Adaptions plants have to acquire resources a b Plants need to transport all the materials they need to survive Adaptations i Evolution of vascular tissues xylem and phloem allow for extensive root and shoot systems for long distance transport ii Efficiently acquiring light from sun C02 from air water from the ground iii Minimizing water loss iv A lot of the times compromises exist between enhancing photosynthesis and minimizing water loss in the habitat Routes processes and driving force of water moving from the soil into plant tissues a b Routes i Apoplast nonselective outside of cells ii Symplast through the cytoplasm and plasmodesmata easiest iii Transmembrane across membranes hardest Process minerals are actively transported by pumps etc This changes the water potential of cells and water ows passively down its concentration osmotic gradient high 9 low i Upward pressure new water entering roots provides a push to drive water in the xylem up the plant but is only a minor force How solute concentration affects water potential a Water potential 1p is a measure of osmotic strength of a solution Solute concentration determines 1 Pure water has 1 0 As solute concentration increases 1 decreases As solute concentration decreases 1 increases Water moves from high 1 to low 1 Two types of vascular tissue xylem amp phloem in plants a Xylem transports water and minerals from roots 9 shoots i Mechanisms manipulate ii taproots can moisten surface soil with deep water so the other roots can take it up to the plant iii Form relationships with microorganisms iv Taproots store water in deep aquifers for dryer seasons b Phloem transports products of photosynthesis from storage to where they are needed How transpiration affects the ow of water in xylem and how the stomata regulate H20 and C02 gas exchange 0 As transpiration occurs this lowers 1 I Evaporation from plants leads to decrease in water potential water evaporating at the surface pulls water under the surface creating tension which is transmitted through the column of water due to cohesion 0 Leaf gas exchange occurs through stomata which is the opening between two guard cells I They are reversibly filled with H20 causing changes in shape of cells to openclose and regulate the rate of C02 as well as transpiration Movement of sugars from source to sink and the forces behind the movement 0 Source usually leaves photosynthetic areas I Sucrose is actively transported into phloem I Lowers 1 in phloem I Water passively enters the phloem I High pressure in this area 0 Sink usually roots nonphotosynthetic areas I Sucrose actively transported out of phloem into the roots I Raises 1 in phloem I Water passively leaves the phloem I Lower pressure here Given water potential predict the direction and movement of water through cells 0 Water always moves from high 1 to low 1 down its concentration gradient Describe how water potential varies in soil roots stems leaves and the atmosphere 0 Summarize the two activities that in uence water potential in plants Components of the TCT model and how they impact movement of water 0 Transpiration evaporation of water from plants lowers 1 this happens at the surface 0 Tension is created since all water molecules are connected by IMFs and water above the surface pulls on water below the surface 0 Cohesion causes the water to ow up the column inside the xylem Describe the pressure ow model of water movement in phloem tissue 0 Xylem and Phloem are side by side water diffuses down its gradient and goes out of xylem into phloem seeps through 0 Hydraulic pressure inside the phloem drives water down where it again goes back to xylem through passive diffusion down its gradient 0 Inside the xylem the water moves upward due to cohesion of H20 r6999 Types of nitrogenous waste produced by animals comprised of breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Ammonia o Urea o Uric acid Summarize the excretory organs and parts and functions of the kidney 0 Excretory organs kidney ureter duct through which urine exits urinary bladder where the two ureters drain urethra tube through which urine is expelled sphincter muscles near the urethra regulate urine 0 Kidney I Has an outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla which are supplied with blood and drained by renal artery supplied by vein I Within cortex and medulla are tightly packed excretory tubules and blood vessels I Inner renal pelvis collects urine and passes it to bladder I Nephrons weave across cortex and medulla Parts of a nephron and how blood ltrate moves through the nephron to become urine 0 Parts of a nephron I Glomerulus I Proximal convoluted tubule I Loop of Henle I Distal convoluted tubule I Collecting duct 0 The Process I Filtration moves uid out of the glomerulus keeps cells and big molecules works like a colander ltrate is collected by Bowman s capsule I Reabsorption of ions amino acids vitamins sugars etc occurs in PCT responsible for 75 of reabsorption and this stuff that the body wants to keep is returned to the blood via peritubular capillaries The Loop of Henle is specialized for H20 via osmosis and mineral salt balance via active transport I Secretion occurs with substances that do not get reabsorbed into the blood they are actively transported through the distal convoluted tubule which is under the control of Antidiuretic hormone ADH which controls releaseconservation of urine Calculate glomerular ltration rates creatinine clearance o Glomerular ltration rate GFR common measure of kidney function 0 Creatinine clearance ability to clear out creatinine from the blood measures GFR I Ccr Ucr x VPcr I Ucr urine creatinine I V volume of urine I Pcr plasma creatinine Connect the concepts of kidney ltration and secretion rates to levels of antidiuretic hormone and water consumption 0 High levels of antidiuretic hormone 9 low secretion rate bc the body tries to conserve water 9 reabsorption rate increases 9 blood volume increases 9 ltration rate increases 9 more water consumption can be safely dealt with 0 Low levels of antidiuretic hormone 9 high secretion rate bc body releases more water 9 reabsorption rate decreases 9 blood volume decreases 9 ltration rate decreases 9 too much water consumption can lead to water poisoning
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