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UT / Psychology / PSYC 300 / What are the issues that drive the study of development?

What are the issues that drive the study of development?

What are the issues that drive the study of development?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Psychology
Course: Child Psychology
Professor: Sabrina thurman
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Child and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam One Review
Description: This is all that was discussed in the review session for exam 1.
Uploaded: 02/09/2017
3 Pages 37 Views 1 Unlocks
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What are the issues that drive the study of development?



∙ 30 MC questions

∙ Anything from lecture and assigned reading is fair game. ∙ Use lecture slides as study guides.

∙ Take your time while answering questions, they are meant to be a little  tricky.

Themes: Issues that drive the study of development ∙ Nature/Nurture: where do our cognitive processes come from? ∙ The Active Child: the role kids take on their development (joining a  club)

∙ Continuity/Discontinuity: what is related to earlier skills and when are  new things created—how does moment to moment affect development ∙ Mechanisms of Development: how does change actually happen  (internal and external forces that create changes over development) ∙ The Influence of Sociocultural Context: focusing on how larger  constructs define and change developmental expectations  (relationship between culture and development)


What is related to earlier skills and when are new things created?



∙ Children’s Health/Welfare: improve the life and development of kids ∙ Individual Differences: how does everyone develop in their own unique  ways?

o On Test:

 May describe a study and ask what theme is relevant

 May ask which is relevant and be asked to give an example  Be able to diagnose

Scientific Method:

∙ Feymann reading: scientific integrity—falsifiable hypothesis to rule out  everything else but what you are testing for (bending over backward) ∙ Methodology: experimental vs correlational (which can prove  causation?) (why can’t you infer causation from correlational?)  independent vs dependent, longitudinal/ cross sectional (different  groups of kids at different ages)/microgenetic developmental studies  ∙ What kind of things can infants show? How can we research through  these behaviors? (visual patterns on categorization, preferential  looking, head turning, heart rate on familiarity/novelty)


How does moment-to-moment affect development?



We also discuss several other topics like How long does voluntary army service last?

∙ What can young children and toddlers show? (language, more complex movement)

∙ Validity (intended thing we are measuring) and Reliability (does this  happen every time)

o On Test:

 Diagnose type of study done

 “What is the biggest concern of researcher using an  

observational coding method?” Reliability (different people  observe behavior so their own judgement is being used

 “A researcher show an infant a series of pictures of cats  until the amount of time they send looking at the stimulus  decreases by 50%. Then they show a picture of a dog and  measure how long the infant looks at the new stimulus.  

Which method is being used?” Habituation

Prenatal Development:

∙ Time is important in the process. Different stuff happens at different  times, both physical growth (embryonic) and neural growth (fetal). ∙ Duck egg example with visual experience—auditory learning was  disrupted because the system wasn’t ready for visual development  yet. We also discuss several other topics like What causes world war 2?

∙ What types of learning can occur prenatally? (newborns show strong  preference for mom’s voice, preference for something mom ate while  pregnant, habituation with measure of heart rate—like a new noise  compared to old noise)

∙ How teratogens interfere with developmental processes—drugs and  alcohol during certain time periods of prenatal development (be able to correlate teratogens in embryonic vs fetal period of development) o On Test:

 “Fetal habituation to an external stimulus indicates:” The  fetus has learned about the stimulus.

 “Exposure to a teratogen during the fetal period is likely to  have what effect?” Low birth weight We also discuss several other topics like What is socrates charged with in the apology?

Genes:

∙ Genes are turned into mRNA and then turned into a protein. ∙ Genes are long stretches of DNA.

∙ Know genotype (DNA in nucleus), phenotype (observable about  organism), and environment (everything outside of DNA) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different functional groups?

∙ How do genes and environment interact?  

o Information flows from genes outward (traditional idea but  WRONG)

o GxE framework where both are front and center where  information is created through their interaction (CORRECT) o Know which is which and types of interactionists (soft, hard, etc.) ∙ Know the pathways of interact between genes and the environment o On Test:

 “A parent takes extra care to baby-proof their house. The  parent then feels comfortable letting the child explore the  house. This illustrates what effect:” A parent’s phenotype  on the child’s environment (look at loop of interactions!)Don't forget about the age old question of Who is simon bolivar?

 “What is the flow of information in the creation of traits  according to the traditional theories of nature v nurture?”  

Gene protein cells environment traits

Brain Development:

∙ Important events in course of brain development (neural tube,  forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain, cortex/sensory relay station/cerebellum  and brain stem)

∙ Mechanisms that drive brain development: Neurogenesis (making lots  of neurons), synaptogenesis (neurons make contact with one another),  cell death (“synaptic pruning”/organization to do different stuff when  unuseful cells will die out), synaptic rearrangement (neurons modify  connections, strengthening or weakening of connections)

∙ What framework was Edelman arguing against? What was his view on  brain development? (self-organization through variation and selection) ∙ Experience-expectant (peak potential where time is crucial where  synaptic pruning occurs incorrectly—like visual stimulation) and  experience-dependent (synaptic rearrangement where strengthened  and weakened connections matter based on experience-driven  learning with no respect to time)

o On Test:

 “Recovery from brain damage is most likely to occur when  what is occurring?” Synaptic Pruning (doesn’t have any  Don't forget about the age old question of What is a childbirth assistant called?

huge effect on any neural function—connectivity hasn’t  

been established yet, but there are full amounts of neurons already present)

 “Two identical twins send a lot of time doing different  

activities. Through which processes will their neural  

connections develop differently?” Experience-dependent

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