∙ 30 MC questions
∙ Anything from lecture and assigned reading is fair game. ∙ Use lecture slides as study guides.
∙ Take your time while answering questions, they are meant to be a little tricky.
Themes: Issues that drive the study of development ∙ Nature/Nurture: where do our cognitive processes come from? ∙ The Active Child: the role kids take on their development (joining a club)
∙ Continuity/Discontinuity: what is related to earlier skills and when are new things created—how does moment to moment affect development ∙ Mechanisms of Development: how does change actually happen (internal and external forces that create changes over development) ∙ The Influence of Sociocultural Context: focusing on how larger constructs define and change developmental expectations (relationship between culture and development)
∙ Children’s Health/Welfare: improve the life and development of kids ∙ Individual Differences: how does everyone develop in their own unique ways?
o On Test:
May describe a study and ask what theme is relevant
May ask which is relevant and be asked to give an example Be able to diagnose
∙ Feymann reading: scientific integrity—falsifiable hypothesis to rule out everything else but what you are testing for (bending over backward) ∙ Methodology: experimental vs correlational (which can prove causation?) (why can’t you infer causation from correlational?) independent vs dependent, longitudinal/ cross sectional (different groups of kids at different ages)/microgenetic developmental studies ∙ What kind of things can infants show? How can we research through these behaviors? (visual patterns on categorization, preferential looking, head turning, heart rate on familiarity/novelty)
We also discuss several other topics like How long does voluntary army service last?
∙ What can young children and toddlers show? (language, more complex movement)
∙ Validity (intended thing we are measuring) and Reliability (does this happen every time)
o On Test:
Diagnose type of study done
“What is the biggest concern of researcher using an
observational coding method?” Reliability (different people observe behavior so their own judgement is being used
“A researcher show an infant a series of pictures of cats until the amount of time they send looking at the stimulus decreases by 50%. Then they show a picture of a dog and measure how long the infant looks at the new stimulus.
Which method is being used?” Habituation
∙ Time is important in the process. Different stuff happens at different times, both physical growth (embryonic) and neural growth (fetal). ∙ Duck egg example with visual experience—auditory learning was disrupted because the system wasn’t ready for visual development yet. We also discuss several other topics like What causes world war 2?
∙ What types of learning can occur prenatally? (newborns show strong preference for mom’s voice, preference for something mom ate while pregnant, habituation with measure of heart rate—like a new noise compared to old noise)
∙ How teratogens interfere with developmental processes—drugs and alcohol during certain time periods of prenatal development (be able to correlate teratogens in embryonic vs fetal period of development) o On Test:
“Fetal habituation to an external stimulus indicates:” The fetus has learned about the stimulus.
“Exposure to a teratogen during the fetal period is likely to have what effect?” Low birth weight We also discuss several other topics like What is socrates charged with in the apology?
∙ Genes are turned into mRNA and then turned into a protein. ∙ Genes are long stretches of DNA.
∙ Know genotype (DNA in nucleus), phenotype (observable about organism), and environment (everything outside of DNA) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different functional groups?
∙ How do genes and environment interact?
o Information flows from genes outward (traditional idea but WRONG)
o GxE framework where both are front and center where information is created through their interaction (CORRECT) o Know which is which and types of interactionists (soft, hard, etc.) ∙ Know the pathways of interact between genes and the environment o On Test:
“A parent takes extra care to baby-proof their house. The parent then feels comfortable letting the child explore the house. This illustrates what effect:” A parent’s phenotype on the child’s environment (look at loop of interactions!)Don't forget about the age old question of Who is simon bolivar?
“What is the flow of information in the creation of traits according to the traditional theories of nature v nurture?”
Gene protein cells environment traits
∙ Important events in course of brain development (neural tube, forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain, cortex/sensory relay station/cerebellum and brain stem)
∙ Mechanisms that drive brain development: Neurogenesis (making lots of neurons), synaptogenesis (neurons make contact with one another), cell death (“synaptic pruning”/organization to do different stuff when unuseful cells will die out), synaptic rearrangement (neurons modify connections, strengthening or weakening of connections)
∙ What framework was Edelman arguing against? What was his view on brain development? (self-organization through variation and selection) ∙ Experience-expectant (peak potential where time is crucial where synaptic pruning occurs incorrectly—like visual stimulation) and experience-dependent (synaptic rearrangement where strengthened and weakened connections matter based on experience-driven learning with no respect to time)
o On Test:
“Recovery from brain damage is most likely to occur when what is occurring?” Synaptic Pruning (doesn’t have any Don't forget about the age old question of What is a childbirth assistant called?
huge effect on any neural function—connectivity hasn’t
been established yet, but there are full amounts of neurons already present)
“Two identical twins send a lot of time doing different
activities. Through which processes will their neural
connections develop differently?” Experience-dependent