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UND / Chemistry / CHEM 103 / What are the different functional groups?

What are the different functional groups?

What are the different functional groups?

Description

School: University of North Dakota
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry
Professor: Organic chemistry
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Chapters1-6 and Organic Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Organic Chemistry- 341
Description: These notes cover the material that is going to be on the midterm exam!
Uploaded: 02/10/2017
15 Pages 121 Views 1 Unlocks
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  • Read through powerpoints and a lot of practice problems.
  • Chegg has answers and explanations to problems.

We also discuss several other topics like Who is émilie du châtelet?

STUDY GUIDE #1

341 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRYIf you want to learn more check out What is a childbirth assistant called?

Suggested Problems:

  • Chapter 1
  • 1.20, 1.21, 1.24, 1.26, 1.27, 1.30, 1.32, 1.38, 1.46, 1.49, 1.56, 1.59, 2.16, 2.17, 2.19, 2.20, 2.26, 2.28

  • Chapter 2
  • 2.16, 2.17, 2.19, 2.20, 2.26, 2.27, 2.33, 2.35, 2.40, 2.46, 2.53

  • Chapter 3
  • 3.11, 3.13, 3.16, 3.18, 3.20, 3.22, 3.25, 3.26, 3.30

  • Chapter 4
  • 4.9, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.17, 4.19, 4.25, 4.26, 4.29, 4.32, 4.33

  • Chapter 5
  • 5.9, 5.11, 5.13, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.23, 5.29, 5.35

  • Chapter 6
  • 6.15, 6.16, 6.18, 6.19, 6.23, 6.30, 6.35a, 6.38

If you want to learn more check out How do substitutes affect your pricing strategy?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is triple meter in music?

Chapter 2 Notes

 3- amino- 2- methyl- 1- butanolWe also discuss several other topics like What is the lenght of an er signal in a peptide sequence?

  • Functional groups:

  • “an” means no double or triple bonds.
  • “e” means a blank ending.
  • “en” means a double bond
  • “yn” means a triple bond

Don't forget about the age old question of Where are the green stars?

  • Examples:
  • Ethene
  • Alkene (double)
  • Ethyne
  • Alkyne (triple)
  • “amine” = NH 2
  • “oic acid” = carboxylic acid
  • “al” = aldehyde
  • Double and triple bond: but- 1- en- 3- yne
  • “en”: double
  • “Yne”: triple
  • Alkene at 1 = double bond
  • Alkyne at 3 = triple bond
  • Several different functional groups
  • Highest priority on the end
  • Others named like substituents

  • Example:
  • 2- hydroxyethanal
  • Aldehyde- higher priority alcohol
  • Look at priority chart in chapter 2 powerpoint

Memorize this list:

Priority

Structure

Functional Group

Name as Ending

Name of Substituent

1st

Carboxylic acid

oic acid

2nd

Aldehyde

al

oxo

3rd

Ketone

one

oxo

4th

Alcohol

ol

hydroxy

5th

Amine

amine

amino

  • Lowest to highest:
  • Aunt apple kept approaching cement asphalt.

  • Main chain has to attach to the highest priority (lowest number) group, even if it makes the chain shorter.

  • Several main chains choose double, triple bonds, then substituents

  • Example:
  •  2- ethylpropane- 1,3- diol
  • 2 alcohols on 1 and 3
  • Ethyl on 2
  • Longest chain= 3= prop
  • No double or triple bonds= ane
  •  3- methyl but- 1- ene
  • Double bond at location 1, 1 takes higher priority than methyl substituent
  • bur= 4= longest chain with highest priority attached
  • 1= double bond= ene
  • 3= methyl
  • Nomenclature:

  • Iso branching
  • Neo branching
  •  isobutane
  •  isopentane
  •  neohexane
  • Structural Fragment Names:
  • Primary (1 o) carbon: 1 C attached to 1 C
  • Secondary (2 o) carbon: 1 C attached to 2 Cs
  • Tertiary (3 o) carbon: 1 C attached to 3 Cs
  • Quaternary (4 o) carbon: 1 C attached to 4 Cs
  • Same for hydrogen except: 1 C attached to multiple hydrogens.

Example:

  • Isobutane
  • Neohexane
  •  1 C attached to 2 C.

  • Conformations: (Conformers)
  •  vs.  isomers
  • Different compounds
  • Same composition
  •  vs.
  • Same thing
  • You can rotate the 𝜎 - bond (middle bond) to get the same structure.

  • Newman Projection:
  •  dihedral angle = H- C- C- H

  • Eclipsed form (worst):
  • Higher energy
  • Less stable

  • Staggered form:
  • More stable, molecules are further apart and repulse less.
  • Less energy

  • Anti gauche > staggered
  • Φ = 180 o (the best conformation)
  • Φ = 60 o 
  • Angle strain: 60o and 90o cyclopropane and cyclobutane. Results in lower stability (higher energy). Have limited flexibility.
  • Smallest ring can move the least (worst)
  • Cyclohexane can bend to create angles of 109.5o forming the chair conformation

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