Early US History: Study Guide for Test 1
∙ Identification Questions: Be sure to answer the who, what, when, where, and why. Of these 15 identification questions, there will be 5 on the test. You will be asked to
identify only 3 of them.
Black Death: The black death was a fatal disease that effected Europeans, primarily in England, in the 17th century. The “black plague” was a nickname for the bubonic plague which was spread through filth and fleas that infected rats. Peasants died in large numbers from this disease. In England, 50% of the population died, but in Spain, only 30% of the population perished. The black death was important because it led to increased opportunity for surviving peasants, and they were able to receive better contracts from their landlords. Some went on to become merchants and If you want to learn more check out What is Moral uncertainty?
Sao Tome: Sao Tome is an island off the coast of Africa The island was settled by the Portuguese, and its ports brought in sugar from middle eastern countries such as India. The settlers at Sao Tome planted the sugar there, and because it required a great effort to plant, grow, and harvest, the settlers used African slaves to help produce the staple crop. Sao Tome soon became the model for future Portuguese
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settlements and helped create the use of slaves and slave labor.
Buffalo Jump: The buffalo jump was a hunting method done by the Folsom people in the early B.C. time period. The Folsom were a nomadic people whose main food source was buffalo. To hunt and kill the buffalo, they would drive the buffalo to the edge of the cliff and agitate/provoke them until they jumped over the side of the cliff.
At the bottom of the cliff, there were Folsom waiting to kill the surviving buffalo. The buffalo jump was important because it showed how the Folsom had developed a
complex society that included hunting technology and divisions of labor. Reconquista: The Reconquista was a 700year long war going on in Spain that was
between the Spanish Catholics and the invading Moors, in which the Spanish were trying to reclaim their land. The Reconquista created a highly militarized society and became part of Spanish life. It was important because it gave peasants the opportunity to join the military, in which they could purchase a commission for an officership. The officership commission was useful because the king of Spain would grant
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reclaimed land to loyal officers. The Reconquista paved the way for a series of
religious wars between the Catholics and Moors.
Corn, Beans, and Squash: Corn, beans, and squash were primarily grown by North American natives before America had been colonized by the Europeans. Corn, beans, and squash provided carbs and proteins that were necessarily for survival. Because of these carbs and proteins, natives were less reliant on meat and hunting. This also allowed natives to stay in one place for longer periods of time. The beans and squash prevented the natives from getting pellagra, which was a skin, digestive, and mental disease that could be gotten from eating corn alone. Natives grew corn, beans, and squash together, with the beans growing up the corn’s stalk and providing useful nitrates to the soil. The growth of these crops and methods of agriculture resulted in divisions of labor among men and women; women are responsible for the agriculture
in a native community, and own the land they work.
Tlaxcalans: The Tlaxcalans were a group of Native Americans in Mexico who were enemies of the Aztec people. When Hernando De Soto arrived in the Aztec empire, he was able to rally the Tlaxcalans in order to defeat the Aztecs. The Tlaxcalans were the Aztec’s neighbors, and every year, the Aztecs would attack the Tlaxcalan city in order to take their people for human sacrafices. Because of this, the Tlaxcalans were more than eager to help De Soto. This, and the spread of deadly European disease, led If you want to learn more check out uta philosophy
to the destruction of the Aztec empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas: Bartolome de Las Casas was a Spanish missionary who helped convert natives in the Santa Fe and Mexico areas. Las Casas was outraged at the treatment of the natives by the Spanish, who were simply converting the natives before they killed them. In some cases, natives were not even converted before they were killed. Las Casas’ disgust for the native killings led others to take on a new understanding of tolerance for the natives and feel the need to protect them from harsh Spaniards. This led to some missionaries taking in native children and adopting them. They raised them in order to help them move up the social ladder by giving We also discuss several other topics like intermediate algebra valencia
them the skills they would need for success.
John Smith: John Smith was a soldier for hire and came with the London Company to the Chesapeake Bay are in the early 1600s. Smith created a strict regime of work
among the Jamestown settlers, who were mostly gentlemen and second sons. Smith enforced the rule that you must work in order to eat. Because of this, he became the leader of the colony. Smith was captured by local natives who were controlled by Chief Powhatan, and was nearly put to death by Powhatan until Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, ceremoniously saves Smith by offering up her own life instead. In actuality, this whole event was staged, and Powhatan had no intention of killing Smith; he only wanted to see Smith’s reactions to the natives and perhaps frighten him a bit. After Smith’s captivity and release, the Jamestown settlers are on good terms with the natives, and remain so until Smith is injured in a gunpowder explosion and is sent back to England. Afterward, relations with the natives are strained once again. Smith’s actions were important because they provided assistance with the
creation of Jamestown and a good relationship with the natives.
John Rolfe: John Rolfe was a settler of Jamestown and part of the London Company in the 1600s. He married Pocahontas, after she is held hostage by the Jamestown settlers, in order to create an alliance with the natives. Rolfe also brought tobacco to the Chesapeake. This was important because the settlers grew this crop plantation style with the help of indentured slaves and servants. Tabaco soon became the staple We also discuss several other topics like retained earnings represents
and cash crop of the Jamestown colony.
Covenant Theology: Covenant Theology was a popular way of thinking for the Puritans who came to New England in the early 1600s. For the Puritans, there were two main covenants to follow: the covenant of grace and the covenant of works. According to the covenant of grace, only a select few, the elect, are chosen to go to heaven. The rest are destined for hell. The people that have had grace extended to them are supposed to know if they are saved, and if they are, they are supposed to talk to the church and the congregation about their conversion experience with God. The church would then vote on whether or not they were official members of the church and saved by God. The covenant of works is bases on the concept of original sin and the fact that works cannot bring about eternal life. Although works can’t bring eternal life, they should still do good works for moral purposes. Puritans also had a covenant of community in which the entire Puritan community agreed to follow the covenant
of works in order for the colony to prosper. If one person did not follow this covenant, bad things would happen to the entire community. Covenant theology is important because it establishes the way of life for Puritans and brings about strict
laws and punishments for those who don’t follow the covenants.
Pope’s Rebellion: Pope was a Pueblo Native American who lived in the Santa Fe area. Pope’s rebellion took place in 1680 when Pope encouraged other natives to rise up against the Spanish who were trying to stamp out their culture and practices as natives. During the rebellion, Pope and the other natives are eventually able to conquer and kill 400 of the Spaniards. However, Pope became a tyrant and a ruthless leader, and this allowed the Spanish to reconquer Santa Fe and the Pueblo natives. This rebellion is important because it is a major native victory against the Spanish, allows the Spanish to become more tolerant of native traditions, and creates a way for natives to acquire horses, which would eventually lead to the rise of the Comanche
Jesuit Missionaries: Jesuit were Catholic missionaries who came to the New France colony, which was a colony of missionaries and fur traders, in the early 1600s. The Jesuit missionaries believed the fur traders would have a bad influence on the local natives, and felt the need to convert the natives to Catholicism. The Jesuits moved into native communities and adopted much of their native culture. The Jesuits believed the natives didn’t have to be stripped of their cultural identities in order to be converted. This is one of the first times that missionaries do not destroy native
traditions and practices in order to convert them.
Stono Rebellion: The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave rebellion of colonial times. It happened in the restoration colony of Carolina in 1739. The Carolina population was made up of mostly slaves, so the rebellion was relatively easy to instigate. The rebellion was made up of mostly Angolan slaves who killed their masters and freed other slaves along their way. The rebellions plan to make their way to Florida in order to take up resident with natives who had been known to take in former slaves. However, the rebelled slaves are overtaken by a colonial militia while they stop to rest. The militia kill the leaders of the rebellion and bring the other
rebellions back into bondage. This rebellion is important because it leads colonists
and slave masters/traders to become more intentional about suppressing their slaves. Covenant Chain: The covenant chain was made between the Iroquois natives and the
English in the late 1600s. In this covenant, the English promised to give the Iroquois weapons and other effective tools if the Iroquois would promise to act as the peacekeepers of the other local native tribes. This creates a lot of tension between the Iroquois and surrounding natives. This covenant chain is important because it leads to the Iroquois spreading their influence in New France, such as the wiping out and
destroying of Huron natives in Canada.
William Penn: William Penn was the founder of the Pennsylvania, which was a restoration colony, in 1681. Penn was a Quaker, which meant that he was nonviolent and nonresistant. Because of this, he allowed anyone of any religion to come to Pennsylvania. He also lets the colonists have a council and an assembly. Because of Penn’s actions, the colony grows. In result, Pennsylvania begins growing wheat, the staple crop of the area, and brings a great economy to the colony. Pennsylvania becomes a poor man’s paradise thanks to Penn’s Quaker philosophy and mild
∙ Essay Questions: On the test there will be two of these essay questions presented, but you will only have to answer one. Be sure to include an introduction that includes a thesis statement, body paragraphs with topic sentences for each, and a conclusion that summarizes your key points and thesis. Be sure to use textual evidence in your body paragraphs. I have provided a generalized outline for each
1. What role did religion play in the shaping of the colonies? Make sure to incorporate examples from French, English, and Spanish colonies. Specifically address how religion motivated colonization, shaped the social and economic structure of the colony, and how religion shaped the relationship between colonies in North America.
Introduction: Discuss the importance of religion of the colonies in a broad sense. Describe how it impacted certain groups in different ways. Explain how without
religion, the colonies might have turned out differently.
Thesis (Included at the End of the Introduction): Religion impacted the colonies by motivating colonization, by shaping the social colonial structure, and by shaping
relationships between different colonies.
Body Paragraph 1: Religion motivated colonization particularly in England, when the Puritans and Pilgrims decided to sail to the new world because of their religious beliefs. Discuss the separatists and persecutions going on in England for those who did not agree with the Church of England. You can also discuss the Reconquista of
Spain that made Catholic missionaries want to come to America in order to convert natives and recreate Spanish culture. The same can be said for the French and the
Body Paragraph 2: Religion shaped the social way of life for the colonies by developing strict laws and punishments and by diminishing the way of life of the natives. Discuss the covenant theology of the Puritans and how this created a strict way of life. Discuss how the Spanish destroyed native culture by burning their idols, etc. before converting them. Talk about the Bartolome de Las Casas narrative in the course reader. You can also discuss how the Jesuit missionaries were the exception and did not try to stamp out native traditions, but instead tried to accept them (found
in the Jesuit missionary article 23 in the course reader).
Body Paragraph 3: Religion shaped the way colonies interacted with one another primarily through interactions and conversions of the natives. Discuss how the New England colonies established the covenant chain with the Iroquois, and how this led
to the destruction of the Huron natives, who the French had been converting. Conclusion: Summarize the points, and discuss how religion was a big factor in
colonization. Be sure to restate the thesis in a different way.
2. What role did economic pursuits play in the shaping of the colonies? Be sure to include examples from at least three colonies. Specifically address how economic interests motivated colonization, how it shaped the labor and the social structure of
the colonies, and how economic pursuits shaped the colonists’ relationships with
the Native Americans.
Introduction: Discuss the economy of the colonies; this can include cash crops, etc. Discuss how economy was important for colonies to become stable and allowed for
the survival of its settlers.
Thesis (Included in the Intro): Economy was important in the colonies because it helped motivate colonization, developed the social structure of labor, and affected the
relationship between colonists and natives.
Body Paragraph 1: The economy helped motivate colonization by giving the London Company a reason to establish the Jamestown settlement in the Chesapeake. Discuss how the people of Jamestown planned to get rich quick, but that plan was not effective. Instead, they had to establish good relationships with the natives and work for what they earned. You can also talk about how Tabaco became a cash crop in Jamestown. You can also talk about the Pennsylvanian restoration colony and Quaker
economy, whose cash crop was wheat.
Body Paragraph 2: The economy in the colonies created strict labor divisions between slave holders and slaves. Discuss how the Sao Tome colony in Africa created the need for slaves when they planted sugar. Talk about how it was difficult to plant, grow, and harvest many of the cash crops, so indentured servants, and later slaves, were needed in order to effectively make a profit from the crops, according to the colonist. You can also discuss Stono’s Rebellion and the Carolina colony, in
which rice was grown.
Body Paragraph 3: The economy in the colonies also affected the relationships between the colonists and Native Americans. Discuss how Smith was captured by natives in the Jamestown colony, and how he later became a diplomat for the natives
and colonists. Explain how this affected the economy in a positive way. Conclusion: Restate how the economy of the colonies was extremely important to
their success and survival in the new world. Restate the thesis in a new way. 3. Compare and contrast the New England and the Chesapeake colonies. Be sure to
specifically address differences in the social structure, economic basis, and relationships with the natives.
Introduction: Explain the importance of both the New England and Chesapeake colonies, and how they paved the way for more English colonization in America.
Explain that they were similar in some ways, but different in others. Thesis: Both the New England and Chesapeake colonies are similar and
different in many ways, including their reasons for colonization, their means of
economy, and relationship with the natives.
Body Paragraph 1: The colonies of New England, which included the Puritans and Pilgrims, came to America for religious reasons. The colony of Chesapeake, Jamestown, was established for economic and commercial reasons. Explain how the Puritans wanted to come to America to purify the Church of England and how the Pilgrims were separatists. Explain how the London Company got a charter to come to
the new word in order to get rich quick.
Body Paragraph 2: The economic aspects of both the New England and Chesapeake colonies were vastly different. The New England colonists came to America in families and were prepared to grow their own food. The colonists of Chesapeake were not prepared to work and grow crops, and did not plan to stay very long, as they did not come in families. Explain the crops they grew, and talk about the cash crops of
Jamestown that helped the economy grow.
Body Paragraph 3: Both the New England and Chesapeake colonies had fair relationships with the natives, and could be considered a lovehate interaction. Discuss the first Thanksgiving in the New England colony, and how they had good relationships with the natives. Discuss how the colonists at Jamestown had a bad relationship with natives at first, but that relationship improved when John Smith
became a diplomat between the two groups.
Conclusion: Discuss and explain how even though both colonies were similar and
different, they both had an important purpose in the new world. Restate the thesis. 4. Describe the varieties of relationships Europeans had with Native Americans. Be
sure to describe the relationship between Native Americans and European colonists from three different colonies (no more than two of which can be English colonies). Be sure to describe the relationship in terms of religion, in terms of trade, and terms of conflict.
Introduction: Discuss how European interactions with Native Americans are
important and helped shape colonies and native way of life.
Thesis: The relationships of natives and colonists differed greatly between the
French, Spanish, and English colonies.
Body Paragraph 1: The relationship between the French colonists and Native Americans was a religious one. Describe how French missionaries wanted to convert natives, but were accepting of their culture. Talk about the Jesuit missionary article
from the course reader (23) and the Micmac article from the course reader (27). Body paragraph 2: The relationship between Spanish colonists and Native
Americans was also one of religious conversion, but the Spanish were much more intolerant of native practices when compared to the French. Discuss how the Spanish burned native idols and tried to eliminate their practices. Discuss how the Spanish forced natives to convert, and then brutally killed them. Bring into account the
Bartolome de Las Casas narrative in the course reader (13).
Body Paragraph 3: The English had a mostly neutral relationship with the Natives, though their relationship was not always great. Discuss the Pequot wars with the Pilgrims. Discuss the hostage situation with Pocahontas in Jamestown, and how she
was married to a settler in order to form an alliance with Powhatan’s tribe. Conclusion: Explain the importance of native relationships with colonists. Restate