Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide EBIO:1220 001-002 General Biology 2
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Neima tekuye on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO:1220 001-002 General Biology 2 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Pieter Johnson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Vocabulary I. Thermoregulation: maintaining body temperature II. Homeostasis: Homeostasis—steady state physiological condition of the body III. Osmoregulation: maintaining appropriate water balance for an animal’s environment IV. Ectothermic: body temperature determined by environment (mostly) V. Endotherms: can regulate their body temperature by a high metabolic rate VI. Cryoprotectant: is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e. that due to ice formation). VII. Arteries: have a thicker muscle layer and greater elasticity to accommodate high pressure as blood flows from heart VIII. Veins: have a thinner muscle layer as they convey blood back to the heart at lower velocity and pressure IX. Capillary: any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules. Or a tube that has an internal diameter of hairlike thinness. X. Erythropoietin: a hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues. XI. EPO: stimulate productions of red blood cells XII. ADH: help produce concentrated urine XIII. ANF: help to lower blood pressure XIV. Insulin: lowers blood sugar XV. Glucagon: increases blood sugar XVI. Growth hormone: stimulates growth XVII. ACTH: initiates stress response XVIII. Epinephrine/norepinephrine: increase blood pressure, breathing rate, mobilization of glycogen XIX. Glucocorticoids: suppress immunity and digestion XX. Estrogens: female hormones XXI. Immune System: system of biological structures and processes of an organism that protects against pathogens and disease XXII. Pheromones: are chemicals that are secreted in our sweat and other bodily fluids that are believed to influence the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual interest and excitement. XXIII. Exam Two Study Guide: Questions and Answers 1. Describe and provide examples of key processes by which organisms’ physiological systems interact with the environment? 2. Physical laws constrain animal form I. Surface area to volume! II. Exchange with the environment 3. Homeostasis 4. Thermoregulation I. Endotherm vs. ectothermic 5. Why don’t we have animals like dragons? • Physical laws constrain the size and shapes of animal form 6. Diffusion: from higher concentration to lower concentration 2 7. Diffusion time ~ distance 8. Single-celled organism or High SA: V and low diffusion distance are Easier to get materials in and wastes out 9. Multicellular organism or Low SA: V and high diffusion distance are Easier to resist diffusion and conserve heat 10. Why are small mammals less common toward the poles (away from the equator. D is the answer. a. Reduced oxygen availability b. Predominance of ectoderms c. Excessive UV-B radiation d. Higher SA: V increases heat loss e. Lower SA: V increases heat loss 11. Maintaining Homeostasis: Homeostasis—steady state physiological condition of the body • A. Thermoregulation— maintaining body temperature • B. Osmoregulation —maintaining appropriate water balance for an animal’s environment 12. Why bother with Homeostasis Because in response to changes in external conditions • Animals regulate their internal environment • Facilitate enzymatic activity (e.g., digestion) 13. Regulation varies with different kinds of animals. ectothermic and endothermic 14. Ectotherms body temperature determined by environment 15. Most Insects Also most fishes, amphibians 16. Endotherms body temperature controlled by high metabolic rate • Example all mammals and birds 17. What is likely responsible for the observed temperature difference with the thoracic and abdominal regions. E is the right answer. a. Slower heat diffusion to the abdomen b. Increased porosity in the abdomen c. Greater UV absorbance in the thorax d. Higher SA: V in the thorax e. Greater muscular contractions in the thorax 18. How is homeostasis maintained? • The nervous and endocrine systems exert the ultimate control over homeostasis because they coordinate the functions of the body's systems. Regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, pH, and glucose concentration are four examples of how the body maintains homeostasis 19. 20. Hypothalamus controls: 1. Constriction/dilation 2. Shivering 3. Sweating 21. Energy expenditures depends on endotherm vs. ectothermic Endotherm is costly expensive 21. Energy expenditure depends on body size, SA: V ratio, and habitat High SA: V ratio is expensive Heat loss when small 22. • It’s energetically expensive to be an endotherm • Size also contributes to metabolic costs o SA to Volume again 23. wood frog is found in Alaskan tundra – Inside Arctic Circle • They can survive in – freeze (-1 t0 -6deg c) – No breathing – Heart stops – Organs dehydrate • Cry protectant – Glucose – Urea 24. Why do size ranges differ so much for land and aquatic animals? Because • land mamals are more physically constrained at large sizes • aquatic mamals are more physically constrained at small sizes. 25. Which of these is an example of negative feedback? A. As a blood clot begins to form, the process of its formation gets faster and faster. B. the generation of a nerve signal, where sodium ions moving through sodium channels in the cell membrane cause additional sodium channels to open up C. D. the "thermostat" in the hypothalamus of mammals shuts off shivering once normal body temperature is reached E. F. The digestive enzyme pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by the action of G. hydrochloric acid; pepsin itself can then convert pepsinogen into pepsin. H. Once labor during childbirth begins, uterine contractions increase in frequency I. and intensity to push the baby out 26. Match the following skulls with their digestive systems I ii iii A B C a) Herbivore = Ia, carnivore = IIb, omnivore = IIIc b) Herbivore = IIa, carnivore = Ic, omnivore = IIIb c) Herbivore = IIIc, carnivore = Ib, omnivore = IIa d) Herbivore = IIIa, carnivore = IIb, omnivore = Ic e) Herbivore = IIIa, carnivore = Ib, omnivore = IIc 27. mutation occurs in which a person’s gastrin is no longer affected by H+ will predict Large build-up of pepsin 28. Why isn’t pepsin used in the small intestine because The pH of the small intestine is too high 29. Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the capillaries of most body tissues (including head, hind limbs, forelimbs, and abdominal organs) 30. The Capillaries has/have the thinnest walls. 31. Blood pressure is highest in the Aorta 32. Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common? exchange surfaces are moist 33. Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface for gas exchange between air and blood? Alveolus 34. The body regulates breathing in response to: Carbon dioxide levels and blood pH 35. All are characteristics of red blood cells EXCEPT: Most numerous blood cells Contain hemoglobin Initiate clotting High surface area to volume ratio Don't contain nuclei or mitochondria when mature 36. Many marine animals, including sea turtles and dolphins, have adaptations that allow them to regulate heat gain and loss. In cooler water, the countercurrent heat exchanger in the sea turtle's flippers transfers heat from arteries to veins, resulting in heat retention in the body and cooler temperatures in the flippers. In addition to countercurrent heat exchangers in its flippers, a male dolphin's testes have a countercurrent heat exchanger to help keep them cool. The testes are surrounded by abdominal muscle that warms with activity, such as vigorous swimming. Because high temperatures can damage sperm, a countercurrent heat exchanger transfers heat from the arteries near the testes to veins carrying cooler blood from the tail. In this way, the testes are kept cool enough to protect the sperm from damage, and heat is retained in the body core. 37. Which of the following statements about diffusion across a cell membrane is true? The answer is B Why is the answer B? Let's go through each option... A. It takes longer for particles to diffuse throughout large cells in comparison to small cells because of the larger surface area of the cell membrane. - larger surface areas are great for allowing particles to diffuse in and out of a cell! The reason that it takes longer has to do with the increase in volume relative to surface area. The small cell actually has a larger surface area to volume (SA/V) which allows particles to move in and out faster (see answer for B). B. The surface area of the membrane determines how many molecules can enter and exit a cell at once. - this is true! The bigger the area, the more particles can move in and out of the cell! But an increase in volume will affect how long it takes for a particle (say O2) to get to where it needs to go and for particles, say CO2, to get out of the cells. But how can you separate volume and surface area? Think about a pancake that has a large SA/V ratio and basketball that has a smaller SA/V ratio. If a particle entered either, which would it exit first? C. Small cells and large cells have similar abilities to balance the rate of oxygen uptake with the rate of oxygen consumption. -because of the larger SA/V ratio, it takes less time for a particle to enter a small cell, to get to where it is needed, and diffuse back out (perhaps as some product). D. The speed of diffusing particles is slower in large cells than in small cells. - The particle speed does not change! The particles move at the same rate, they just go in and out of a cell at different rates, depending on the SA/V ratio of the cell! 38. When trying to exchange materials (like nutirents) into or out of cells most efficiently, what relationship between surface area and volume is most beneficial? • Maximize surface area and minimize volume. 39. Which is NOT consistent with what you know about changes in surface to volume ratios? • As surface area increases, volume increases at the same rate 40. During digestion, hydrochloric acid (HCl) lowers the stomach's pH and this causes the enzyme pepsinogen to be converted to its active form, called pepsin. Pepsin is a proteolytic enzyme, which means it cleaves (breaks) peptide bonds assocciated with food particles. The enzyme pepsin can also cleave pepsinogen into pepsin, and this causes the rate at which pepsinogen is converted to pepsin to increase. This is an example of • a positive feed back loop 41. which is false? A. Carbohydrates are digested by enzymes in the mouth and small intestine, and are absorbed only in the small intestine B. Proteins are mechanically digested in the mouth and stomach, and are chemically digested and absorbed in the stomach only C. Fats are digested by enzymes in the small intestine, and are absorbed only in the small intestine D. Different enzymes are involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats E. All of the above are actually correct. 42. Which would be the best body plan for a mammal adapted for life in a cold climate to minimize heat loss? A. Large size, spherical body, long ears B. Large size, elongated body, short ears C. Large size, spherical body, short ears D. Small size, elongated body, long ears E. Small size, spherical shape, short ears 43. Based on your knowledge of size and metabolic demand, in which group(s) of animals you expect to find a closed circulatory system? • Birds and cephalopods (octopus, squid, etc.) 44. The capillaries allow for material exchange (e.g., oxygen, nutrients, waste products). Why doesn’t this occur in the arteries and veins • The blood is flowing too fast and The walls of arteries and veins are too thick 45. All are functions of the immune system EXCEPT: A. Distinguish "self" cells from "non-self" cells B. Protect against repeated encounters with specific pathogens C. Targeted destruction of foreign cells and molecules D. Prevent pathogens from entering the body A. E. Maintain blood pH homeostasis B. 46. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is involved with: antigen presentation and recognition. 47. The best definition of an antigen is: foreign molecule that triggers the generation of antibodies 48. . The body's innate (non-specific) defenses against pathogens include all of the following except: A. mucous membranes B. natural killer cells C. macrophages D. antimicrobial molecules E. T-lymphocytes 49. What are the main cells involved in the specific immune response? A. self cells and non-self cells B. B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes C. antigens and antibodies D. natural killer cells and macrophages 50. B lymphocytes respond to antigens by producing antibodies while cytotoxic T lymphocytes respond to antigens by direct attack on the pathogen 51. Which of the following is a true difference between T cells and B cells? • T cells, but not B cells, can directly attack and destroy infected cells 52. What is the primary function of antibody-mediated immunity? it produces antibodies that circulate in the body 55. Which of the following features is NOT an adaptation for maximizing gas exchange in the alveoli of the lungs? A. High surface area B. Moist exchange surface C. Short diffusion distance between alveoli and blood vessels D. Large number of alveoli E. Specialized transport proteins embedded in alveolar cells 56. Which statement about human blood vessels is correct? A. All arteries carry oxygenated blood, all veins carry deoxygenated blood B. Veins transport blood from the heart to the capillaries C. Arteries carry blood toward the atria of the heart D. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to the heart E. The diameter of arteries is larger than that of veins F. 57. Which sequence of blood flow would be observed in a mammal? A.B. left ventricle--aorta--lungs--out to the body tissues D. right atrium--pulmonary artery--left atrium--right ventricle C. E.F. veins--right atrium--right ventricle--pulmonary artery--lungs GH. . pulmonary veins--left atrium--left ventricle--out to the lungs I. right ventricle--pulmonary vein--left ventricle--out to the body tissues 58. Which organism isn't correctly matched with its circulation type: flatworm—diffusion A. dragonfly--open circulation bird--closed circulation, 2 chambered heart B. octopus--closed circulation C. mammal--closed circulation, 4 chambered heart 58. Which barrier must O2 and CO2 cross to pass between air and blood inside the lungs: D. extracellular fluid, epithelial cells, capillary wall 59. Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize: • Diffusion of oxygen into the blood 60. Which statement about the mammalian heart is correct? • In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs 61. Which blood component is matched incorrectly with its function? • white blood cells (leukocytes)-- transport carbon dioxide and regulate blood pH 62. Which statement about gas (O2 and CO2) transport in humans is correct? • white blood cells (leukocytes)-- transport carbon dioxide and regulate blood pH 63. we eat for nutritional requirements and adaptation among animals. 64. what do we need to survive, grow and store energy? • Energy (ATP production) a. Monomers of protein, carbs, fat b. Cellular respiration 65. Biosynthesis (growth, reproduction) • Carbon and nitrogen • Storage b) Essential nutrients are 1) Amino acids: protein assembly 2) Fatty acids: membranes and hormones 3) Vitamins: co-enzymes 4) Inorganic minerals: bones, hemoglobin 66. Match the following skulls with their digestive systems: a) Herbivore = Ia, carnivore = IIb, omnivore = IIIc b) Herbivore = IIa, carnivore = Ic, omnivore = IIIb c) Herbivore = IIIc, carnivore = Ib, omnivore = IIa d) Herbivore = IIIa, carnivore = IIb, omnivore = Ic e) Herbivore = IIIa, carnivore = Ib, omnivore = IIc 67. 4 stages of food processing. 1) Ingestion is eating (mechanical digestion) • CHEWING: Mechanical break-down of food into smaller particles Esophageal sphincter controls movement of food into esophagus 2) Digestion is chemically break down food into molecules usable by cells. • Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) a) Begins with Saliva in mouth— salivary amylase breaks down starch and glycogen ( small carbohydrates) b) Then, stomach—enzymes, e.g., pepsin, and gastric juice (very acidic) which are important in protein digestion. Stomach also stores food. - H+ + PNS GASTRIN PEPSINOGEN PEPSIN MUCUS 3) Absorption is cells take up digested material and allows it to be processed 1) Amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nitrogenous bases • Absorption Occurs in small intestine—digested molecules must enter the body via DIFFUSION • Small intestine has a high surface area and low diffusion distance to accomplish this. -- Villi -- Microvilli 4) Elimination is excess digested material leaves the body (get rid of the rest) • Water balance 90% of water “borrowed” from circulatory system - Diarrhea (dehydration) - Constipation • Feces • Smell: bacteria in large intestine • Color: Bile, bilirubins, and iron (breakdown of red-blood cells) Summary: Food Processing Goal: breakdown and absorb useable monomers Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination yes and some yes salivary Mouth mechanical Amylase (carbs) digestion Stomach Yes pepsin proteins Yes carbs proteins Small intestine nucleic acids and Yes main event is here fats Yes, and water Large intestine reabsorption 68. food processing Digestion (continued) the small intestine is also very important Small intestine—in humans is about 6 meters long. Most digestion occurs here (and absorption) 69. Food Processing or Digestion—Role of other Organs • Pancreas (enzyme supply house!) – Produces digestive enzymes • Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase (polypeptides amino acids) • Nuclease (nucleic acid nucleotides) • Amylase (polysaccharides disaccharides) • Lipase (fat droplets glycerol, fatty acids) • Liver – Detoxify alcohol and other toxins – Production of bile salts (break up fat globules) – Gall bladder stores bile 70. Why isn’t pepsin used in the small intestine? a) Digestion does not occur in the small intestine b) Proteins are not digested in the small intestine c) The pH of the small intestine is too high d) A and B e) Pepsin is used in the small intestine Ulcers causes are 1. Rapid Eating and Stress • Immune suppression 2. Bacteria—Helicobacter pylori Prevents stomach cells from secreting mucus 3. First treatment for ulcers is an antibiotic. 71. If a mutation occurs in which a person’s gastrin is no longer affected by H+, predict what would happen a) Accumulation of pepsinogen without conversion to pepsin b) Failure to produce H+ in the first place c) Failure to produce pepsin d) Large build-up of pepsin e) A and C 72. Nutrition and digestion. • Animals eat to obtain energy, grow and to acquire essential nutrients – Adaptations vary among herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores (dentition, cecum, intestinal length) • Food processing involves four essential steps – Ingestion, Digestion, Absorbtion, Elimination – Mouth, stomach, small & large intestine • Help from Pancreas and Liver • Key themes: compartmentalization, feedback loops, and SA:V 73. How has food affected primate evolution? • Brains are energetically expensive 74. What does the circulatory system do? • FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGES – Get the good stuff distributed to all cells in the body • Oxygen, essential nutrients and monomers – Get the bad stuff out of body’s cells and into excretory system • CO 2 waste products • Closely tied to the respiratory (or gas exchange) system in many animals (next lecture) 75. Types of Circulatory Systems. 1) Diffusion alone Occurs in very small organisms: single-celled or small multicellular organisms -- Single celled protists -- Few cell layered animals Cheap but suffers limitations Diffusion time ~ distance 2 2) Open Circulatory System Arthropods and most molluscs Bathes the organs directly and is not confined to vessels -- Hemolymph -- NOT transport oxygen Advantages: cheap to build and maintain -- no extensive blood vessels -- no high pressure system 3)Closed Circulatory System • Blood contained in extensive vessel networks – Arteries, veins, capillaries – Earthworms, some molluscs, all vertebrates • Advantages: high blood pressure allows for greater metabolic demands – Larger, more active animals – Most endotherms – EXPENSIVE 76. Arteries have a thicker muscle layer and greater elasticity to accommodate high pressure as blood flows from heart 77. Veins have a thinner muscle layer as they convey blood back to the heart at lower velocity and pressure 78. The capillaries allow for material exchange (e.g., oxygen, nutrients, waste products). Why doesn’t this occur in the arteries and veins? a) The blood is flowing too fast b) The walls of arteries and veins are too thick c) The necessary materials are not in arteries and veins d) A and B e) All of the above (A, B, & C) 79. How do capillaries facilitate material exchange? 1. Thin-walled 2. Close proximity 3. Slow flow *Facilitate diffusion! This allows oxygen, nutrients and waste to flow to and from tissues 80. Blood • Red Blood Cells—have hemoglobin, no nucleus • White Blood Cells—role in immune function Platelets—aid in blood clotting, no nucleus • 81. synthesis. • Red blood cells – Biconcave disks • High SA:V (exchange) • 25 trillion in a body (5 L) – No nucleus or mitochondria • More space for hemoglobin • CSI – how get DNA? – Produced in bone marrow • Erythropoietin (EPO) • Circulatory system = transport system – Function: oxygen and nutrients to tissues, CO2 and waste products out • Types of systems vary among organisms – Diffusion vs. open vs. closed • Human circulatory system – Heart, blood vessels, blood – Physics & diffusion play key roles in this process 82. Capillaries have a much narrower diameter than arteries or veins. However, blood flows slower – not faster – when in capillaries. Why? a) Capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen exchange with cells b) Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood slows with distance from heart c) Diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to capillaries at a high flow rate d) Systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower output than the right ventricle e) The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of arteries 83. Capillaries have a much narrower diameter than arteries or veins. However, blood flows slower – not faster – when in capillaries. Why? a) Increased concentration of red blood cells in the capillaries slows down the flow rate b) Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood slows with distance from heart c) Diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to capillaries at a high flow rate d) Systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower output than the right ventricle e) The combined diameter of all the capillaries is larger than the combined diameter of arteries 84. Respiratory system influenced by metabolic demands 1) Total metabolism is proportional to body mass 1) Endothermy vs. ectothermy 2) Because mass increases faster than surface area, it’s harder for bigger animals to acquire sufficient oxygen by diffusion from the exterior to the interior of the animal. 1) SA: V decreases but metabolic demand increases 3) Thus, respiratory gas exchange surface must scale with body volume instead of body surface area. In humans, the lung surface is 100 m , whereas the body surface is 2 m . 2 • 85. Consider two cube-shaped organisms. Both are endothermic. One has dimensions of 2 x 2 x 2 cm. The other is 4 x 4 x 4 cm. If the smaller cube has a lung surface area of 10, what is the estimated lung surface area of the larger cube? 2 A. 40 cm 2 B. 2.5 cm C. 1.5 cm 2 D. 80 cm 2 2 E. 1.25 cm • Surface area of a cube: 6 x L x W Volume of a cube: L x W x H 86. 4 Types of Gas Transfer Mechanisms: 1) Body surface (diffusion only) 1) Need high SA to V 2) Low metabolic demand Examples: Protists, flatworms, cnidarians 2) Gills (aquatic) Aquatic animals Challenge: oxygen content of water (1%) is MUCH lower than air (20%) 1) High SA: gill surface area can exceed body surface area 2) Ventilation: Water is moved past gills by muscular activity Water is DENSER than air 3) Countercurrent exchange 3) Tracheal System (branched network) Insects have an open circulatory system (not involved in gas exchange) Tracheal system (on land) -- Oxygen transported as a gas! -- Must keep wet with high SA 4) Lungs Mammals, birds, reptiles and many amphibians Lungs are highly vascularized with high surface area and low diffusion distance • Depends on where you live and your metabolic demands 87. Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs? a) Water is denser than air b) Water contains less O2 than air per unit volume c) Diffusion is slower across the air-water interface d) A and B e) A, B and C 88. How does your body know when and how fast to breathe? a) Your brain monitors oxygen concentrations in your blood b) Your lungs monitor oxygen concentrations in your blood c) Your brain monitors the ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide in your blood d) Your lungs monitor the ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide in your blood e) Your brain monitors carbon dioxide concentrations in your blood 89. How control breathing? Medulla monitors CO l2vels using changes in pH. CO 2reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Lower pH = higher CO 2 So, breathing rate increases 90. How transport oxygen? • O2 transport in blood is increased 70x by hemoglobin – A protein with 4 subunits – Oxyhemoglobin • Binds oxygen reversibly – Conformation very sensitive to pH • High CO changes blood pH hemoglobin releases more oxygen. 2 – High pH induces binding – Low pH induces release 91. Match the locations in the body with the local blood pH and hemoglobin (Hb) activity a. I. Hb binding O2, pH low; II. Hb releasing O2, pH high a. I. Hb binding O2, pH high; II. Hb releasing O2, pH low b. I. Hb releasing O2, pH low; II. Hb binding O2, pH high c. I. Hb releasing O2, pH high; II. Hb binding O2, pH low 92. Respiration: obtain oxygen and expel CO 2 – Closely linked to circulation • Physical structure constrains respiratory structures – Endothermy vs. ectothermy, aquatic vs. terrestrial – Skin, gills, trachea, lungs – Surface area and diffusion distance • Human respiration – The role of pH – Chemical binding of oxygen • Hemoglobin greatly enhances oxygen transport 93. Altitude and Respiration • Are fewer oxygen molecules per breath at high altitude • Results in hypoxia (low levels of oxygen): – Sleeplessness – Headaches and vomiting – Inability to maintain sustained activity • Within 2 weeks, produce more RBCs 94. What does the immune system do? • FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGES o Defense: keep the bad guys out Bacteria, viruses, & multicellular parasites DESTROY o Multiple lines of defense • Precision warfare o Differentiate self from “non-self” o Differentiate healthy self from “infected self” DESTROY o Prevent re-infection • One of most sophisticated and elaborate organ systems in the body 95. there are two types of Immunity 1. Innate (Non-specific) Immunity Provides general protection against anything foreign that might encounter or enter the body. -- Broad spectrum I. Skin and mucous membranes Physical BARRIER Also provides chemical defenses—e.g., sweat, which makes the skin very acidic, and antimicrobial proteins Injury creates opening II. Phagocytic cells—engulf or ingest invaders “Phagocytosis” (eat ‘em) White blood cells — Macrophages (‘big eaters’) etc. neutrophils (first responders) eosinophils (deal with macroparasites) III. Antimicrobial proteins— proteins that chemically attack pathogens & communicate to other cells Complement System (>30 proteins) Complex cascade à proteins that attack invaders Interferons—used in treatment of viral infections and cancer IV. Inflammatory response (localized) Chemical and cellular response to injury or localized infection à Eliminates source of infection à Promotes wound healing V. Natural killer cells Cells that destroy virus-infected cells or cancerous cells Lack of MHC proteins on cell surface trigger NKC Lyse (= break open) the cells instead of engulfing them 96. Which of the following helps your body recognize “self” from “non-self” when fighting pathogens? A. Inflammatory response B. Complement system C. Major histocompatibility complex D. Phagocytes E. A, B and C 97. Immune defense system I. Innate immune system (non-specific) I. Skin (protective barrier) II. Phagocytes (eat ‘em) III. Antimicrobial peptides (kill ‘em) IV. Inflammation V. Natural killers (dissolve ‘em) II. Acquired immune system (specific) I. Antibody-mediated response (B cells & antibodies) I. Primary and secondary responses II. Cell-mediated response (T cells) I. Dealing with intracellular infections 98. Role of Lymphocytes in Acquired Immunity (White blood cells = Lymphocytes) • B-cells—involved in antibody-mediated response in which antibodies are produced. • T-cells—involved in cell-mediated immunity in which T cells attack infected cells 99. white blood cells produced Innate Immune system - Macrophages - Natural killer cells Acquired immune system Lymphocytes - T and B-cells 100. Lymphocytes Recognize Antigens Must be able to differentiate self from non-self! Antigens are typically foreign proteins or complex sugars (or pieces thereof) -- isolated molecules, toxins, or fragments from bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and parasites -- “Antigen” from Antibody Generator Antigens are recognized by specific antigen receptors Produced by B cells Receptors very specific to certain antigens 101. How does your body produce antibodies? Antibodies (immunoglobins) Once thought to be “made to order” in response to invasion by antigens Now known that diverse antibodies are produced in fetal tissue by differentiation of B lymphocytes. -- Millions of varieties circulating! -- Attempt to anticipate every possible antigen These cells remain dormant until needed -- CLONAL SELECTION 102. Clonal Selection are 2 types of cells Effector Cells (=plasma cells) • Short-lived cells that combat the antigen • Initial defense (primary response) – 2000 antibodies per second! Memory Cells (secondary response) • Long-lived cells that bind to the same antigen • Can respond rapidly and strongly to the second exposure to the antigen 2. Acquired (Specific) Immunity Allows the organism to resist a specific pathogen after exposure. -- Targeted destruction 103. Vaccines help the acquired immune system become primed so that it can rapidly respond to an actual attack by a given pathogen. What can we make vaccines out of? A. Components of non-functional viruses B. Components of non-living bacteria C. Toxins produced by bacteria D. A and B E. A, B and C 104. Cell-mediated Immunity T cells respond to antigen fragments presented on surface of body’s cells Indicate intracellular infection Viruses, cancer cells, etc. 1) Helper T cells First response to antigen-presenting body cells Stimulates proliferation of B cells and cytotoxic T cells 2) Cytotoxic T cells Identify and destroy infected cells Expose pathogen to rest immune system 105. You accidentally expose yourself to an intracellular virus. Which of the following “lines of defense” in your immune system would you expect to respond? a) interferons b) cytotoxic T cells c) helper T cells d) a and b e) a, b and c 106. Osmotic equilibrium 1. Gain ions from the outside environment Hypertonic environment 2. Lose water to the outside environment “Dry out” in water 107. What does the excretory system do? • FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGES – Homeostasis (steady state physiological condition) • Osmoregulation: maintaining desired water and ion balance • Movement of water and solutes (substances dissolved in water) – Keep the good stuff, get rid of the bad stuff • Water, nutrients, vitamins, salts, nitrogenous waste • Varies by habitat: fresh- vs. saltwater; land vs. water • How do this efficiently? 108. dealing with water • Marine environments – Hypertonic environment for most vertebrates • Drink a lot of water • Concentrated urine with lots of salt, little water • Freshwater environments – Hypotonic environment • Pee a lot (dilute urine with few salts) • Terrestrial environments – Desiccation environment • Conserve water at all costs • Skin, exoskeleton, waxy cuticle, shells, etc. 109. Nitrogenous wastes • Byproducts of breaking down proteins and amino acids. • What you excrete depends on your habitat -- Ammonia -- Urea -- Uric acid To produce those depends on where you live. 110 Nitrogenous wastes 1. Ammonia—a very small and toxic molecule (NH ) 3 Soluble in water Excreted by animals with access to water (dilute) Fishes and aquatic insects 2) Urea—detoxifies ammonia Low toxicity Mammals, turtles, adult amphibians (land) Energetically expensive Why? Because 3)Uric acid—“salt snot” Low toxicity than urea Insects, birds, reptiles Not soluble in water --Semi-solid paste! --Conserve water Most energetically expensive 111. An animal has the following characteristics: a terrestrial lifestyle and endothermy (and a high metabolic demand). You predict the animal also has: I. Urea as its nitrogenous waste II. Lungs III. A closed circulatory system a) I only b) I and II only c) II and III only d) I, II, and III e) III only 112. Osmoregulation Kidney—filters blood, produces urine Ureter—carries urine produced by kidneys to bladder Bladder—storage of urine Urethra—carries urine out of the body 113. why we need kidney? Allows life on dry land Approximately 1500 liters of blood per day are filtered by the kidneys. -- Eliminates toxic waste products -- 99% of water, vitamins, sugar, etc. retained Your blood is filtered 250+ times per day Metabolically expensive 114. kidney structure Consists of repeating units called nephrons 80 km of tubules! 1. Filtration of blood 2. Reabsorbtion/secretion 3. Excretion 115. Anatomy of a nephron – Bowman’s capsule Filtration: removing waste from the blood à nephron Glomerulus—a ball of capillaries Bowman’s capsule—entry into the nephron, water and solutes transferred here from blood (no blood cells) 116. Loop of Henle Descending and ascending ‘limbs ‘Water and solutes reabsorbed Allows you to generate concentrated urine 117. Match the Loops of Henle shown in the diagram to the mammals that possess them. (These drawings have been scaled to body size). I. Kangaroo rat (desert rodent) II. Beaver (aquatic mammal) III. Human a) rat, beaver, human b) human, beaver, rat c) rat, human, beaver d) beaver, human, rat e) beaver, rat, human 118. Hormonal control of the Kidney Kidneys are very flexible Versatility! (50 to 1200 mOsm/L) ADH—Antidiuretic hormone helps concentrate urine Effects of alcohol? 119. Urine Trouble…(or Everything you wanted to know about urine) • Trucker bombs – growing epidemic! • Color – Yellow: bilirubin's again (hemoglobin) – Black: alkaptonuria (genetic disease) – Bloody: kidney problems, parasites, etc. • Urea – Cigarette additive 120. drinking salt water • Urine: 50 to 1400 mOsm/kg • Blood: 300 mOsm/kg • Seawater: 2000 mOsm/kg – 1 L intake, 1.7 L loss – Water, water everywhere… • Nor any drop to drink… • Boil it, condense the evaporated water. 121. vampire bats • vampire bat – 3 species South America – Feed on sleeping mammals • Saliva – draculin ( anticoagulant) – Drink – not suck – blood • Excretory system – 20 g (1 oz of blood) in 20 minutes – 40 g animal! – dilute urine mostly plasma – Concentrated urine back in cave • kiss! – Blood transfusions 122. The Hangover. (Veisalgia) • Alcohol is a diuretic (blocks ADH) – 250 ml alcohol à 1000 ml water loss! • Dehydration – Brain shrinks from skull; dry mouth – Then the hangover will come • Liver detoxification – Reduce glycogen (stored glucose) – Muscle fatigue, mental exhaustion – Alcohol with toxins, impurities à more severe 123. Too much water • Water intoxication – Too much water called Hyponatremia • Salt concentration of blood decreases – Impair brain, heart, muscle function – Marathon runners – Ecstasy users • 2006: “Hold your wee for a Wii” – Radio station contest kills woman • 2014: 5-yr dies after forced to drink soda 124. Some diseases and disorders of the excretory system Kidney stones—usually made of calcium oxalate (80%) (genetics, diet, and hydration) 125. Excretory System • Osmoregulation is process by which fluid and ion balances are maintained – Homeostasis – Challenges vary with environment • How much and which forms of nitrogenous wastes are produced varies among animals – Ammonia, urea and uric acid – Land vs. water, freshwater vs. saltwater • In humans, nephrons within the kidney play a vital role in osmoregulation – Filtration, reabsorption/secretion and excretion – Versatility of the kidney! 126. In what part of the nephron is most of the sodium chloride removed from the filtrate (i.e., where is the tubule membrane selectively permeable to salt but not to water)? a) glomerulus b) Bowman’s capsule c) proximal tubule d) ascending limb of the Loop of Henle e) descending limb of the Loop of Henle 127. Chemical Signaling in Animals Chemical Signals produced by glands Exocrine—the external environment--affect the interaction of organisms (e.g., pheromones) Endocrine--the internal environment--affect internal functioning of organs 128. Evidence for human pheromones? • Menstrual synchrony? • Lap dancing???!! – 5300 lap dances – 60 day period • Dancers: – Ovulating: $70 – Non-ovulating: $50 – Birth control: $35 129. The Endocrine System • A set of glands that produce hormones • Hormones—are chemical messengers in bloods stream – Produced by glands in the body – Secreted into the bloodstream – Effective at very low concentrations • Hormones reach all parts of the body, but only certain cells respond 130. How do the Nervous and Endocrine Systems Differ • Hormones – More slowly acting • minutes to years – Specialized glands – Travel throughout bloodstream – Examples – • Growth • Puberty • Metabolism • Aging • Neurotransmitters – Rapid acting • seconds to minutes – Released by neurons – Cross synapses – Examples – • Heart rate • Respiration • Voluntary muscle contractions 131. Neurotransmitters and Hormones are – e.g., Norepinephrine 132. Hormonal signaling—3 events 1. Reception of a signal—binding to a receptor 1. May be positive or negative depending on receptor 2. Receptor presence & abundance modulates signal strength! 2. Signal transduction—triggering of changes within a cell 3. Response of the cell—e.g., production of a protein 133. Which of the following is NOT true of hormones? a) hormones travel in the bloodstream b) hormones are effective at low concentrations c) hormones can be used to communicate with other individuals d) a and b e) ALL of these are true of hormones 134. Parts of the Endocrine System • Hypothalamus: produce hormones, regulate pituitary system – Specialized blood and nerve connections with pituitary • Pituitary gland: – produce hormones, regulate peripheral glands • Peripheral glands – Heart: blood pressure – Pancreas: blood glucose – Adrenal: stress, osmoregulation – Ovaries/testes: sex & reproduction 135. Pituitary Gland ADH – Anti-diuretic Hormone Regulates blood osmolarity and water reabsorbtion Atrial Naturiatic Factor -- ANF interferes with ADH 136. Some malfunctions of the Endocrine System are Pituitary Gland Growth Hormone (too much) à Gigantism Growth Hormone (too little) à dwarfism Dutch: tallest people Males: 6’1” Females: 5’7” 137. Pancreas • Produces the hormones insulin and glucagon—regulate blood glucose through negative feedbacks – Insulin—lowers blood glucose – Glucagon—raises blood glucose • Homeostasis: blood-sugar levels Type I Diabetes (children) • Autoimmune disorder—immune system destroys beta cells (insulin producing cells) Type II (“Adult-onset Diabetes”) • Deficiency of insulin or reduced responsiveness of target cells – Loss of sugar in urine • USA: Emerging epidemic (20 million cases) – Age, activity, body weight – Amputation, blindness 138. An organism is suffering from diabetes. Why might this also lead to frequent urination and dehydration? a) insulin interferes with the production of ADH b) salt is not being excreted around the loop of Henle c) the body must use extra water to excrete the sugar d) its pancreas is no longer producing enough glucagon e) its ADH receptors have been up-regulated (more sensitized to ADH) 139. Adrenal Gland—2 parts • Adrenal Medulla – Produces epinephrine + norepinephrine – Increased blood flow to heart and lungs, accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure, etc. • Adrenal cortex – Produces corticosteroids such as glucocorticoids which affect long-term responses to stress 140. The Low T Controversy • Hypogonadism in men – Decreasing testosterone production (andropause) – Depression, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, muscle loss • 2002: $324 million • 2013: $2.2 billion • Feb 2014 • Risks of T treatment • Heart attack, stroke, death 142. If a person has memory B cells against an antigen on the measles virus, that person: is much less likely to develop measles a second time 143. Which of the following statements about clonal selection is FALSE? macrophages undergo clonal selection 144. Which is true about the B plasma cells involved in clonal selection? plasma cells are clones of B-cells that have encountered and responded to the presence of an antigen 145. Which of the following cells can engulf (phagocytize) a pathogen? Macrophages 146. Which of the following events doesn't occur as part of the inflammatory response to a break in the skin? B cells secrete antibodies to mark pathogens for destruction 147. Which statement best describes the difference in responses of B cells and cytotoxic T cells? B cells secrete antibodies against a pathogen; cytotoxic T cells kill pathogen-infected host cells 148. Which is NOT an example of a cell or molecule that the immune system is capable of recognizing and repsonding to? None of the above (all of these cells and molecules can be recognized by the immune system) 149. Which is not part of the innate immune system? cytotoxic T cells 150. Antigens are foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies.
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