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CU / German / GRMN 2301 / What kind of mindset do you have to have to see war this way?

What kind of mindset do you have to have to see war this way?

What kind of mindset do you have to have to see war this way?

Description

School: University of Colorado
Department: German
Course: Inside Nazi Germany
Professor: Patrick greaney
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Nazi, Germany, German, and Hitler
Cost: 50
Name: Review for Unit 1 Test!!!
Description: These notes cover everything in Unit one. The test will be on 2/15. Make sure to have your blue book ready!
Uploaded: 02/11/2017
15 Pages 159 Views 4 Unlocks
Reviews


Review  


What kind of mindset do you have to have to see war this way?



BRING BLUE BOOK FOR EXAM ON 2/15

Exam format:  

• 1-2 identifications of a text passage by title and author  • 1-3 dates  

• 3-6 definitions  

• 1 essay  

______________________________________________________________ Learning goals from first unit:  

1. Define the major tenets of Nazi thought  

• Antisemitism  

• Nationalism  

• Anti-Marxism  

• Anti-Communism  

• Leadership Principle  

• Social Darwinism  

• Lebensraum  


What type of person does the war produce?



(Defined later in the study guide)  

2. Explain the RISE of the Nazi movement 

HITLERS BIOGRAPHY  

• Born in 1889 on the Austria – German boarder in Braunau am Inn  • Middle class family  

• Finished high school in 1905  

• 1905 – 1907 he didnt do anything – funded by his mother, he started  drawing, reading, going to the opera  

• 1907 Goes to Vienna and tries out for the Academy of the Arts  o Failed the first time, tried a second time, but never made it in

• 1908 – 1913 began painting and selling them  

• Also began reading anti-semitic newspapers


What is hitler’s idea of an effective speech ?



Don't forget about the age old question of When did muhammad return to mecca and destroyed kabba?

o 1913 move to Munich to fight for the Germans  

o Didn’t want to be a part of the Austrian-Hungarian empire  o Fought in the German military during WWI  If you want to learn more check out What is the conflict theory in sociology?

• 1919 after WWI  

o Demobilized, began surveillance work  

o Became part of the German’s Workers Party – only 41 members  at the time  

o Became a speaker there and people seemed to like him  o Changed name in 1920 to NSDAP  

o First big speech on Feb 24, 1920 in Festsaal – 2,000 people  o Feb 1921, took over the party through his public speaking, not  so much his ideas  

• Nov 9 1923 – Beer Hal Putsch  

o Hitler’s attempt to take over the start a national movement in  Munich to Berlin  

o Hi-jacked the meeting, marched through the city, then was  stopped by the police  

o Many people died  

o Inspired by Mussolini, a facist Italian leader  

• 1925 – Hitler was released from prison  

o formally resurrected the Nazi party  

• 1932  

o Hindenburg’s term as president was ending in the spring in 1932  and if he knew that if he didn’t run again, Hitler would win, so he  made Hitler chancellor  Don't forget about the age old question of How did colonists react to the proclamation of 1763?

▪ Hindenburg won the election, but Hitler received 37% of  the vote

▪ In the election of July 1932, the Nazi party won 37% of the  vote through a massive propaganda campaign  

▪ When Hindenburg died, Hitler made himself chancellor  and president

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3. Discuss the importance of culture and art in Nazi thought  

• The Nazis conducted disruptions of concerts etc. to people you didn’t  support their cause – they thought this was ‘organized coordination’

• The Nazi revolution was not just about elimination opposition, but also  about transforming German culture  

• April 1, 1933: A group of musicians based in the US cabled Hitler  personally in protest  

o So, German state radio promptly banned the broadcasting of  compositional concerts and recordings

• The removal of the Jews was a particular priority  

o The Nazis thought the Jews were responsible for undermining  German cultural values through modernist inventions like music  and painting  

• The Nazis insisted that art and music had to be of the highest quality  o There should be no experiments in music  

o The Jews “pollute the artistic reputation of Germany”  

Truly German Musical Culture  If you want to learn more check out What was the influence of the reform movement to disenfranchised groups?

• Involved the elimination of foreign cultural influences such as jazz,  which they considered to be the offspring of a racially inferior culture  (African Americans)  

• At nightclubs, they weren’t allowed to play certain kinds of music, but  jazz was relatively popular at the time, so if a Nazi spy came into one  of the nightclubs, the doorman rang a bell and the musicians rapidly  changed the music to something more acceptable  

The Ministry of Propaganda  

• The Nazis wanted to re-evaluate the term “propaganda” • This included all of the arts

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• The Nazis wanted to coordinate the arts under one ministry  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the lincoln's version of reconstruction?

o Had direct control over radio – in order to deliver their message  to the people  

• Art and culture were the main things the Nazis wanted to take over – if they took this over then they would have a following  

• They believed in a controlled economy and a controlled culture  The Purge of the Arts  

• As early as March 1933, the giant UFA studios began a comprehensive  policy of dismissing Jewish staff and cutting contacts with Jewish  actors  

o The Nazis soon coordinated the German Cinema Owners  Association  

o On July 14, 1933 Geobbles established the Reich film chamber to  oversee the entire movie industry  

o Jews were gradually removed from this industry  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you determine atomic weight?

o New conditions of censorship and control  

Radio  

• Goebbles blocked all attempts by parties other than the Nazis and  nationalists to get part political broadcasts transmitted  

o Jews, liberals, and social democrats were all dismissed from this  industry  

• Broadcasting Nazi propaganda  

• “The most modern and the most important instrument of mass  influence that exists anywhere” – Goebbles  

• Goebbles wanted to get rid of newspapers  

• Arrested Communist and Pacifist journalists  

Painting

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• Hitler claimed that modernist art was the product of Jewish  subversions and ‘degenerate men’

• Art, according to the Nazis, had to spring from the soul of the people  so ever healthy man was capable of reaching a just conclusion on its  value as any art critic was  

______________________________________________________________ Authors and text to identify:  

Junger, Storm of Steel 

Storm of Steel Writing Style…  

• Makes war sound beautiful  

• Tries to have glory even though war sucks  

• Pro war book rather than anti-war (compared to Western front  writings)

• Excited in the beginning, and then it slowly dies  

o Disillusionment  

o Idea vs. reality  

• Discrepancy with war  

o War is a horrifying event but the language he uses is beautiful  ______________________________________________________________ Anesthetization of war – the beautification of war  

• What kind of mindset do you have to have to see war this way? o Pride, a sense of conquering for your country  

______________________________________________________________ Page 5:

• Romanticized vision of war

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• They are looking for danger  

o They are looking for some sort of experience that is greater than  the experience they are having at school, work, etc.  

• Yearning to return to the state of survival – this is how we naturally  should be  

• War overcomes alienation from struggle  

______________________________________________________________ Page 7:

• Beginning to realize that war isn’t really what they thought it was  • Transforms them into a different state of being  

______________________________________________________________ Page 92:

What type of person does the war produce?

• Immune to the feelings that war gives people  

• Apathy  

• “Impassive features”, “ghostly” , “monotonous”  

• Equanimity  

• No longer a human, he is just a soldier  

• Void of emotion, but they are very strong – like a hardened self  • Fight machine  

o Ernst is slowly transforming into this type of person

o He has a detachment of feelings but he still has his humanity  o Ernst thinks the steel helmet guy is fascinating  

o War is an elemental force that you cannot escape and when you  do face it, you become a better person  

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Hitler, Mein Kampf 

Program of Mein Kampf  

a. Promoting a vision of a reconciled German state and community  based on race  

b. Primarily opponent: Marxism  

i. Hitler thought Marxism and Jews were related  

ii. There is nothing that is completely Jewish about Marxism  iii. Marxism believed that history would create itself through  the working class  

iv. “And this work was not written for the great masses, but  exclusively for the intellectual leadership of that Jewish  

machine for world conquest” pg. 472 Mein Kampf  

1. He only wrote it for the people that already believed  

in his mission  

1. First impressions of the book?

• Rambling/ranting  

• Unstructured  

• Very heavy book, hard to read in public  

• Anti–Semitism is related to everything  

2. Dedication  

• “denied these dead heroes a common grave”  

o Hitler was disgusted that the government denied these  “heroes” a grave  

• “loyal faith”  

• Propaganda even in the very first page  

3. Preface  

• Goes over the goals of the book  

o Provides an ideological reason for national socialism  

o Talk about his life and national socialism – how he went from  nothing to something  

• Hitler only wanted committed national socialists to read this book  o Exclusionary … but why?

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▪ Writing isn’t convincing enough to people that don’t  

already believe in national socialism  

4. The Struggle of the Early Period – The Significance of the Spoken Word  pg. 463 – 480  

• Talks about how to influence the masses  

• What is wrong with the written word?

o You can’t tell what your audience is feeling  

o The reader has power  

o When things are spoken, you are part of a community  

o People only read what they agree with  

• Hitler’s relationship with the audience  

o He views them as hostile  

• Hitler’s idea of an effective speech?

o Repetition  

o Thinks about the time at which the speech occurs  

▪ A speech in the morning is less effective than a speech at  night

▪ Compares a speech with the theater – speeches were  

staged events to Hitler  

“Nation & Race” chapter  

Chapter Outline  

1. Intro 

• Struggle is national among race  

• Races must maintain purity and avoid mingling or else they will be  destroyed  

• Praise of nature and struggle  

o To Hitler, there is no difference between nature and  

humans  

o Just like in nature, the weakest perish  

• The “Aryan”  

o 19th century invention  

o synonym for “Indo-European”

8

o Became used for racial groups  

o Adopted by “racial science”  

o For Hitler, many Europeans were Aryan, but Germans were the  purest Aryans  

▪ Because they had mixed less with Slavs and other  

indigenous people  

2. Typology of races  

• Culture funding (Aryans) vs. Culture bearing  

o The genius race  

3. Defining the Aryan race  

• Aryan characteristic: self-sacrificing  

o Preservation of their race  

o The idea of selflessness  

• The Jews were only interested in self preservation  

o Individual self-interests  

o Jews are a race and not a religion  

o Jews were considered actors, liars, and parasites  

o Trying to dominate and destroy  

4. History of the Jews 

• Associates Jews with emancipation and modernity  

• Believed that Jews were destroyers of culture (pg. 326) 5. Conclusion: Germans must recognize the enemy that threatens them  within  

______________________________________________________________ Typology: Three kinds of races in Mein Kampf  

• Founders, bearers, destroyers of culture  

• Race defined in terms of culture  

o Thought of the Jews as a threat to their culture  

Racist beliefs in Mein Kampf  

• There are differences among races and qualitative differences and  there is hierarchy is among these races

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• Aryans are the most valuable race – Germans are the purest  • Interbreeding will lead to the downfall of the Aryans  

• Purity and wealth – eugenics  

• Aryans must be separate from the Jews  

Carrying out Nazi racial beliefs  

• Nuremberg Laws – October 3, 1935  

o Two laws which excluded the Jews from German life  

o Offered criteria for identifying Jews  

o Stripped Jews of citizenship  

o Forbade mixed marriages  

o Forbade extramarital intercourse between Jews and non Jews  o Non Jewish women under 45 can’t work as household help for  Jews  

o Amendments defined exactly who was Jewish  

Long Term Goals  

• Separation of Jews and Germans  

• Encourage emigration  

Categories according to Nuremberg Laws  

• Fully Jewish  

• Mixed blood in the 1st degree – 2 or more grandparents are Jewish  • Mixed blood in the 2nd degree – 1 grandparent is Jewish  • Fully German  

Ancestry Pass  

• A passport that you’d have to show to get a job -- 1939 • Included a photo, certification page, signature, stamp  • Sometimes would have to prove all the way back to the 1800s if you  were Jewish or not  

• Had to add the name “Israel” for men and “Sarah” for women if your  name wasn’t recognizable

10

Klemperer, Language of the Third Reich 

“I Believe in Him”

• Klemperer was not a Nazi  

• In WWI, he was a German soldier  

o Still harassed by the Nazis  

o Able to keep teaching as a professor because he was a war  Veteran, but eventually they didn’t let him continue  

• Had to change his name  

• Not sent to a concentration camp, but instead was put into a “Jew  house”

Uses euphemisms in his writing…  

• Pick up (arrested)

• Concert Camp (concentration camp)

• Crisis (defeat)  

• Special treatment (murder)  

The reading…  

• Demonstrates a faith in Hitler  

• Religious worship of Hitler

• The want for a German empire from  

• View of Hitler as the savior/messiah  

• Hitler had the god like power to make laws  

• Hitler viewed himself as a leader  

• People didn’t need to know his intentions to believe in him • Mein Kampf was like the bible  

“Understanding has nothing to do with it, you have to have faith.”  

“…his special status as the chosen one, his special sonship, his religious  mission.”  

“The ritualistic worship of Hitler, the radiant fog of religion surrounding his  person…”

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Paula

• She’s friends with Klemperer, who was a Jewish German  • Feels invigorated/excited by Hitler  

Soldier

• Even on the cusp of defeat, he still believes in Hitler  

L.  

• Cannot get a good job, even with a college degree, he was working he  a factory and still believed in Hitler

______________________________________________________________ Concepts to know… define the following  

• Social Darwinism: The belief that evolution proceeds by the  differential survival of the fittest or superior individuals. This requires  differences among species, which in time become great enough so  that those individuals that possess advantageous features – the fittest  – are more apt to survive. Darwinism provided profound insight that  could be used to improve the German race.  

• Pan-Germanism: All racial German people unified in one country;  believed that a worldwide Jewish conspiracy was behind many of the  perils they thought were threatening Germany and the Germans, and  they promised to remove the civil rights of the Jews when they came  to power  

• Lebensraum: “Living space” – occupy and expand to the East  

• Hitler’s theory of 3 kinds of races in Mein Kampf: Claimed that the  Aryan race is a master race, superior to all other races, that a nation is  the highest creation of a race, and the great nations were the creation  of great races. The weakest nations were those of impure or mongrel

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races, because they have dived, quarrelling, and therefore weak  cultures. Worst of all were seen to be the Jews, homosexuals,  disabled, and anti-socials. People of the Eastern European Russian dominated Slavic descent were also seen as subhuman because they  had their own land and nations, though many of them lived in German  countries such as Austria, which Hitler saw as an ethnic invasion of  Germanic Lebensraum.  

• Enabling Act: Made Hitler able to write/pass laws and sign treaties  with other countries  

• Reichstag Fire Decree: Suspended all civil liberties; the beginning of  the Nazi dictatorship  

• Redemptive Antisemitism: Seeing the Jews as a fundamental threat to  the world  

• Manichean World View: An elaborate view describing the struggle  between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil material world of  darkness  

• Antisemitism: Hatred towards Jews  

• Reproductive Process: The goal of raising the birth rate of “Aryan”  children via extramarital relations of persons classified as “racially  pure and healthy” based on Nazi racial hygiene and health ideology  

• Treaty of Versailles: Germany was declared guilty of WWI, so this  treaty brought WWI to an end

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• Nationalism: Patriotic feeling; a feeling of superiority to other  countries  

• Leadership Principle: The fundamental basis of political authority in  the governmental structures of the Third Reich. This principle can be  most succinctly understood to mean that “the Fuhrer’s word is above  all written law” and that governmental policies, decisions, and offices  ought to work toward the realization of this end.  

• Anti-communism: Against communism; communists believed in the  equality of all people – Hitler did not believe this. He saw the  communists as a threat to his own power.  

• “Stab in the back” myth: The belief that the German army did not lose  WWI on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians at the  home front  

• Marxism: An economic system based on the private ownership of the  means of production and distribution of goods, characterized by a free  competitive market and motivation by profit – the working class has  the ability to sell their own labor. Karl Marx believed that under  capitalism, the workers are paid the bare minimum and they are  alienated because the worker has no control over the labor and  product which he produces.  

• Intentionalist: The belief that Hitler and the Nazis planned the mass  murder – this was their only goal

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• Structuralist: The path from anti-Semitic world view was not a smooth  plan and was influence by other events – the Nazis did not have a  coherent plan  

______________________________________________________________ Dates to Know:

• WWI: July 28, 1914 – November 11, 1918  

• Weimer Republic: 1919 – 1933  

• Nazi Regime: Founded in 1919 (the year Hitler joined) and then Hitler  became their leader in 1921  

• Hitler appointed chancellor: January 30, 1933  

• WWII: 1939 – 1945

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