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ODU / Psychology / Psyc 304 / Is introspection misleading?

Is introspection misleading?

Is introspection misleading?


Chapter 4: Who am I?

Is introspection misleading?

People tend to put their best self on social media - Attributes are positive  

Managing the Self

Self-accuracy in predicting our behavior

• We tend to be inaccurate about ourselves

• We always intend to do better

• We have biases (being overly positive)  

Self-Presentation Tactics

• Not always successful

• We have certain traits and behavior emphases  (normally positive traits)

• We influence other people’s impressions

• Self-verification perspective: getting other people’s  agreement for self-claim

• We want people to agree with us

• Can cause ingratiation (Sucking up)

What is an observer’s point of view?

• Self-deprecation: If you put yourself down, people like  you better where as if you brag about yourself, people  tend to not like you as much

Self Knowledge  

• Introspection: Looking inward, to question Don't forget about the age old question of How is japan education different from america?

• Helps you learn about yourself

• May not always be a good thing

• Disadvantage: We tend to over analyze things, have  lack of behavioral reasoning, our behavior might not  match are feelings

Observer’s Point of View

• It is how other people see us

• Sometimes observers can be more accurate about  other people

• It can be helpful to have another persons perspective  on yourself

What are the differences between personal and social identity?

• Observers focus on a person’s traits directly

Is Introspection Misleading?

• Not always

• Conscious decision making= accurate inferences • Unconscious emotion= inaccurate inferences • It is better to think about how negative things don’t  happen to you because it will make you happier  

Social Identity

• Intra group = within  

• Inter group = between

• Teenagers differ their self-description for parents and  friends depending on the situation they are in • Differ across time, place and social context Don't forget about the age old question of Why is globalization important?

Personal vs. Social Identity

Self-construal: how you see your gender

• Gender mutual

- Is it satiate (important)?

- Is it men vs. women, women vs. women, or men vs. men?

• What determines salience?

- Contextual reverence

- Identity

- Personal traits

- Other people

• Different Selves

- We have different salient selves at different times - Can cause emotional consequences Don't forget about the age old question of Is net income revenue minus expenses?

• Other people’s treatment

- Influence self-projection

- Causes anticipation of rejection

- You may try to hide ones true identity

Belonging and Group

• Better to have bad friends than have no friends at all • Having social interaction is good for your health • As you get older, the need for social interaction is more  critical

• It can help boost your self-esteem

- Promotes positive identities

Past and Future Selves

Self-change over time

• Use autobiographically memory

• Our perception improves over time

• Using role models inspire personal achievement

Self Control  

Difficulties of long-range goals

• We want immediate reward

• But we tend to have lack of commitment

• Refraining from enjoyable activities can be taxing • Can cause eg0-depletion

Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory

Decrease social comparison feels better than being  compared

In Group Bias If you want to learn more check out What is the formula used to find coterminal angles for a number in degrees?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the two types of volcanic eruption?

Comparison between ourselves to members of a group we  are in rather than a group we are not in

Unrealistic Optimism

We think we are always above average compared to other  people

• Take credit for success and blame others for failures • We have unrealistic to do lists Don't forget about the age old question of Which type of case is heard in a juvenile court?

• We do not own up to our mistakes (Futility of negative  feedback)

Positive Thinking

It is recommended in much of American culture • Efficacy of positive thinking

• It is effective with both high and low self-esteem people

Migration and Well-being

• There is an increase in self-efficacy

• The need for social support grows

• Immigration can cause a reduce in self-esteem

Gender and Self-esteem

• Assumption

- Men have higher self-esteem

- That isn’t always true

• Testing assumptions

- William and Best did a 14-nation study on women self concept. They found that women have lower self concept if in a non-valued position


Acting on ones prejudice

• Negative consequences: exclusion, being devalued


Identity and negative treatment

• Seen with sexual orientation, obesity, the disabled, and  other health conditions

• We begin to hide our identity to avoid negative  treatment

- Causes low self-esteem and distress

Stereotype Threat

• Fear of negative judgment based on group membership • Social identity threat

• Anticipation of judgment

• People are worried that they will confirm a stereotype

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