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ODU / Psychology / Psyc 304 / Is introspection misleading?

Is introspection misleading?

Is introspection misleading?


Chapter 4: Who am I?

Is introspection misleading?

People tend to put their best self on social media - Attributes are positive  

Managing the Self

Self-accuracy in predicting our behavior

• We tend to be inaccurate about ourselves

• We always intend to do better

• We have biases (being overly positive)  

Self-Presentation Tactics

• Not always successful

• We have certain traits and behavior emphases  (normally positive traits)

• We influence other people’s impressions

• Self-verification perspective: getting other people’s  agreement for self-claim

• We want people to agree with us

• Can cause ingratiation (Sucking up)

What is an observer’s point of view?

• Self-deprecation: If you put yourself down, people like  you better where as if you brag about yourself, people  tend to not like you as much

Self Knowledge  

• Introspection: Looking inward, to question

• Helps you learn about yourself

• May not always be a good thing

• Disadvantage: We tend to over analyze things, have  lack of behavioral reasoning, our behavior might not  match are feelings

Observer’s Point of View

• It is how other people see us

• Sometimes observers can be more accurate about  other people

• It can be helpful to have another persons perspective  on yourself

What are the differences between personal and social identity?

• Observers focus on a person’s traits directly

Is Introspection Misleading? If you want to learn more check out How is japan education different from america?

• Not always

• Conscious decision making= accurate inferences • Unconscious emotion= inaccurate inferences • It is better to think about how negative things don’t  happen to you because it will make you happier  

Social Identity

• Intra group = within  

• Inter group = between

• Teenagers differ their self-description for parents and  friends depending on the situation they are in • Differ across time, place and social context If you want to learn more check out Why is globalization important?

Personal vs. Social Identity

Self-construal: how you see your gender

• Gender mutual

- Is it satiate (important)?

- Is it men vs. women, women vs. women, or men vs. men?

• What determines salience?

- Contextual reverence

- Identity

- Personal traits

- Other people

• Different Selves

- We have different salient selves at different times - Can cause emotional consequences

• Other people’s treatment

- Influence self-projection

- Causes anticipation of rejection

- You may try to hide ones true identity

Belonging and Group

• Better to have bad friends than have no friends at all • Having social interaction is good for your health • As you get older, the need for social interaction is more  critical Don't forget about the age old question of Is net income revenue minus expenses?

• It can help boost your self-esteem

- Promotes positive identities

Past and Future Selves

Self-change over time

• Use autobiographically memory

• Our perception improves over time

• Using role models inspire personal achievement

Self Control  

Difficulties of long-range goals

• We want immediate reward

• But we tend to have lack of commitment

• Refraining from enjoyable activities can be taxing • Can cause eg0-depletion

Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory

Decrease social comparison feels better than being  compared

In Group Bias

Comparison between ourselves to members of a group we  are in rather than a group we are not in

Unrealistic Optimism

We think we are always above average compared to other  people

• Take credit for success and blame others for failures • We have unrealistic to do lists We also discuss several other topics like What is the formula used to find coterminal angles for a number in degrees?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the three ways to form magma?

• We do not own up to our mistakes (Futility of negative  feedback)

Positive Thinking

It is recommended in much of American culture • Efficacy of positive thinking

• It is effective with both high and low self-esteem people

Migration and Well-being

• There is an increase in self-efficacy

• The need for social support grows

• Immigration can cause a reduce in self-esteem

Gender and Self-esteem

• Assumption

- Men have higher self-esteem

- That isn’t always true

• Testing assumptions

- William and Best did a 14-nation study on women self concept. They found that women have lower self concept if in a non-valued position


Acting on ones prejudice

• Negative consequences: exclusion, being devalued


Identity and negative treatment Don't forget about the age old question of Which type of case is heard in a juvenile court?

• Seen with sexual orientation, obesity, the disabled, and  other health conditions

• We begin to hide our identity to avoid negative  treatment

- Causes low self-esteem and distress

Stereotype Threat

• Fear of negative judgment based on group membership • Social identity threat

• Anticipation of judgment

• People are worried that they will confirm a stereotype

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