Exam 1 Study Guide:
1. A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on A. the coach's demeanor on the sideline.
B. a fan who has fallen asleep during the game's fourth quarter.
C. the interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties. D. the cleanliness of the restroom facilities in the stadium
2. Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination? A. a study of an individual's sleeping patterns
B. an analysis of the content of dreams and how the individual's daily life is reflected in subconscious thought
C. a study of the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to that of people listening to a rock concert
We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of traditional knowledge?
D. an analysis of the United States president's power to declare war
3. Which of the following are the key components of the definition of sociology? A. systematic study We also discuss several other topics like What does individualism mean?
B. the individual and society
C. the consequences of social differences
D. All of the answers are correct.
4. Which of the following would be the type of question a sociologist might ask in studying the global economic crisis that began in 2008?
A. How does this crisis affect people psychologically?
B. How do the positions we occupy influence our experience of the crisis? C. How has this crisis affected animal populations and the environment? D. How has this crisis resulted in the bankruptcy of a particular company?
5. In many emerging nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in emerging nations are likely to suffer
C. a lack of sociological imagination.
D. a lack of dramaturgy.
6. Which sociological approach would argue that people respect laws or disobey them based on their own past experience as well as their subjective understanding of the law? A. functionalist perspective We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of divergent interests?
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. feminist perspective
7. A sociological relationship between the individual and society is one in which the choices of the individual are determined by the individual's societal position.
8. According to Durkheim's theory about the causes of suicide, the more interconnected and interdependent a society's members, the lower its suicide rate should be. True
9. An operational definition is
A. a speculative statement about the relationship between two variables. B. the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
C. the transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of white matter in the brain?
D. a relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
10. A variable is If you want to learn more check out What is “international politics”?
A. a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions. B. the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
C. the unintended influence that observers or experiments can have on their subjects. D. a speculative statement about the relationship between two traits.
11. Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is a(n) A. hypothesis. We also discuss several other topics like What is the most objective methods known for acquiring knowledge?
B. independent variable.
C. dependent variable.
12. Valid research measures
A. always provide consistent results.
B. are always independent, rather than dependent, variables.
C. accurately reflect the phenomenon under study.
D. are typically ambiguous when put into words.
13. To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as A. a secondary analysis.
B. participant observation.
C. a survey.
D. a content analysis.
14. The midpoint, or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values, is referred to as the
15. Rik Scarce's jail experience in 1993 revealed the potential consequences of A. forging transcripts.
B. raiding a university laboratory.
C. maintaining the confidentiality of sources.
D. "snitching" on university administrators.
16. If x is correlated with y, then by definition, x must be the cause of y. True
17. Culture helps us to
A. experience the external world in a physical way.
B. perceive nature directly.
C. interpret information received by our senses.
D. bypass the process of interpretation.
18. English-speaking people in the United States commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
A. nonmaterial culture.
B. cultural diffusion.
C. cultural shock.
D. cultural relativity.
19. Which of the following is an example of nonverbal communication? A. a high five
B. a hug
C. a frown
D. All of the answers are correct.
20. In surveys of first-year college students over the last 40 years, which value has shown the strongest gain in popularity?
A. being very well-off financially
B. developing a meaningful life
C. achieving fame
D. finding true love
21. A dominant ideology
A. is the set of agreed upon values held by most members of a society. B. enables those in power to shape beliefs about reality.
C. is how a society modifies the natural environment to suit its purposes. D. enables marginalized groups to influence their societies.
22. Terrorist groups in Northern Ireland are an example of
A. a subculture.
B. a counterculture.
C. neither a subculture nor a counterculture.
D. both a subculture and a counterculture.
23. A teacher plans a trip to the theater for a junior high school class. As part of the preparation, the teacher tells students how they should dress and how they will be expected to act inside the theater. This is an example of
A. the dramaturgical approach.
C. social promotion.
D. social relativism.
24. Which of the following is the first phase of the looking-glass self? A. imagining how others see us
B. imagining how others evaluate what we think they see
C. developing a feeling about ourselves
D. imagining how attractive, intelligent, shy, or strange we are
25. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an example of a significant other? A. a teacher
B. a television character
C. a parent
D. a childhood friend
26. A person leaves a singles' bar alone and later tells a friend, "There wasn't anyone interesting in the entire crowd." This is an example of
A. reverse socialization.
B. anticipatory socialization.
C. impression management.
27. A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her school's swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swim meets at a nearby college. This is an example of A. reverse socialization.
D. anticipatory socialization.
28. Of all the various "agents of socialization," peer groups have consistently been shown to have the greatest impact.
29. According to Berger and Luckmann, which of the following statements best describes the relationship between individuals and society?
A. The development of an individual is independent from the development of the society in which that individual lives.
B. It is interdependent with individuals both creating society and being products of that society.
C. Society affects the development of the individual, but the individual has no effect on the development of society.
D. None of the answers is correct.
30. Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social statuses?
A. role strain
B. role conflict
C. role ambiguity
D. role exit
31. Which of the following terms is used to refer to organized and persistent social systems centered on meeting basic societal needs?
A. collaboration networks
B. social institutions
C. functional movements
D. secondary groups
32. By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the concept of A. employment based on technical qualifications.
B. hierarchy of authority.
C. division of labor.
33. Which of the following has been least shaped by McDonaldization? A. sports stadiums
B. movie theaters
C. convenience stores
34. Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a(n) A. Gemeinschaft.
C. mechanical solidarity.
D. organic solidarity.
35. The key distinction between an "in-group" and an "out-group" is the size of the group. Out-groups are, by definition, larger than in-groups.