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CU / Biology / EEB 1220 / What is stated in the continental drift theory?

What is stated in the continental drift theory?

What is stated in the continental drift theory?

Description

ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1 0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-8}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1 0}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5 0}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6 0}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-4}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-5 0}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3 0}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-8 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8 0}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-1}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8 0}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4 0}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3 0}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4 0}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7 0}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4 0}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1 0}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-1 0}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2 0}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3 0}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8 0}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-2}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5 0}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-8 0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-1}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-3}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-2 0}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8}ul.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_12dtclp2y6tc-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0 0}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_77p5ncjmrcgw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6 0}ul.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4 0}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-4 0}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-7 0}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-4 0}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7 0}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-6}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-5 0}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-2 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0 0}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0 0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-2}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5 0}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-5}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-3}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-5 0}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-6 0}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-7 0}ul.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-2 0}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-3 0}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0 0}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-1 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2 0}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-5}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-7}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-3}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-8 0}.lst-kix_r4sfr6bzmhiu-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-3}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-6 0}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-1 0}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-1 0}.lst-kix_n0zomcnsr85p-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-0 0}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-7 0}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ht4isdnpz2jy-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-7}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-0}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-6 0}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_mrvqejphx8y8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7}.lst-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rk3dcgefydgl-0}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-0}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_cw2figazzf87-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-0 0}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-3 0}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-4 0}.lst-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_n1lxvlvbvq4y-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_k8rs66gl480p-5}.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-5}.lst-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_u6r80e4uxtps-2}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_5tuv6jgm0yo9-2}ol.lst-kix_x58j7webxld0-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_x58j7webxld0-2 0}.lst-kix_bmnhb7fxxfv3-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rps3usn405hg-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_elm9hlkovsil-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_71i1w8remhz2-2,lower-roman) ". 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Major Events in Geologic RecordIf you want to learn more check out What happened during the irish potato famine?

3 events:

  1. Archaean: from the beginning of the solar system
  • 6 billion years ago, until 2.5 billion years ago
  • Oldest fossils of cells (prokaryotes)
  • Oldest rocks on earth
  • Oxygen begins to increase

  1. Proterozoic: 2.5 billion years ago to 542 million years ago
  • Single-celled eukaryotes
  • Multicellular eukaryotes
  • Diverse algae and soft-bodied invertebrate animals appear near the end

  1. Phanerozoic: 542 million years ago to present day

If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between state government action and federal government actions?

Three eras

  1. Paleozoic: 542 million years ago - 251 million years ago

Ends with permian extinction

  1. Mesozoic: 251 MYA - 65.5 MYA

Ends with cretaceous extinction (reptiles)

  1. Cenozoic: 65.5 MYA - present

HumansIf you want to learn more check out Where do we see images of the natural world?
We also discuss several other topics like How does weathering affect the environment?

Colonization of land

Taxonomy

Taxonomy: naming and classification of species and groups of species (does not take into account evolutionary history We also discuss several other topics like How do the africans become slaves?

      Hierarchical classification systemWe also discuss several other topics like What is gluteus maximus?

Speciation

2 types:

  1. Allopatric speciation: populations form new species when geographically isolated, no gene flow, end up evolving into 2 different species

Geographic banner, fish end up becoming different species

  1. Sympatric speciation: a subset forms new species without geographic isolation, one intermixing population

Variation because mutation/recombination, zygote barriers

Continental Drift

Continental drift: the planet is constantly shifting of continents, and has created a major difference in biological diversity

Why is continental drift relevant to biodiversity?

  • Habitat isolation
  • Geographic isolation
  • Allopatric speciation
  • Continents move, climate change reproductive isolation

Extinctions

  • Permian: extinction of many marine and terrestrial organisms

Biggest mass extinction ever

Cretaceous: extinction of many marine and  terrestrial organisms again, but also most notably the dinosaurs

  • Thought to have occurred because  a large meteor impact
  • Rise of mammals

Sixth mass extinction: happening now, 100-1000x above baseline

  • 11,000 species endangered

Animals

Animal: multicellular, eukaryotes, many different cell types

Five key traits

  1. Eukaryotic (domain eukarya)
  2. Multicellular with multiple cell types  
  3. heterotrophic

Energy from injecting other organisms (eating)

  1. No cell wall
  2. Early development characters

        Transient stage of maturation

        Example: infant, toddler, teen, adult

        Larval stage, metamorphosis

Notochord; a longitudinal, flexible rod located between the nerve rod and the digestive tube.

        All vertebrates have a notochord.

Phylogeny of Animals

Biology Exam I

The Darwinian Revolution

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  • One of the 6 children
  • Dad wanted him to be a doctor and go to medical school        
  • Spend all his time researching biology

Voyage of the HMS Beagle, 1831-1836

  • Darwin travelled the world on a ship collecting specimen for museums (plants, animals, fossils, rocks)

On the origin of species

  • Published 1859 (20 years after voyage)
  • Darwin’s observation from his journey

  1. Descent with modification: species evolve and change overtime and derive from common ancestors

Controversial because people at this time believed nothing was changing and species did not just show up

  1. Natural selection: evolutionary process by which individuals with certain heritable traits leave more offspring  than individuals with other traits

        Controversial because reason as before

  1. Adaptations: characteristics that enhance organism survival and reproduction in specific environments

Natural selection vs. evolution

Natural Selection Theory

Key ingredients:

  1. Individuals within a species vary
  2. Some of these variations are heritable
  3. More offspring are produced than survive
  4. Survival and reproduction are non-random

Evolution: change over time in a populations’ genetic makeup, patterns and processes of descent with modification

  • Evolution is a fact.
  • Evolution results from natural selection.
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