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SRU / Science / ART 22601 / When did muhammad return to mecca and destroyed kabba?

When did muhammad return to mecca and destroyed kabba?

When did muhammad return to mecca and destroyed kabba?


School: Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
Department: Science
Course: Overview of World Art
Professor: Kurt pitluga
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: worldart and ArtHistory
Cost: 50
Name: World Art exam #1 Study Guide
Description: Chapters to be covered: Chapter 2: The Islamic World Pgs. 22-57 Chapter 3: India and Southeast Asia Pgs. 58-103
Uploaded: 02/11/2017
18 Pages 51 Views 3 Unlocks


When did muhammad return to mecca and destroyed kabba?


***MAKE SURE TO BE FAMILIAR WITH ALL TERMS, ARTWORKS, PEOPLE, ETC.*** Terms are in bold, works of art or building structures are highlighted in yellow, important people are in blue,


Chapters to be covered:

Chapter 2: The Islamic World

● Pgs. 22-57

Chapter 3: India and Southeast Asia

● Pgs. 58-103


● Islamic culture is yourself and god

○ No popes, etc.

● Islamic Empire

○ Muslim

○ Will consume byzantine empire

○ Spread quickly because it appeals to the poor

What does hijra denote?

■ Idea of sulfation in heaven

● Battle of Poitier, France 732

○ Christian defeated muslims and halted muslims from occupying western europe ● Allah 

○ God

○ No images of allah

■ Seen with text rather than image

● Muhammad 

○ Usually not presented as a human being like Allah

■ If anything, just a white figure

○ Execution is punishment for depicting as human

○ Born in Mecca (570), Dies in Medina (632)

■ City of the prophet Don't forget about the age old question of What is the conflict theory in sociology?
We also discuss several other topics like What were the british imperial policies?

○ Receives first message in Gabriel on 610 CE about a God

○ 622 CE - Year Muslim calendar begins

■ Lunar calendar

■ Year he fled to Medina

Is kufic script considered calligraphy?

We also discuss several other topics like What had served as the foundation for the progressive movement?

■ Hijra

● Emigration

○ Returns to Mecca in 630 and destroys Kabba

■ Cube

■ Heart and center on islamic world

■ Has been rebuilt several times Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the great emancipation?

■ During pilgrimage, you walk around kabba and kiss the stone in the bottom corner

● Said to be given to abraham’s son from Gabriel

● Medina

○ Osama Bin Laden’s family designs much of the buildings in Medina ● Qur’an of Koran

○ Islamic bible

■ Where muhammad gets his his words from allah

○ Calligraphy

■ “Beautiful writing”

■ Kufic script

■ Scribe

● Recorded words that Allah delivered to Muhammad

● Emphasis on mathematics, science, poetry, philosophy, etc.

● Islam

○ Submission to God

● Muslim

○ Those who submit

● Five pillars of faith

○ Declaration of faith

■ There is only one god

○ Prayer

■ Five times per day

○ Charity

■ Giving back to the community

● Typically muslims set aside 10% of salary to give to charity

● If no money to give, they donate their time to the community

○ Ramadan

■ Ninth month of the lunar calendar If you want to learn more check out How do you determine atomic weight?

■ Respecting mohammad receiving the first message from Gabriel ■ Fast from morning to night

● No drinking, eating, sex, etc.

● Can resume once sun goes down

○ Pilgrimage to Mecca

■ At least once in your lifetime

■ During ramadan, it is an important time to go to Mecca

● Caliph

○ Successor to Muhammad

○ Sunni

■ Believe in only original four caliphs

● Anyone can be picked

○ Shiites

■ Believe in only Ali

■ Caliphs have to descend from Ali

● Muhammad’s cousin

○ Sunni and Shiites do NOT get along

■ Sunni is majority

● 85%

● Saudi Arabia


○ Execute jews, shiites, and others

■ Shiites are minority

● 15%

● Iran

● Umayyad Empire

○ Create first great muslim empire

○ Capital in Damascus, Syria

○ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

■ Centralized plan

● Comes from rome and christian faith

■ Covered with mosaic decoration

■ Borrowed much from the christian world

● Architecture borrowed from pagan world as well Don't forget about the age old question of What are some examples of chronemics?

■ First islamic architectural monument

■ Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac

● On rock in middle of dome

● God was testing Abraham’s faith and demanded to execute Isaac ○ Story is in Koran and Old Testament

○ Koran is last pure word of God

● God sends angel down to stop Abraham since he had proven his faith

■ Muhammad’s night journey to heaven

● Extremely holy sight in islamic world (3rd)

■ Exterior replaced in 15th century with glazed tiles instead of mosaic ○ Said to be inspired by San Vitale and others like it

■ Lavish interior

■ No human figures in any mosaic of the Dome of the Rock

○ Mosaic

■ Tessera

● Glass pieces put together to form image or design

○ Arabesques

■ Flowing, curving lines

○ Temple of Solomon (jewish)

■ Destroyed by romans in 70 AD

● Arch of Titus displays their victory in Rome

■ El Greco: Purification of the Temple 1600

○ Wailing Wall 

■ Most holy place for jewish culture

● Write prayers and put in wall

○ Damascus

■ On silk road path

■ Important for trade

■ Palmyra, Syria borrowed much of roman architecture

● ISIS destroyed monuments in 2016

○ Aqueducts

■ Brought water into city from many miles away

● Great Friday Mosque 706-715, Damascus, Syria

○ Built on grounds of ancient roman fort

○ Outer walls are original walls of fort

■ Church of St. John and Temple of Jupiter remain, just out into different use

○ Sahn

■ Courtyard

■ Always has fountain for muslims to purify themselves by washing feet and hands

○ Minaret

■ Prayer tower

■ Earliest minaret in islamic world

■ Five times a day, a Muezzin comes out to alert those to start their prayer ● “Allah ak bar”

○ God is Great

○ How he will begin his announcement

○ Arcade

■ Multiple arches in architecture

■ Mosaic images include plants, vegetation, buildings, but no human beings or animals ever decorate a mosque

○ Gold backgrounds to suggest divinity

○ Entrance said to be inspired by pediments of temples in rome

○ Ground plan

■ Quibla Wall

● Wall facing Mecca for prayer

○ Has recession in wall known as mirab

■ Imam ​leads the prayer on friday

● Stands on Minbar t​ o lead prayer

○ Wooden structure by mirab

■ Hypostyle hall

● Roof supported by columns

● Prayer hall

○ Large open space

■ No pews, benched, etc.

● Individuals get down on hands and knees to


○ Desert Palace 740-750

■ Also known as Hunting lodges

■ Large dense building

■ Mshatta desert palace is largest desert palace

● Large bath area

● Gardens

■ Frieze of Umayyad Desert Palace

● Very dense

● Floral pattern

● Intricately carved

● Rosettes

○ Suggest the universe created by allah

● Christian art and architecture

○ Basilica

■ Long central aisle

● Nave

○ Gives direct orientation to altar

○ Alter is located in apse

■ Semi circle in wall

● Umayyads in Spain. 756-1031

○ Slaughter of Umayyads in Damascus

■ Except for Abd-al-Rahman I, Cordoba, 750

● Escapes the slaughter by the Abbasids and makes Cordoba his


○ Cordoba

■ Capital of umayyad spain, 756

■ If you did not convert to islamic culture, more taxes were to be paid ■ Aqueducts and water wheels, Hama, Syria

■ Many citrus fruits, vegetables, trees, were brought to spain

■ Population of about 100,000

● 70 libraries

○ 400,000 volumes in Royal Library

■ Translate roman and greek texts into Arabic

■ Astrolobe

● Helps calculate location based on position of the stars

■ Great Mosque at Cordoba, 9th and 10th century, Spain

● Hypostyle hall

● Minaret converted into christian bell tower

● Alternating limestone and brick in arches

○ Typical of islamic design

○ Said to clear head to pray to God

● Horseshoe arch

○ Profile of horseshoe

○ Not muslim architecture

■ Borrowed from christian architecture

● Double-tiered arch

○ Allow ceiling to be higher

■ Maqsura of Caliph Al-Hakam II 

● Elaborate design

○ 5,000 gold tesserae sent to use to decorate

○ Cufic script and arabesque lines in mosaics

● Nasrids 1232-1492 Spain (The Moors)

○ Moors​ comes from Morocco and is term for muslims coming to land ○ Alhambra Palace 1232 Granada, Spain

■ “The red fort”

● Protects inner palace

■ Filled with intimate courtyards

● Meant for comfort of the ruler

● Faradise

○ Walled garden

■ Interior lavishly decorated with glazed tiles and carvings

● “There is no Victor but Allah”

○ Repeated 9000 times throughout building

● Alhambra:

○ Court of the Lions 1380

■ Fountain representing Four rivers of faradise

● Water streams to each room

● Activated every hour to add one lion

■ Carved stucco decoration

● Plaster

● Decorative patterns

○ Visual overload

○ Hall of the two sisters

■ Referring to two slabs of marble on floor, not actual human beings ■ Elaborately designed

■ 5,000 Muqarnas

● Create prismatic effect

● Refers to the infinite universe created by Allah

● Expulsion of the Moors by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 ● Palace of King Charles V at the Alhambra

○ Demolished part of the structure to represent victory of christianity over muslim culture

● Abbasid Empire 750-1258

○ Slaughtered family of the ummayads

○ Claim descent from Muhammad’s uncle

○ Made connections with Tong dynasty in China

○ Capital moved to Baghdad (City of Peace), Iraq

○ Plan of Baghdad

■ Circular city

■ Reflects perfect universe made by Allah

■ Center of city was ruler’s palace

■ Great place for learning

● A lot of ancient greek texts were translated into ArabiC

■ Caliph Harun al-Rashid

● Ruled 786-809 CE

● Sunni

● Much of arabian life displayed in famous book 1001 Arabian


■ House of wisdom

● 200,000 volumes

○ Capital moved again to Samarra

■ Great Mosque at Samarra, 836-875, Irag

● Biggest hypostyle mosque world had seen

● Mudbrick

● Covers 10 acres

○ Covered with carved stucco decoration

○ Quibla wall facing unique minaret

■ AKA Malwiyyah

● Translated to spiral/snail

■ Spiral made of mudbrick

■ Scale announces victory of islamic culture in world

● Mongol Invasion

○ Genghis Khan, 1258

○ Total war

■ Give ultimatum to surrender, or everything would be destroyed

● Reasoning for demolishing of Baghdad - 1258

○ Created Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) 1206-1348

■ Created wide space for trade along silk road

○ Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 China

■ Kublia Khan

■ Marco Polo traveled to China during this time bringing much goods back to western europe

● The Timurids 1370-1501

○ Mongols who have settled and converted to Islam

○ Tamer Lenk 1320-1405

■ AKA Timur the Lame

■ “The Sword of Islam”

■ Died trying to invade china

■ Claimed descent for Genghis Khan

○ Establishes Samarkand as the Capital

○ Madrasa of Ulugh-Beg 1417-1421, Samarkand

■ School for islamic study

● Learn over 6,000 verses of the quran

■ Rigistan

● Royal Square

● Three buildings surrounded center courtyard

■ Ulugh-Beg 

● Timur’s grandson

● Mathematician

● Built biggest observatory at the time

○ Very little remains today

○ Sextant

■ Measures stars

● Madrasa

○ Covered with glazed tile work

■ Becomes very popular with islamic world

○ Two minarets located on either side covered in glazed tile


○ Kushan

■ Ceramic tile center

● Still exists today

● Follows same traditions

○ Four Iwan Courtyard

■ Large arches (three walled sides)

● Iwan

■ Has own mosque and dormitory

● Safavid Dynasty 1501-1722, Persia

○ Shah Ismail 1487-1524

■ Claiming descent from Ali

■ Shiite is predominant group

■ Shanama

● Book of Kings

● Sultan Muhammad: Court of Gayumars 1525-1535

○ Brought learning and technology into the world

○ Shah Tahmasp I

■ Great emphasis on scholarship

■ Masjid-I Iman Complex 1611-1638

■ Masjid

● Mosque

■ Iwan is extremely decorative with tile work

● Enters a sahn

● Largest iwan with minarets marks mosque

■ Quibla wall was also extremely decorative with tile work

■ Muqarnas

● Greek for scales

● Not done in stucco

● Resemble stalagtites

■ Appreciation for color blue in designs

● Reflect desire for water in poor climate

● Islamic Carpets

○ Persian carpets

■ Carpet design

○ Loom

■ Warp - vertical

■ Weft - horizontal

■ Cotton, wool, silk

■ Persian carpets known for the knots in the carpet

● Determine pile, or thickness

● Thicker carpet is more valuable

● Medallion, or circular designs

○ Ardabil Carpet 1540

■ 25 million knots

■ Thought to be used in a mausoleum of a caliph

■ Mosque lamps pictured on carpet

● Water and floating candles would light mosques

● Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 1299-1922

○ Massive empire crashed at end of WWI

■ Sided with Germany, who lost at war

○ Fall of Constantinople 1453

■ Last stronghold of christianity in middle east

● Changed to Istanbul when conquered

○ Byzantine Empire (Christian)

■ Emperor Constantine moves capital to Byzantium from Rome in 330 ● Renamed Constantinople

■ Church of the Hagia Sophia 562-572

● “Holy Wisdom”

● Largest building until the rebuilding of St. Peter’s by Michelangelo ● Inspiration of islamic mosques later on in time

● Massive interior space

○ Dome has 40 interior windows

■ Pendentives

● Spherical triangles

● Support dome

● Museum today, no religious affiliation

■ Fall of Constantinople in 1453

● Sultan Mehmet II

○ Invested in Cannons to smash walls of Constantinople

○ Suleyman the Magnificent 1494-1566

■ One of the greatest rulers of the ottoman Empire

■ Tried to starve out Austria as a gateway into Europe

■ Illuminated Tughra of Sultan Suleyuman 1555-1560

● Decorative calligraphy

○ Sinan the Great 1491-1588

■ Began life as christian and converted to islam as a teenager

■ Designed well over 300 mosques

■ Designed aqueducts, bridges, madrasas, etc.

■ Selimiye Mosque 1568-1575 Edirne, Turkey

● Designed for Selim II

● Wanted to outdo hagia sophia

● Larger complex and floor plan

○ Indoor marketplace in addition to madrasa, hospital, and


○ Centralized plan

● Starburst pattern done in glazed tile work for dome

■ Topkapi Palace

● Under glazed Painted tiles

○ Come from Chinese Ming Dynasty

○ Painting on design in blue, firing, and another clear glaze

on top

○ Ottomans loved Saz style

■ Blossom pattern

■ Royal Ceremonial Caftan 1550

● Ceremonial robe

● Silk Road

○ Pass of good

○ Internet highway of ideas in ancient world

■ Religious

■ Philosophical

■ Artistic

● Harappan Civilization 2600-1750 (Indus Valley)

○ Contemporary with old kingdom egypt and mesopotamia

○ Unlike both cultures, Harappans did not produce palaces and temples ○ Mohenjo-Daro 2900-1900 BCE (Pakistan)

■ Means mound of dead or city of the dead

■ Buildings made of baked mudbrick

■ Wealthy had plumbing with running water

● Each neighborhood had their own well

● Great Bath was at center of city

○ Tar was used to seal the mudbrick to allowing it to hold the


○ Speculation about what the bath was used for

■ Made money through trading food and cotton

■ Had population of 35,000-40,000

■ No monumental sculptures found at this location

■ Robed Male Figure 2000-1900 BCE

● Unsure of representation

● Disc on forehead

○ Thought to be priest from this depiction

■ Seals 2600-1900 BCE

● Carved soapstone

● Writing in hieroglyphs that have not been able to be translated

● Bulls are typically represented

○ Become sacred animals in hindu culture

● Mark transactions are possible use

● Figures seated in a yoga position

○ Yoga means to “yoke”

■ Idea of meditation finds way into modern cultures of

hinduism and buddhism


● Vedic Period 1600-322 BCE

○ Introduced by the Aryans (Nobles)

■ Vedas (Sacred rituals)

■ Sanscrit (Language)

■ Dharma (Cosmic law)

■ Caste (Social Division)

■ Karma (Individual Action)

● Better karma, better chance to end Samsara and achieve Nirvana

■ Samsara (Endless rebirths)

■ Nirvana (Blissful nonexistence)

○ Buddha 

■ The enlightened one

● Aryan prince

■ Siddhartha Gautama

● Born 563 BCE

■ AKA Shakyamuni

● “Wise man of the Shakya clan”

● “The wheel of law”

■ Through meditation under the Bodhi ​tree, he experiences Nirvana ● Releases himself from desire

● Say all of life is suffering

■ First sermon at Sarnath, India

● Pilgrimage site for buddhists

● Maurya Dynasty 322-185 BCE

○ Chandragupta Maurya and the Greeks

■ Defeated Alexander the Great’s troops

○ King Ashoka 272-231 BCE

■ First buddhist ruler

● Military campaign was filled with slaughter

● After the campaign, he began to study Buddah

○ Lion Column 243 BCE Pataliputra, India

■ Site of Ashoka’s palace

■ Columns with sanscrit emphasizing a world of nonviolence and to follow path of Buddha

■ Tops of columns were mostly lions, but sometimes bulls

● Lions were associated with royalty

● Lion Capital 243 BCE

○ Polished sandstone

○ Detailed

○ Inverted lotus bud

■ Important in many depictions of Buddha

● White coloring associated with purity of


● Represented by chakra,​ or wheel

○ Great Stupa Sanchi, India 1st Century BCE

■ Buddha’s ashes inside according to culture

■ Mounds of earth surrounded by fence usually

■ Largest and best preserved stupa

● Covered in brick and limestone

■ Vedika

● Imitates wooden fence that had now been translated into stone

● Separates physical from spiritual world

■ Torana

● Stone gates

● Richly carved

● Depiction of Buddah is empty throne with Bodhi tree behind

○ Yakshi

■ Female goddess

■ Associated with fertility

■ Tribbanga pose

● Three bend pose

■ Circumambulation

● Walking in circular motion trying to follow path of Buddha towards enlightenment

○ Chaity Hall Karli, India 1st Century BCE

■ Cut into living rock

■ Originally had entrance walls, but not many are still intact

■ Enter and walk around stupa inside

● Mithuna

○ Loving couples representing unification of 2 sexes

○ Images of Buddha

■ Ushnisha

● headdress

■ Urna

● Dot on forehead

○ Both are symbols of abosulte knowledge

■ Have Long, large earlobes

■ Mudras

● Symbolic hand gestures

● Kushan Empire 30-320 BCE

○ Capital: Peshwar, Gandhara

○ Mahayana Buddhism

■ Simplified buddhism

■ Appealed to masses

○ Located right along silk route

○ Gandhara Style: Meditating Buddha

■ Hands folded

● Praying mudra

● Echos to influence of ancient roman gods

○ Idealism

○ Standing Bodhisattva 2nd Century CE

■ One about to step into nirvana, but resists to help others achieve nirvana ■ NEVER mistake for Buddha

■ Subject wears jewelry, Buddha does not

○ Standing Buddha 2nd Century CE

■ Swooping drapery

● Roman influence

■ Orb around head

○ Life and Death Frieze of Buddha 2nd Century

■ Born by Maya’s hip

■ Underneath Bodhi tree understanding people’s suffering

● Roman influence of relief sculpture

■ Parinirvana

● Death and nirvana

● Mathuran Style (Southern Kushan Empire)

○ Seated Buddha 2nd Century

■ Soft flesh

■ Sanghati

● Monk’s robe

■ Bodhi tree in background

■ Ord to suggest superiority.

● Gupta Period 319-500 CE

○ King Chandrgupta 

■ Seated Buddha Preaching the First Sermon 2nd Century

● Soft body of Mathuran Style

● Curly hair of Gandhara Style

○ Most common depiction of Buddha

○ Ajanta Cave Art 2nd Century

■ Horseshoe shaped

■ Fresco paintings

● Painting on wet plaster

● The Beautiful Bodhisattva Padmapani 

○ Chaotic activity surrounding subject

○ Subject with dreamy facial expression

● Spread of Buddhist Art

○ Colossal Buddha 2nd-5th Century CE Afghanistan

■ Carved into cliffside

■ Destroyed by Taliban in 2001

● Wanted to destroy previous religious figures

■ Anastylosis

● Combining original pieces with modern materials

● Island of Sri Lanka

○ Well known for rock cut sculptures

○ Anada Attending the Paranirvana of Buddha, 11th century CE ■ Religious shrine

■ Paranirvana

● Death and nirvana

■ Often sculptures like these will be treated like a human figure and be draped with cloth

■ Anada

● Buddha’s cousin and disciple

■ Gupta style

● Fleshy face and thin sanghadi

● Southeast Asia, Island of Java, Indonesia

○ Indonesia has largest muslim population in world

○ Boroudur, Jave, 8th century CE

■ Carved on low hill

■ Largest stupa

■ Volcanic rock

● Light when first being worked with, but the longer it is exposed to

oxygen, the more dense it becomes

■ Sculptor unknown

■ Over 10 miles of relief sculptures

● Human beings and suffering on bottom two levels

● Next four tiers are the life of Buddha

● Top tiers are cosmic or circular zone

○ Bell shaped stupas are found in this area

■ Depicting poses of buddha

■ Central Stupa is empty

● Symbolizes Buddha reaching blissful


○ “Taking path” of Buddha

■ Based on Mandala

● Sacred circular diagram of the universe


● Hinduism is older than buddhism

○ Dominant religion in India

● Hindu God

○ Shiva 

■ Destroyer/Creator

○ Vishnu 

■ Preserver of the universe

■ Often shown with boar head

■ Has thousands of avatars

○ Devi 

■ Great Goddess

■ Said to have given birth to all other gods and goddesses

■ Symbolize beauty, power, and wrath

○ Avatar

■ Various forms a god can take

○ Rasa

■ Taste or flavor you have received by contemplating (spiritual)

○ Bhakti

■ Vision you would receive through contemplation or actions from god or goddess

● Boar Avatar of Vishnu Rescuing the Earth, Udayagrir Cave 5th Century ○ Earth symbolized by female figure in his mouth

○ Anata

■ Coiled serpent Vishnu is defeating

● Dancing Shiva. Badami, India 6th century CE

○ Hindu gods often shown with multiple limbs

■ Shows power

○ Shiva dancing world into existence

○ Son as an elephant

■ Symbolizes good luck

● Shiva Mahadeva, Elephanta Island 550-575

○ “Shiva of the three faces”

○ Large carved sculpture of elephant to be named Elephanta

○ Left - female face

■ Creation

○ Right - male face

■ Destruction

○ Shiva’s original face in center balances

● Medieval Kingdoms

○ Chandela - N, Cholas - S

○ Rock-cut Temples, Mamallapuram, India, 7th century CE

■ Pilgrimage site

■ Rath

● Hindu temple

● Translates to “chariots of the gods”

○ May help to transport people to nirvana

■ Some scholars believe that this may have been an architectural school for architects to come and study

■ Sculpture of king, Malma

■ Pyramidal tower of largest structure has many shrines

○ Descent of the Ganges, Mamallapuram 7th century CE

■ Several interpretations of the relief sculpture

● Scholars believe the relief sculpture represents the creation of the Ganges river

○ Sacred river for hindus

■ Crevice said to be created by shiva’s hair bringing water to earth.

○ Kailasanantha Temple, Ellora, India 757-790 CE

■ Chandela kingdom

■ 400,000 tons removed to create temple complex

■ Approximate size of a football field

■ Gopura

● Entrance gate

● Separates physical and spiritual

■ Nandi Shrine

● Shrine for bull which serves as the mount of the god Shiva

■ Mandapa

● Assembly hall

● Supported on backs of elephants

■ Vimana

● Central tower

● Marks where shine is located in temple

● Marks site of the Garbhagriha

○ Translates to womb chamber

○ Contains the Lingam​ of Shiva

○ tubular shape to circumambulate and contemplate Shiva’s


● Hindu temples of southern India

○ Rajarajaeshvara Temple to Shive, Thanjavar, 1010 CE

■ Created by King Rajaraja I

● Ruled 985-1014

■ Mandapas in south have flat roofs unlike north

● Interior very dark and dimmed

■ Vimana is visual overload

■ Stupika

● Crown of the vimana

● Hindu temples of northern India

○ Chandarya Mahadeva Temple, Kharajuraho, India

■ Covered with plaster to represent the snow on the Himalayas

● Where all gods and goddess come from

■ Sikara

● Bulging form rising up with starburst pattern on top

● Lingam of Shiva includes yuni

○ Female form

○ Unification of male and female

■ Mithunas (loving couples) and apsaras (supernatural females) cover walls ■ Vishnu and Lakshimi 

● Tribenga pose

■ Kama Sutra 

● Hindu art of love

● Sexual acts are related to spiritual acts

● Shiva as Nataraja 1000 CE

○ Shiva of the dance

○ Bronze

○ Would be clothed and fed at home

■ Treated like a human

○ Flames around in ring represent destruction

○ Dwarf being stood on

■ Represents destroying ignorance

○ Mudras

■ Hand gesture

● “Fear not”6

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