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MIZZOU / History / HIST 2210 / What does individualism uphold?

What does individualism uphold?

What does individualism uphold?


School: University of Missouri - Columbia
Department: History
Course: Twentieth Century America
Professor: John bullion
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Progressivism, WWI, greatdepression, and Immigration
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 2210 Exam #1Study Guide
Description: Turn of the 20th century through the Great Depression
Uploaded: 02/11/2017
13 Pages 61 Views 4 Unlocks

HIST 2210 Exam #1 Study Guide

What is individualism?

Key Terms

1. Limited government

a. Turn of the 20th Century- Federal government had very weak power with stronger, more individual state government power

b. Women, African Americans, Immigrants, Native Americans and 18 year olds couldn’t vote at the turn of the 20th century

c. Belief in the Free Market and Laissez-faire

d. Problem: The ideal of equal opportunity and power to become successful became less realistic due to corruption in the government

2. Individualism

a. A belief in freedom of Americans from traditional constraints; encouraged everyone to be unique and to resist conformity (cultural belief) We also discuss several other topics like Is the state the central action in ir?

b. Encouraged the idea of limited government so people could have more individual freedom

3. “Becoming white”

What individualism mean?

a. Initially- superior, tall, blonde, blue-eyed race that came from the first wave of immigrants

b. Believed to be better than Italians, Jews, Slavs and Irish

c. 2nd Wave immigrants could “become white” if you made a name for yourself by becoming successful economically and assimilated into “American” culture

4. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896

a. Homer Plessy refused to sit in a segregated train car (deliberately challenging the law), arrested and went to court to plead his case to the Supreme Court (argued that he was only 1/4th black and had 3 white grandparents)

b. Statute upheld that separate railway cars were allowed (separate but equal!!!) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of white matter in the brain?
If you want to learn more check out What is “international politics”?

5. Political parties at the turn of the 20th century

What is a limited government?

a. Democrats

i. The South (Old Confederacy); white supremacists, Northern Urban Areas (ethnic workers, Catholics); believed that African Americans should not be able to vote

b. Republicans

i. Pennsylvania, rural Northeaster/Upper Midwest; Protestants,

Native-Born Middle Classes, African Americans

c. Remember, the parties’ beliefs/demographics didn’t switch until 1936 (under Roosevelt’s New Deal)


6. “First Wave Immigrants”

a. Superior, tall, blonde, blue-eyed race (believed to be better than Italians, Jews, Slavs and Irish- who were not seen as “fully white”)

b. From Western European nations (Britain, France, Germany)

7. “New/Second wave” immigrants

a. “Second wave” immigrants

i. 1900: Majority of immigration problems were associated with Eastern and Southern European nations

ii. Lack of English skills

iii. Very different from American customs (foods, alcohol and religion) 8. Class structure at turn of the century

a. No formal structure like in Europe but… We also discuss several other topics like What is a theory and how does it work?

b. Elite Upper Class

i. 200 families who were the heads of giant corporations

ii. Capitalist Elite: Rockefellers, Morgans, Carnegies

1. Make large displays of their wealth and almost all had British

ancestry, highly educated and Protestant

c. Middle Class

i. Tradition Household: wife/mother did not have to work outside the home because the husband/father provided enough for the family (white families)

ii. African Americans: many contemplated to leave the segregated south (had separate opportunities for blacks) and move north to face a more competitive market for professions

1. Based Middle Class on hard work rather than income

iii. Women

1. Unmarried women worked as secretaries, librarians, telephone operators, etc, but typically left these jobs once married

d. Working Class

i. Divided by gender, ethnicity and race (overall, very diverse)

1. Common Laborers: non-white/immigrant men who did unskilled day labor; worked on a day-to-day pay

2. Domestic Servants: non-white/immigrant women

3. Machine Operatives: young, immigrant women

a. Belief that women were better at working machines

because they had “nimble fingers” and they were less likely If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of structuration?

to come to work drunk (more productive, reliable and less If you want to learn more check out Dendrochronology means what?

likely to cause accidents)


9. Family Wage

a. Ideology: A man should be paid a high enough wage to support his entire family so that the wife/mother and/or children should not have to work b. Reality: millions of middle class women were working because wages were too low

10.American Federation of Labor (AFL)

a. Skilled workers (white, native-born men)

b. Tended to be paid higher wages and formed the beginning of the union labor movement

c. Knew that they had more influence on their jobs because they weren’t as easily dismissible as the unorganized, unskilled laborers

d. Believed that white women should not be in the work force

11.Characteristics of Progressivism (Private v. Public Power for Progressives) a. Generally believed that the functioning of the free market and equal opportunity ideal has been corrupted by wealth and power being in the hands of the few elite

i. Solution: concentrate on increase in public power to counteract private power (people vs. interests of large business)

b. Reform city government and capitalism, electoral reform and working conditions

c. Social Reform: Women’s rights, modernize rural life and conservation 12.Contradictions of Progressivism

a. Exclusion of African Americans with Progressive Reform

b. Progressives were more concerned with improving the lives of “whites” 13.Justice vs. Order

a. Progressives wanted to bring rational order out of the chaos brought about by urbanization and industrialization (against radical reform)

14.Campaign against Child Labor

a. Concern about how rapidly society was changing due to disbelief that children were working

b. Reformers targeted employers and parents (argued it was bad for the future of America because children were not receiving proper education) c. 1918: Hammer v. Dagenhart: national child labor law ruled

unconstitutional, Congress had no right to regulate business federally d. Courts became more adamant about preventing children from working i. However, this movement fails when Progressives try to make this a national law


15.Class and Leisure

a. Free time is a new concept for Americans

b. Urban Middle Class

i. Importance of culture; parlor time, attending concerts, etc.

ii. Viewed as a social uplift (time to be used to improve themselves intellectually)

c. Working Class

i. Most went to the streets, saloons, sporting events, parks, dance halls, etc. (didn’t stay in their low-quality homes for free time)

d. Conflicts for Progressives: wanted to reform city/state laws to shut down working class leisure activities because they were considered “immoral actions”

i. Eventually, national action was required (later lead to Prohibition) 16.Social insurance (ex. Workman’s comp)

a. The economy needed a regulator to prevent extreme highs/downfalls b. Workman’s Comp

i. Hundreds of railroad workers were killed on average per month and many more were injured as well

ii. However, workers could sue the employer… but it cost a lot of money to sue, time and legal understanding

iii. Solution: Workman’s Comp: workers would give up the right to sue their employer in return for monetary compensation

1. Created by the American Association for Labor Legislation

17.Mother’s pensions

a. Funds used to help poor mother’s support their children

18.Lochner v. New York

a. 1896: Workers got legislation that limited bakers to 10 hr day/6 days/week b. 1905: Lochner appealed to State courts claiming that it interfered with employer/employee negotiations

i. Defense Lawyer: Claimed that the long work hours, before the regulation law in 1896, harmed the workers’ health

c. Federal Supreme Court overturned the original decision

i. Violated due process clause

ii. This set back Progressive legislation but they don’t give up… 4

19.Muller v. Oregon

a. 1903 Oregon law limiting women to working 10 hours/day

b. Federal Ruling: women need special protection in the workplace (Separate from Lochner v. New York)

i. Healthy mothers are vital to public interest (based on statistical and physiological research/evidence used to show harmful effects of long working hours)

ii. Became known as a “Protective Labor Law”

iii. This allowed employers to ban women from certain areas of work 20.“Protective Labor Law”

a. For women only due to constitutional constraints which gave Congress very little power to pass regulations

21.Jim Crow

a. Laws written in the South to separate blacks and white in public areas b. Targeted African Americans to have unequal opportunities in housing, work, education and government (poll taxes and literacy tests)

22.Booker T. Washington

a. Founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881

b. Wanted to teach emancipated slaves trades to help them find work c. Atlanta Compromise (1895)

i. Whites needed to respect black desires to improve their situation and in return, blacks would respect white desires for racial segregation ii. Many white, American philanthropists agreed with this ideology d. Disagrees with Ida B. Wells because he believed women should not become politically active

23.Ida B. Wells

a. A fierce critic of Booker T. Washington and argued that he put the blame of racial segregation on African Americans themselves

b. 1892: 3 African Americans were lynched and Wells believed they were killed because they were considered business competition for whites i. Concluded that most people were not lynched for rape accusations but instead because of racial power

ii. Wrote a book titled: Lynch Law in All Its Phases

c. Moved to Chicago after death threats and attacks on her home i. Campaigned to make lynching a federal crime (already illegal but states were not enforcing punishment)


24.W.E.B. DuBois

a. Argued that the solution for African Americans struggles was for them to have equal citizenship as that of white Americans

b. Believed that African Americans needed to fight for full democratic rights 25.Lynching

a. Killing without legal sanction (targeted African Americans)

b. See Ida B. Wells info. (very outspoken against lynchings of blacks) 26.Triangle Fire

a. Aftermath: New Yorkers turned to broader State-level reform to prevent future incidents

b. Factory Investigative Commission (FIC) created

i. Successful because it was an alliance of local machine politicians and Progressive Reformers

c. See end of study guide for more notes...

27.Machine Politics

a. Political Machines: in charge of huge payrolls and depended on a loyal constituency of voters

b. Also served the business community

i. Provided licensing for businesses and tolerant police force,

community need lenient business inspectors

c. Some workers supported political machines because they provided informal and unsystematic services for people in need

i. Remember- no social safety net for citizens at the same time d. Progressives did NOT like political machines

i. Believed that the government was being run inefficiently due to corruption that harmed the majority of citizens

28.Municipal Reform

a. Civil Service Exams: Progressives believed government should hire people based on who was the most qualified (not by “connections”) b. Electoral Fraud: Introduction of the secret ballot

i. People voted privately at the polls and would receive unbiased ballots with both parties’ nominations

29.Progressive Internationalism

a. Borrow ideas from Europe (ex- Settlement housing and social insurance) b. US seen as a second-rate power in the 1880’s but slowly gaining more influence internationally

c. Result of American victory in the Spanish-American War

d. US doesn’t like 19th Century Colonialism by European Powers 6

30.Debates about imperialism

a. Con: feared that colonial commitments would hurt maintenance of democratic liberty at home

b. Pro: some believed that colonialism abroad would strengthen military security and was necessary for trade

c. Progressive Occupation

i. Believed American annexation would be different from European colonialism due to fundamental beliefs

ii. “White Man’s Burden”: The US would occupy the territories in the best interest of bring social justice, order and progress to

underdeveloped areas of the world (not for self-gain like Europe) 31.Platt Amendment (1902)

a. Gave the US the right to intervene if the internal structure of Cuba was compromised (remained in effect until 1934)

b. Perpetual lease on Guantanamo Bay

32.Woodrow Wilson

a. Progressive, Democratic President: 1913-1921

b. Proposed laws for regulation of industry at the NATIONAL level c. Beliefs

i. Democracy was the most effective form of government

ii. All people are capable of self-government because all people are born for the capacity for learning how to do so

iii. Contradictions: didn’t support women’s suffrage and created more segregation, ignored lynchings and disenfranchisement of African Americans due to the Jim Crow Laws

d. Wanted to remain neutral for as long as possible during WWI i. Once in WWI, hoped to spread Progressive ideals internationally 33.League of Nations

a. Final point of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points; wanted mutual guarantees of independence for European countries 

b. Wilson didn’t bring any Republicans with him to the Paris Peace Talks and so none of the Republicans supported US involvement in the League i. Seen as defeat for Progressivism and the peak of the movement ii. Wilson believed that the Treaty was both “too harsh” & “too lenient”


34.Fourteen Points

a. Clashed with the Treaty of Versailles; multiple, broad international peace guidelines (6 points), League of Nations (US would not join later) and advocated for “Self-determination”- recognition of all countries (in Europe) of their existence

b. 1-5: Open diplomacy, free trade, arms reduction

c. 6-13: National Sovereignty

d. 14: League of Nations

35.National Sovereignty

a. The concept that countries have the ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference (1 of Wilson’s 14 pts) 36.Treaty of Versailles

a. Treaty that ended WWI; blamed Germany for WWI and called for harsh punishment (put Germany into extreme debt)

b. Later affected Western Europe and America because the Germans couldn’t pay the war debt and so national and international economies failed leading to a global depression

c. Terms discussed at the Paris Peace Talks

d. Popular opinion favored the Treaty and League but politicians believed Wilson’s ideas would weaken the US vs. the world

37.Progressives and World War I

a. Saw WWI as an opportunity for national reform- in the name of helping support the war effort

b. Woodrow Wilson insisted that US involvement could help shape the peaceful outcome of the war along with Progressive-idealistic goals i. Wanted to let all nations be self-governed; free of colonial rule c. Encouraged Free trade (economic liberalism)

38.WWI effects on Progressivism

a. After WWI, there was backlash against reform

i. Possibly because reform (Progressive ideals) was only possible during the war in unusual circumstances

39.Selective Service (the Draft)

a. Used to increase military from 100,000 to 5 million soldiers

b. Created opportunities for Progressives to further reform in government i. Variety of men brought under unified command

ii. Prohibition around areas of training camps paved the way for national Prohibition

iii. Voluntary Changes: All this was done to help win the war and Progressives hoped that this will continue on after the war ended


40.Committee on Public Information (CPI) (Creel Committee)

a. Distributed millions of pamphlets that explained government policy to help gain support for the war (war propaganda)

b. When stories of brutality of Germans were proved untrue after WWI, many Americans didn’t trust information concerning Germany and the Holocaust during WWII

41.Espionage Act (1917)

a. Restricted freedom of speech to “protect” US troops; this pissed off suffragists and lead to picketing, jail and force feeding

b. Made it a crime to hinder the war effort or aid the enemy

42.Sedition Act (1918)

a. Criminalized criticism of the war; a more extreme version of the Espionage Act; the Committee on Public Information was created to enforce this act b. Defined “Disloyal Speech”: speaking, acting or printing against the war c. Displayed Americans will power to sacrifice free speech in order to secure freedom through the war

43.Great Migration

a. Shift of African Americans from rural South to urban North

b. During the war: Blacks were recruited to work in the north

i. Still earned less than whites but more than Blacks in the south ii. Whites went to war and blacks filled in the vacant jobs

44.Food Administration/Herbert Hoover

a. Wilson appointed Herbert Hoover to head the Food Administration to deal with food shortages during WWI

i. Appealed to housewives with “meatless” and “wheatless” days to encourage people to save food

45.Red Scare

a. Intense backlash against radical reform and people were associated with the Russian revolutionary communists (“Reds”)

b. Anti-radicalism: People viewed radicalism as an international threat c. Series of homemade bombs allowed the Palmer Raids to occur 46.A. Mitchell Palmer

a. Attorney General, an anti-Communist extremist

b. Palmer Raids: 1919-1920; responded to labor unrest and anarchist violence by targeting Communists during the First Red Scare; Raided meetings and headquarters, arrested and deported several hundred radicals without regards for civil liberties; However, it was Italian anarchists that were attacking, not “Communists”


47.Russian Revolution/Bolshevik Revolution

a. Russia struggled to keep up with Western Europe in terms of political reform and technological advancements

b. March 1917: Tsar Nicholas II overthrown; provisional government set up i. America optimistic about this revolution because they believed that Russia was going to follow American path of democratic revolution c. November 1917: Bolshevik Revolution

i. Vladimir Lenin leads Marxist Revolution; believed that eventually pure communism would occur (in theory); preached world revolution ii. Americans then became concerned because this revolution attacked core American values which Americans feared that other European nations would look to Russia instead of the American Revolution when setting up their own country

48.J. Edgar Hoover

a. First Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); founded the present form of the FBI and remained director for 48 years until his death b. Ambitious assistant of Palmer before becoming director of FBI and helped with the Palmer Raids; put in charge of fighting against radicals in the US during the Red Scare and after World War I

49.Effects of the Red Scare

a. Immigration Act of 1917 (intensified by the Red Scare and WWI) i. Required literacy trusts and installs the Asiatic Barred Zone

b. Immigration Act of 1921 (after the Red Scare)

i. Established quotas with 3% of nationality present in the 1910 census c. Progressivism: overall, reform spirit subsides

i. Wilson’s 14 points rejected

ii. Need for 100% Americanism

1. Shift from “home” to “foreign” reasons for American problems 2. Reformers denounced as radicals

iii. Violence at home: race riots, disruptive labor strikes, letter bombs 50.Asiatic Barred Zone

a. Immigration Act of 1917: required literacy trusts and excluded people from Asia and included India, Afghanistan, Persia and Iran

b. Initiated because Americans were concerned with losing their sovereignty 10

51.Immigration Acts of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act)

a. Sponsored by Congressman Albert Johnson and Senator David Reed; determined that the yearly immigration quota would not exceed 2% of the US total for each nationality in 1890; sometimes known as “Immigration Reform”

b. Restricted immigrants specifically from southern and eastern Europe c. However, Mexican and Caribbean immigration increases


a. “Overthrow” Victorian morality

b. Belief in knowledge from science rather than religion

c. Pleasure vs. restrain/repression

d. Emphasis on consumer society

53.Consumer Culture (Consumer Society)

a. Shift in popular values; influenced by mass media (radio and magazines) b. Increase in advertising (more dramatic because the system was not heavily regulated)

54.Advertising Parables

a. Stories with a moral lesson

i. Parable of the First Impression (hygiene, clothing, etc.)

ii. Parable of Democracy of Goods

1. Belief that mass production made it possible for all Americans to enjoy all the luxuries of American society (of the time)

55.Home economist

a. A term used to describe the role of women in the 1920s

b. Women’s suffrage was taken into consideration with ads


a. Used racial prejudice to encourage whites to purchase products and that African Americans were house servants

i. Ads like “Aunt Jemima” were used to portray this idea

57.Stock Market Crash

a. October 29, 1929; the beginning of the Great Depression when the stock market crashed

b. the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.


58.Unemployment during the Great Depression

a. People became sick more often and malnutrition increased

b. Unemployment rates skyrocketed after the Stock Market Crash (up to 32% unemployed during the height of the Great Depression)

c. Herbert Hoover believed that America would naturally bounce back from the Great Depression and said that it Americans’ own fault for not having a job if they were unemployed

d. Bonus Army marched to Washington demanding payment for service in the military during WWI (payment was scheduled to be paid much later than when men demanded), sent away by MacArthur through violent force 59.Racial cast to unemployment

a. “Black Cabinet” created by FDR made up of African Americans who advised Roosevelt on minority state of the country

b. African American women were no longer hired for domestic jobs due to lower incomes of white families

c. Minorities and whites alike were in competition with one another for a declining number of jobs

60.Women’s employment during the Great Depression

a. Women had to try to find jobs since many husbands were laid off and couldn’t provide for the family; many women were abandoned by their husbands who then left women as the sole provider for their families

b. Fathers left and families broke up; quality of family life decreased 61.Mexican Repatriation

a. Special law authorized by President Hoover to send Mexican-American immigrants back to Mexico. More than half a million Mexican-Americans were forcibly sent back to Mexico during the Great Depression, many of whom were lawful American citizens, separated from their families


Triangle Fire Important Information 

● Triangle Shirtwaist Factory: burned down on March 25th, 1911 in NYC ● Important Events Preceding the Fire

○ Factory owners were greedy and immoral who resorted to anything to stay in the competitive production market (greedy political machine)

○ Workers had gone on strike the previous year after demanding safer and more sanitary working conditions

○ Building was made out of wood and had one staircase (according to city regulation, the building should have had three staircases)

● Immediate Causes of the fire and deaths

○ Fire Cause

■ A furnace caught fire first on the 8th floor

■ The material used to make shirtwaists were highly flammable which allowed the fire to spread quickly along with the flammable oil used to run the machines

○ Death Causes

■ Narrow/unstable fire escapes

■ No water system in the building to put out fires

■ Many women burned to death or jumped out of the building

● Important Consequences and Larger Significance of the Fire ○ 146 people died

○ 400,000 people saw the funeral march for the 8 unknown victims and this pulled together people of all different backgrounds to create more preventative/safety regulations for present and future factories

○ Every public official described themselves to be appalled by the tragedy but all denied individual fault or departmental responsibility

■ Resolutions occurred but the public wanted more reform 


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