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UF / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANT 2301 / How is japan education different from america?

How is japan education different from america?

How is japan education different from america?

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Week 4


How is japan education different from america?



Lock, M. (1998)

Menopause Lessons from Anthropology

̣ Introduction

○ Assumed that biological changes associated with menopause are essentially universal and that differences in the subjective experience of individual women can be accounted for by variation among psychological, social, and cultural factors

○ Anthropologists look at menopause as cultural, as well as biological ■ Symptoms of menopause vary among different countries/cultures

○ A decline in health is not inherently associated with post reproductive female life

■ Living conditions and lifestyles contribute to a healthy old age

○ Balance between postmenopausal women and their health

̣ Menopause as Cultural Construct We also discuss several other topics like Why is globalization important?

○ Menopause best understood as a construct


What are the stages of maturity?



■ Equivalent to the end of menstruation

○ Once thought of as declining of age and health

̣ Cross-Cultural Research on Menopause

○ Some women in different cultures report no symptoms

○ Menopause should be interpreted as a biocultural event

○ Diet and reproductive history (many births) are common among women who don’t experience symptoms

○ Family history also an influence

̣ Japan, Canada, and The United States: A Comparative Study

○ Significant difference in symptoms among women in Japan, Canada, and the US

■ Japanese women had far less symptoms

● Japanese women have healthier lifestyles and a longer life If you want to learn more check out What does the statement of financial position communicate to the users of financial information?

expectancy

● Diet is low in fat and high in protein


What is the evolutionary reason for menopause?



̣ The Cultural Construction of Konenki If you want to learn more check out What is the formula used to find coterminal angles for a number in radians?

○ Konenki is Japanese word referring to “menopause”

○ Japanese women mostly housewives

■ Taking care of home and others

■ Slightly more symptoms than women who work outside the house, but that is probably due to the intensive caring they do for children and

elderly relatives

̣ Maturation for Society

○ In Japan, movement through the life cycle, in theory, is experienced subjectively in terms of how one’s relationships with other people shift through time

■ For women particularly, life is expected to become meaningful according to their accomplishments for others rather than for themselves

̣ Creating the Discourse of Konenki

○ Prior definitions (Japan)

■ “stale blood” in the body

■ A transition in the life cycle for both genders, regardless of age

■ Disturbances in the autonomic nervous system

○ Now

■ Seen as different than menopause

● Stiff shoulders, ringing in ears, headaches, dizziness (konenki)

○ the construction of knowledge and associated medical practices in Japan about the end of menstruation, both professional and popular, is remarkably different from that in North America Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three ways to form magma?

■ Due to subjective experience of japanese women

● “Local biologies”

○ Work together w culturally infused knowledge

● Diet

● Genetics

̣ Menopause as Biocultural Adaptation

○ Monkeys experience menopause about two thirds of their life cycle is completed, like human females

■ Adaptation from monkey to human

○ Argument that menopause evolved around 1.5 million years ago, the result of selective pressures in favor of females who became prematurely infertile ○ Grandmother Hypothesis

■ Post reproductive life in human females was advantageous because, similar to apes, older members of society, unhampered by dependent infants, provided group protection

■ Studies show women can collect more food if they leave infants in care of older women

● Short freedom from infant beneficial

○ Women of post reproductive age have had a major contributory role in society that was probably biologically adaptive since the evolution of contemporary humankind

■ So, menopause cannot be disposed of as a biological anomaly

̣ Postmenopausal Life as Cultural Artifact

○ Life span has increased over time Don't forget about the age old question of What is the punishment for status offense?

■ Lifestyle large effect

○ To separate the postulated effects of menopause from aging processes in general and to target declining estrogen levels for medicalization is to

inappropriately transform an as yet poorly understood biosocial process into one of simple cause and effect relationships

○ Need to pay more attention to the women who live in good health to an advanced old age without medical intervention

○ Menopause frequently described today as a deficiency disease or as ovarian failure

■ Younger female body set as standard for all

■ Biological and social differences among all cultures are ignored when determining what menopause is and how it comes to be

○ Data in this study strongly suggests that culturally mediated lifestyles also make a major contribution to the health of women as they age 

Week 5

Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000)

The Five Sexes, Revisited

̣ Cheryl Chase

○ Shared her personal experience of being intersexed, and the consequences she has to live with because of a decision placed on her at birth

○ Her speech was a watershed in the evolving discussion about how to treat children with ambiguous genitalia

̣ Intersex

○ Platonic (the ideal two genders)

■ Males have an X and a Y chromosome, testes, penis, and all

appropriate internal “plumbing” for delivering urine and semen outside If you want to learn more check out What is an example of an independent event?

the body.

● Characteristics include muscular and facial hair

■ Women have two X chromosomes, ovaries, all internal “plumbings” to transport urine and ova outside the body, a system to support

pregnancy and fetal development

● Characteristics include higher voices, smaller than men

■ Those with a mix of these two are called intersexuals

■ After research, for every 1,000 children born, 17 were intersexual

̣ Born intersex

○ Physicians have been the ones to define children as intersexual, and provided the remedies to “fix” it

○ When only the chromosomes are unusual, but the external genitalia and gonads clearly indicate male or female, physicians do not advocate intervention ○ When born with mixed genitalia, physicians interfere

■ Encourage parents to raise child according to the gender chosen to be assigned in the surgery

○ John Money’s research

■ A boy was born and lost his penis in a circumcision incident

■ Doctors recommended they would change him to a female, and the parents should raise the previous boy as a girl

■ Joan (born as John) grew up to love dresses and having her hair done ■ However, when an adult, changed name to David and rejected his female assignment

○ Surgeries now preformed reduce sexual sensitivity in the genitalia ̣ Failed Reassignments

○ Failed reassignment surgeries have led to an increasing number of pediatric endocrinologists, uroligsts and psychologists to reexamine the wisdom of early genital surgery

○ Laurence B. McCullough

■ argues that the various forms of intersexuality should be defined as normal, and not as diseases themselves

■ Urges physicians to abandon their practice of treating the birth of a child with genital ambiguity as a medical or social emergency

● Treatment should be therapy style, not surgery

○ Author believes treatment should combine some basic medical and ethical principles with a practical but less drastic approach to the birth of a mixed-sex child

■ Surgery should only occur if the child’s life is at stake

■ Should understand that the child may reject their assigned sex

■ Parents should have full access to the full range of information and options available to them

○ Max Beck

■ Born intersexual

■ Assigned a female

■ Got married to a man, then came out as a lesbian

■ Divorced, then became a man, and married a lesbian

○ Sex and gender are best conceptualized as points in a multidimensional space ○ Gender identity emerges from a cellular, hormonal, and anatomical level, as sex once was determined by

̣ Medical and Scientific Communities

○ A classification system supports the idea that human beings are an absolutely dimorphic species

○ It is a goal of professionals to establish a new sex nomenclature ■ One proposal under consideration replaces the current system with emotionally neutral terminology that emphasizes developmental

processes rather than preconceived gender categories

̣ Modern Times

○ Since 1993, modern society has moved beyond five sexes to a recognition that gender variation is normal and, for some people, an area for playful exploration

○ Author believes it would be better for intersexuals and their supporters to turn everyone’s focus away from genitals

■ To acknowledge that people come in an even wider assortment of sexual identities and characteristics than mere genitals can distinguish ○ A step to this is to eliminate category of gender from official documents

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