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AU / History / HIST 1020 / Who controls north america?

Who controls north america?

Who controls north america?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: World History, history, Urbanization, and industrialization
Cost: 50
Name: History 1020 Unit I Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all of the important and big topics from this unit.
Uploaded: 02/12/2017
10 Pages 163 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


History 1020 Unit I Study Guide


Who controls north america?



Jon Connor Davis

This study guide covers Unit I notes. I recommend reading the book for further understanding  and memory. Also look at the Essay questions to prepare!

World at 1750:

Geography and Politics:  

What two Eastern empires are in Isolation? Japan and China

Who controls the Middle East? Ottoman Empire

Who controls North America? Native Americans

Trade:

What makes the Caribbean Islands so valuable? Sugar production, coffee, and slaves What does China produce? Tea, silk, porcelain

What does India produce? Cotton, opium

What does North America produce? Furs and tobacco

The Seven Years war:

Monarchs want to get rich


What makes the caribbean islands so valuable?



Battle of Plassey in India gives who more control in India?  

a. British  

b. French

c. Indians

d. Chinese

British push many of the French out of North America, taking what forts? Ticonderoga We also discuss several other topics like What was the purpose of the peace of augsburg?

Duquesne

What is the Public Sphere?

- an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify  societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

- What developed as a result of this public Sphere?

a. industrialization

b. Coffee House Culture

c. Scientific Revolution

d. Radicalization

Enlightenment:  

What brought about the Enlightenment? The Printing Press


What is the public sphere?



What was the Scientific Revolution?

- A shift between the 15th and 17th centuries away from Ancient Greek explanations for  the structure and phenomena of the physical world and toward study based on sensory  observations. Don't forget about the age old question of How do scientists from seti hope to find and communicate with aliens?

What is a paradigm?

- a conceptual or methodological model underlying the theories and practices of a  science or discipline at a particular time, hence a generally accepted worldview.

What person didn’t cause a shift in paradigm?

a. Copernicus If you want to learn more check out What are the types of crime?

b. Galileo

c. Horatio Nelson

d. Isaac Newton

Moral Economy:

-Hume, Smith, and Kant debate whether there is a moral Code.  

- Voltaire, Rousseau, and Paine argue that a moral code can be created through the use  of reason

Who wrote The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire?

- Edward Gibbon

The Enlightenment provided a new framework for viewing the world.  

What are some Enlightenment ideologies?

- Republicans: conservatism

- Democrats: liberalism

- Utopianism: a hypothetical place, state of existence, or system in which everything is  perfect, especially in respect of social structure, laws, and politics

- Abolitionism: belief that the slave trade should be abolished.  

- Capitalism: An economic system in which private capital wealth is used in the  production or distribution of goods and prices.  We also discuss several other topics like What are the implications of glocalization and grobalization with regard to homogeneity or heterogeneity of cultures and the ability of local communities to adapt and/or shape globalization processes?

Who wrote the Wealth of Nations?

a. Louis IX

b. Voltaire

c. Adam Smith

d. Edward Gibbon

Free Trade:

- Trade or commerce conducted without the interference of customs duties designed to  restrict imports or subsidies to encourage local production

Mercantilism:

- The idea that there is a finite amount of wealth in the world, and a nations power is  tied to its ability to gain a larger share of that wealth is tied to its ability to find a favorable  balance of trade. If you want to learn more check out How long does it take to travel a light minute?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the broad themes related to the evolution of the first amendment in u.s. history?

What is the system where peasants work in fields and profits to a Manor, and the Church? a. Manorial System

b. Liberalism

c. Mercantalism

d. Cottage industry

American Revolution

Aspects of Salutary Neglect:

-British colonies left to govern themselves

- Rise of Colonial assemblies

- Mercantalist policies

- Rise of the bourgeoisie

Pontiac’s Rebellion led to what?

- The Proclamation line of 1763 (an attempt by the British to protect the valuable  colonies from Native Americans)

Stamp Act of 1765:

-Tax on all printed materials

-Colonies desire direct representation

- Parliament: desires to keep virtual representation

Other important acts:

Tea Act of 1773

Boston Tea party was a result

The Coercive Acts of 1774 (The intolerable Acts

Who wrote Common Sense and what principles did it support?

-Thomas Paine

- Popular Sovereignty: governments are made by and rely upon the people.  - Nation State: state coincides with the people constituted as a nation.  

What are some key battles for America?

- Trenton: December 1776

- Saratoga: October 1777

- Yorktown: October 1781

Making a new nation:

We formed a Constitution with a Bill of Rights and Balance of powers

Slavery is a reality that is ignored:

- 5,000 slaves fought for American independence

- Gradual Emancipation in the North, slavery continues in the South

This is the first “Liberal Revolution,” it sets a blue print for revolution across the world.  

French and Haitian Revolutions:

France Before 1789 is under an absolutist system:

- a theory of government in which absolute authority is embodied in a monarch whose  identity is synonymous with the national identity

Louis XIV builds the Palace of Versailles and moves many aristocracy there. - He can control the aristocracy and what they do

- Also limits their power to form an army against him.  

What are the Three estates?

- First: clergy

- Second: Nobles

- Third: Everyone else

French Revolution

Was a limited revolution:  

-There were riots over bread

- National Assembly was called:

The Third Estate seeks reform

Radicalization:

- The Third Estate storms the Bastille,

- Louis and his wife Marie are captured and killed.

The Committee of Public Safety and The Reign of Terror:

- After the revolution, a committee of twelve people who hold all political power was  formed.  

- It was led by a man named Robespierre

- lots of people were killed

Haitian Revolution:

-Haiti is an island with over 500,000 slaves, and only 32,000 French colonists - Slaves in Haiti hear about the French Revolution and revolt

- Who was Toussaint Louverture?

A former slave who worked with the French, but also unified the slaves.

- the Haitians defeated the French and declared independence in 1804.

Big Takeaway:

a. Large events that are very complex, but are unified by a powerful ideology that  drives change at a fast pace

i. Problem is that this sometimes gets out of control. Ex: Slaves gain their freedom,  but cannot unify because they don't understand freedom.  

b. People all over the world are watching this happen. Other nations seek to prevent  revolution, by defining themselves.  

Napoleonic Wars:

Rise of Napoleon:

Invasion of Egypt:

- A successful invasion for Napoleon.  

- He does however, lose the Battle of the Nile against the British

- Who was the British Naval Captain that defeated the French?

a. Alexander Hamilton

b. Otto Von Bismark

c. Napoleon

d. Horatio Nelson

- At the end of this invasion, Napoleon declares himself “Emperor of the French”  

Battle of Austerlitz

- Where was it? Russia

- Who won? Napoleon

- Who had more troops? Russia

Battle of Trafalgar:

- Who was involved? France and Britain

- What was it? A large Naval battle

- Who won? The British

- 22 French ships lost, 0 British lost

- Horatio Nelson proves himself a worthy naval captain

Invasion of Russia fails

War of 1812

- Was a mostly naval war

- America wins with an inferior navy, shatters British confidence

Battle of Waterloo

- occurred after Napoleon had been exiled.

- He escaped and returned to France and raised an army

- Duke of Wellington defeats Napoleon and he is again exiled.

What was the meeting to eliminate radical revolutions in Europe and cement current  monarchies?

a. Geneva Accords

b. Concert of Europe

c. Treaty of 1812

d. Paris Peace Conference

Guest Lecture on Industrialization

- Who was it that was a depiction of women’s suffering during Industrialization? Betty Harris

- Industrialization led to Capitalism and profit-oriented business

What is Enclosure?

- The changing ideas about land ownership, productive use of land, and fewer workers  needed on land.  

- freeholders of land are in decline, w/ nearly 75% of land held by landholders.  

Coal and colonies:

-Coal fueled the growth of European cities

- Overseas colonies fueled raw materials for manufacturing to often be sold back to the  colonies.

Urbanization and Migration:

- by 1900, 90% of English population lives in cities

- City living was overall, pretty bad

- fertility rates decrease, contraception increases

Mechanization

What are some examples of Urbanization?

- Manchester

- Birmingham

- Baltimore

What did all these cities have access to? Coal

What did water power fuel?

- Ceramic and Textile manufacturing

- Canals to transport them!

Mechanization:

- The spinning Jenny, Cotton Gin, and The spinning mule are all invented. - What is the name of the machine that many children worked long hours sweeping  under?

a. Cotton Gin

b. Spinning Jenny

c. The Water Frame

d. Spinning Mule

- All of this standardized work led to standardized time keeping, so people show up to  work on time

What does steam power innovate?

- Pumps

- Power plants

- Ships

- Trains

What is Skeuomorphism?

- Designing a new technology to mimic the qualities or experience of older technologies  in order to make them more appealing.

The Great Exhibition of 1851

Was a great push for what idea?

a. Nationalism

b. Liberalism

c. Expansionism

d. Skeuomorphism

Was basically a giant fair to promote British Industry and increase the support for the nation’s  own interest. (Nationalism)

The British Empire: Cotton as a Global Product

-What major event paved the way for British Expansion?

The Battle of Trafalgar

- There is a large “Surplus Population” in Britain.

Many British settle in colonies in India, Australia, Canada, and South Africa Britain recruits “imperial agents” to control colonies and the lands within them.  

Imperial Expansions

The British use taxation to try to suppress domestic industry, in order to squash  competition.

What is the justification for this?

- White Man’s Burden: a justification for why it’s ok for Europeans to go into these  countries and force European conditions on them. They seek to “civilize” the world and make it  better.

British India is an example of this:

- The British East India company seeks to transform India into an economic network that  complements England’s economy

- this led to the Sepoy Rebellion: a rebellion by Indian mercenary troops, who think the  British are trying to force them into religious law breaking.

- Britain squashes this rebellion and forms an authoritarian state in India. Takeaway for the Rest of the world:

a. This is seen as a blueprint for Economic and political power: forming and controlling  overseas colonies.

b. These are empires built around industrial production and racist constructions. i. The empire and Industrialization make Britain so powerful.

American Empire

America is expanding West (functionally the same as the British Empire’s expansion that  occurred in India and elsewhere)

Louisiana Purchase:

- purchased from Napoleon for rock-bottom price.

Native Creek Removal

- Civilization Policy was an attempt to assimilate Indians by:

Inverting gender roles

Changing their property holdings

Introducing European Agricultural tools

Reactionary Nativist Movement

-Led by Tenskawatawa and Tecumseh in an effort to unite Indians against the White  man

Andrew Jackson sees an opportunity in this Indian in-fighting

- He starts the Creek War (1813-1814)

- Battle of Horseshoe bend

- Indian Removal Act of 1830: Promoted and justified by Manifest Destiny  

What is manifest Destiny?

The Idea that the land in America was given to the settlers by God, and they are  destined to make a great nation out of it in whatever means necessary.

Westward Migration

Technology

-Trains were used to move people across the country

-Rivers used to move people west, and goods south.  

-Industrialization causes cities to explode in size.  

Consequences

-Industrialization breathed new life into slavery by providing a cheap labor force.  -Slave vs. Free state arguments become prevalent.  

-Westward expansion is political and industrial.  

Early Industrial War

This is a transition period for warfare

- Going from Napoleonic warfare to Industrial Warfare

Who wrote a standard manual for the American Army after the Napoleonic wars for how to  fight?

Winfield Scott

Civil war was the most costly in American history

German Unification

- The idea of Real Politik emerges

- Abandons idealism and embraces collaboration with the aristocracy to achieve goals. - Otto Von Bismark is hired by emperor William I  

- He uses Nationalism to unify the German states together into an empire

Franco-Prussian War

Westward Migration

Technology

-Trains were used to move people across the country

-Rivers used to move people west, and goods south.  

-Industrialization causes cities to explode in size.  

Consequences

-Industrialization breathed new life into slavery by providing a cheap labor force.  -Slave vs. Free state arguments become prevalent.  

-Westward expansion is political and industrial.  

I. Takeaway 

a. Industrialism and Imperialism are directly tied into both of these wars.  b. Industry explodes in the American Northeast 

c. Germany creates a German empire under the idea of nationalism.

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