Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide BME3403 EABS
Popular in Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Quijada on Saturday April 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BME3403 EABS at Florida International University taught by Dr.Brown in Fall2015. Since its upload, it has received 369 views. For similar materials see Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS in Biomedical Sciences at Florida International University.
Reviews for Final exam study guide
These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these
-Miss Rudy Kirlin
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/18/15
Quiz 3 Chapters 910 review Ch9 The central nervous system The nervous system contains CNS amp PNS The PNS consists of sensory and motor neurons autonomic and somatic nervous system The CNS consists of brain spinal cord and CN2 CNS has rapid communication for homeostatic balance and emergent properties of intelligence and emotion BRAIN lacks a lymphatic system and sensory system Blood brain barrier The blood brain barrier is found everywhere in the brain like capillaries and ECF It39s between the blood and the brain Some cells like astrocytes tightjunctions capillaries make up the blood brain barrier The CSF barrier the CSF contains lymphocytes and monocytes Blood CSF barrier has a barrier between the capillaries and the CSF ependymal cells The meninges The meninges lies between the bones and tissues of the CNS It covers the brain and spinal cord The 3 layers are the Dura mater Arachnoid membrane Pia mater where is CSF found what secretes CSF what are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid CSF is produced in the ventricles by the choroid plexus and it circulates throughout the brain CSF is found the subarachnoid spaceThe functions of CSF it provides physical support for the brain It protects against acute changes in arterial and venous blood pressure It is a route of waste excretion replacing in many ways the function of lymphatics it is involved in intracerebral transport The dorsal root vs ventral root Dorsal root of each spinal nerve is specialized to carry incoming sensory information Dorsal root ganglia sensory nerves Ventral rootcarries information from CNS to muscles and glands Ventral root ganglia motor nerves Spinal nerves Peripheral Cranial nerves peripheral except CN2 which is part of the CNS Somatic senses get carried out by cranial nerves that go directly to the brainstem 9 then to thalamus 9 and last to primary somatosensory cortex Somatic senses travel up the spinal cord not the cranial nerves Vagus nerve is most important because it extends to the heart and abdominal organs like pancreas and GI tract Vagus nerve stimulation cause depression and obesity Simple receptors sharp pain dull pain complex neural axons special senses special neurons that respond to itch chemoreceptors detect chemicals mechanoreceptors respond to pressure like blood pressure thermoreceptors temperature photoreceptors light Special senses Vision hearing taste smell equilibrium Somatic senses touch temperature pain itch proprioceptive pathway Special sense receptors have a special synapses that release neurotransmitters and then active neurons that are downstream in vision and smell Two point discrimination test On stomach the sensory neurons cannot distinguish the two points one signal goes to the brain On cheek or hand it can distinguish the difference between two points Fewer neurons converge and it sends 2 separate signals to the brain Skin has 1011 receptors Phantom limb reported by amputees occurs when secondary sensory neurons in the spinal cord become hyperactive resulting in the sensation of pain in a limb that is no longer there Use a mirror to fix it Lateral inhibition when you strike a specific part of that sensory modality it intensifies the signal to one neuron and then there are postsynaptic potentials being to stimulated Tonic receptors fire rapidly when first activated amp continue firing ex pressure sensitive ba roreceptor Phasic receptors respond to stimuli that are input in them ex smell Left brain interprets right visual field Right brain interprets left visual field Wernicke39s area interpretation area Broca39s area Expression area the process the info and synthesis it and it allows to express yourself back Stroke in Wernicke39s area is receptive aphasia when someone is speaking English and then you interpret them speaking Chinese Stroke in Broca39s area is expressive aphasia when someone tells you something and you understand it and then you think you39re speaking normal but it comes out like quotthe sun most ratquot complex pathways A speaking a written word see object 9 visual cortex 9 wernicke39s area 9 broca s area 9 motor cortex 9 response b speaking a heard word hear the word 9 auditory cortex 9 wernicke s area 9 broca s area 9 motor cortex 9 response Ch 10 know the different special senses the visual system the hearing system and the vestibular system All sensory pathways begin with a stimulus in the form of physical energy that acts on a sensory receptor called transducer Transducers transform physical energy into neural stimuli that can be interpreted by the brain Afferent neurons sensory send stimuli towards the CNS Efferent neurons motor response from the brain to the muscles GLAUCOMA gt its basically increase pressure in the eye that causes vision to go into tunnel vision and the reason for that is it increases pressure that cause less blood to get in the retina which causes those cells to begin dying Fovea lets us see things sharply photoreceptors receive light directly because the intervening neurons are pushed off to the side Fovea damaged blind Macula the center of the visual field Both the fovea and macula are the areas a acute vision and they form the center of the visual field Cones are responsible for highacuity vision and color vision during the daytime when light levels are higher Most of the cons are located in the macula fovea Rods outnumber cones by a 201 ratio except in the fovea which contains only cones The 6 to 7 million cones provide the eye39s color sensitivity and they are much more concentrated in the central yellow spot known as the macula Rods In the retina they function well in low light and are used in night vision BLUE LIGHT damages photoreceptors in the retina RODS are more sensitive to light than cones Lens focuses light and they are located ANATOMY SUMMARY 1 Axons from the retina exitvla the optic nerve THE RETINA Fixation Ligtt Lens Retina Optic nerve point I l 0 l nruuunub I l t H 5 The choroid layer contains blood vessels quotl quotIquot Pigment eplmelnum of retina absubs a Dorsal ew o a section excess limt o the left eye Rod Bipolar neuron Cone Ganglon cell c Light strikes the photoreceptor In the fovea directly Li t 9h because overtylng neurons are pushed aside To optic nerve cell l 8 Neurons where signals Cone color vision from rods ma cones B39pdaf Guamquot are integrated can Rod monodtromauc melon I c d Retinal photoreceper are organized Into layers 8 Convergence II he retina Presbyopia normally the lens are squishy and it can accommodate by accommodating and changing the size and squishy ness of that lens you move the eye and see through the fovea by the serally muscles Loss of flexibility and flatter shape Myopia nearsightedness occurs when the focal point falls in front of the retina corrected with convex lens hyperopia farsightedness occurs when the focal point falls behind the retina corrected with concavelens Diseases you can just diagnose by looking at the eye diabetes retinoblastoma cancer High blood pressure High cholesterol Vision ight goes in the cornea goes through the anterior chamber of the eye which is the aqueous humor then hits the tojocus the light diffraction happens in the cornea vitreous humor the liquid in the eye cornea strikes thewto be able to read The vestibular apparatus Semicircular canals Sensory organAmpulla crista cupula Otolith organs sensory organ Maculae for utricle and saccule The vestibular apparatus also called the membranous labyrinth is an intricate series of interconnected fluidfilled chambers high K low Na Semicircular canals They sense rotational acceleration in various directions The endolymph fluid like CSF moves which stimulates each crista the crista within the ampulla the endolymph drains the fluid to the venous sinus in the dura mater of the brain at one end of each canal is an enlarged chamber the ampulla which contains a sensory structure known as a crista The crista consists of hair cells and gelatinous mass the cupula has hair cell cilia embedded Otolith organsthey sense linear acceleration deal with gravity calcified crystals and hair cells BOTH otolith and semicircular canals deal with head position If stimulated Utricle if head tips back gravity causes otoliths to slide crystals Sacculesenses vertical forces such as an elevator dropping M endolymph fluid moves Hearing Sound waves comes in through the external auditory canal hits the tympanic membrane vibrates the ossicles malleus incus stapes which vibrates the oval window sends a fluid wave to the organ of corti depends on frequency it causes the hair cells to move then the returning wave goes out through the round window signals are sent to the vestibulocochlear nerve the hairlike cells in response to sound waves bend on the membrane voltage gated Ca channels open and neurotransmitters are released amp sends signals action potential to the brain Sound is the brains interpretation of the frequency amplitude and duration of sound waves into pitch of a sound Outer ear middle ear inner ear Outer ear Pinna ear canal tympanic membrane middle ear air filled space that contains the little bones Malleus incus stapes tiny bones eustachian tube Inner ear organ of corti vestibular apparatus semicircular canals cochlea ANATOMY SUMMARY TH E E All I EXTERNAL EAR g l MIDDLE EAR l INNER EAR 39 me plnna e t g The oval window and the round window sepzate directs sound 3 the uid lled inner 88 from the air lled middle ea waves into Q g the ear h s Q39 Malleus Semicircular Oval canals window lntemd 39pgular 3 39 vein tube 39gt Ossicles Three small bones of the middle ear conduct sound from the external environment to the inner ear the malleus hammer the incus anvil and the stapes stirrup The three bones are connected to one another with the biological equivalent of hinges One end of the malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and the stirrup end of the stapes is attached to a thin membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear Eustachian tube Communicates between the mouth the pharynx and middle ear The eustachian tube is normally collapsed sealing off the middle ear but it opens transiently to allow middle ear pressure to equilibrate with atmospheric pressure during chewing swallowing and yawning Colds or other infections that cause swelling can block the eustachian tube and result in fluid buildup in the middle ear Homunculus The homunculus is what it would look like if all the regions in the body that had the same distribution as you find on the auto somatic sensory cortex What part of the brain is the somatosensory cortex found in vs the motor cortex and each of those has a distribution of each part of the body on a separate part of that section Motor cortex before the center sulcus frontal lobe Primary motor cortex premotor cortex frontal eye field and broca s area Somatosensory cortex after the central sulcus parietal lobe Somatic senses Referred pain Pain in internal organs is often sensed on the surface of the body It apparently occurs because multiple primary sensory neurons converge on a single ascending tract Gate control theory of pain alpha and beta fibers carrying sensory information about mechanical stimuli help block pain transmission basically the gate control theory explains why rubbing a bumped elbow or shin lessens your pain the tactile stimulus of rubbing activates alpha and beta fibers and helps decrease the sensation of pain know where your blind spot will be on the retina Optic disk blind spot region where optic nerve and blood vessels leave the eye 3 different types of cones red amp blue amp green Each cone type is stimulated by a range of light wavelengths but is most sensitive to a particular wavelength Red green and blue are the three primary colors that make the colors of visible light Vision is the process through which light reflected from objects in our environments translated into a mental image ANATOMY SUMMARY TH E E YE Zonules Lens bends attach tens to llgit to locus dliary muscle it on the retina L39 Optic dslt blind spot 39 39 1 region where optic nerve 7223quot 39 I and blood vessels leeve Cand of me e Schlanm f ye Ameous Central retinal artery humor 39 and vein emerge from Game center of optic disk Pupll changes 3 09 c quotm amount of light Fovea reg on entering the eye of sharpest vislon Iris Macule the center of the visual eld Vitreous chamber A I b Mew of the rear wall of the eye as seen 39 Retina layer that contains pm epm through the pupil Mth an ophthalmosoope Oillary muscle contraction alters Sclera ls connective tissue oui39vamre ot the lens FIGURE QUESTION r If die loves ls lateral to the optic dislg a Saslml section of the eve which eye is illustrated in part b 7 JUTII IUL JGquot Merkel receptors Melasner a corpuscle sense steady pressure responds to flutter and and texture stroking movements Free nerve Free nerve ending of Free nerve ending nociceptor responds to of hair root senses f noxious stimuli hair movement Ha mm 39 Sensory nerves Pacinlan oorpuscle carry slgials to senses vibration spinal cord Ruf nl corpuscle 391 responds to skin stretch VISUAL FIELD DEF E39CT39S marl Left Left 7 r r r I If EMr r m Wit Leelenn EEFIDHE entitle ehieen39l TempterHI r 1 elhil quot a 39 7 A r 39 H v 39 iIL M neeeulelr vieual levee Leeienn at math nenre 2 Bitemltmurell Hemiennen ie Leeieun at swath eh teem Leei n AFTER tl ehieem 3 Hemenvmeue Ile n1 tannerlei Leelem at right tl treat all Luwer Ileurn nvmeuue 39 ue relntelne nie Leeienn at left eerietell Hediatimn 5 Utapier Hemenvmeue ue rantanenpiielz Leeiem at left temlzmrell Hediatien Meverfe leer Hemenvmeue llle n1 lemmaE With central a elrring Leelczm at right Wi itall Pele Exam 3 Review Ch1113 Osmolarity amp Tonicity 8 points gt produced by endocrine gland gt causes another endocrine gland to produce a se arate hormone hormones that is necessary for another hormone to exert it full activity GHK equation and Nernst potential equation What does the Nernst equation explain Calculates the equilibrium potential which is the point where of a certain ion assuming that the ion channel is always open and permeable to this one ion no more net movement of ions How does Nernst equation differ from GHK equation The Nernst equation only concentrated on one ion while GHK equation considers all ions and their permeability in the specific cell What terms are in the numerator of the Nernst equation And why Ideal gas constant the absolute temperature in the logarithmic the ion concentration outside the cell What terms are in the denominator of the Nernst equation And why Z the electrical charge faraday s constant and in the logarithmic function the ion concentration inside the cell What terms are in the numerator of the GHK equation CI in What terms are in the denominator of the GHK equation Na in K in What assumptions are made when looking at Nernst potential The assumption made is that he ion channel is always open for that specific ion What term is present in GHK that is not present in the Nernst equation Why is that term not present The membrane permeability value is the term used in GHK because the permeability of ion influences its contribution to the membrane potential If the membrane is not permeable to that ion it does not contribute to the membrane potential LOOK AT QUESTIONS FOR IT Where water goes to the higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes What is a nonpenetrating solute something that doesn t penetrate the cell membrane In the body what are some nonpenetrating solutes typically ions glucose is penetrating unless you have type 2 diabetes What effects cells resting membrane potential if you look at the GHK equation what is it permeability and concentration of ions on either side of the membrane What maintains the concentration gradient the sodium potassium ATPase which helps to maintain the concentration gradient What is osmosis The movement of water across a membrane in response to a solute concentration gradient What is diffusion Passive and goes down the concentration gradient What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity Osmolarity is the total concentrations of solutes penetrating and nonpenetrating Tonicity is only the concentration of nonpenetrating solutes In addition tonicity always is in reference of the extracellular non penetrating solute concentration relative to the cell39s nonpenetrating solutes What s the difference between nonpenetrating and penetrating particle Nonpenetrating soluteThat CANNOT pass the cell membrane Penetrating solute if the solute particles CAN enter the cell membrane Which is more important clinically osmolarity or tonicity In medicine the tonicity of a solution is usually the important consideration Understanding this is very important when making critical decisions about IV therapy The choice of IV fluids depends on what solutes and water distribution bw the ECF and ICF the clinician wants Dehydrated cells IV solution is hypotonic Replace blood loss IV fluid to remain in ECF an isotonic solution is used What does tonicity refers to Cell volume change that occurs when cell is placed in solution Hypotonic cell gains water and swells Hypertonic cell loses water and shrinks lsotonic Cell does not change in solution What does osmolality refer to The number of particles per liter of solution Hyposmotic Solution B contains less particles per unit volume than solution A solution B is hyposmotic to solution A Hyperosmotic If solution A has contains more particles per unit volume than solution B solution A is hyperosmotic lsosmotic Two solutions contain the same number of solute particles per unit volume What particles does tonicity depend on Nonpenetration molecule ions What particles does osmolarity depend on Nonpenetrating and penetrating TABLE 58 Intravenous Solutions SOLUTION ALSO KNOWN AS OSMOLARITY TONICITY 09 saline Normal saline Isosmotic Isotonic 5 dextrose in 09 saline D5 normal saline Hyperosmotic Isotonic 5 dextrose in water DSW lsosmotic Hypotonic 045 saline Half normal saline Hyposmotic Hypotonic 5 dextrose in 045 saline DS half normal saline Hyperosmotic Hypotonic 39Saline NaCl 1Dextrose glucose What s important in chapter 13 muscle spindle apparatus what does it do what are the two functions it has alpha motor neurons gamma motor neurons cross extensor reflex alpha gamma coactivation knee jerk reflex be able to describe what is happening there ch913 CNS includes brain spinal cord and CN2 in retina What are spinal nerves They are peripheral because they are coming out of the spinal cord Dorsal root vs ventral root dorsal root has sensory fibers coming in ventral root has both motor autonomic affector and somatic motor muscles Know what the blood brain barrier consists of blood amp brain it it between the ECF amp capillaries Know what the blood CSF barrier consists of CSF and the blood it is between the capillaries and CSF ependymal cells Know what the meninges are Dura mater tough mother Arachnoid membrane pia mater CSF is found in the subarachnoid space Vagus nerve its important because it goes to the heart abdominal organs pancreas and GI tract Know what secretes CSF its secreted in the choroid plexus which it goes into the ventricles Know the visual pathway Know what happens if you cut one of the optic nerves or the optic chiasm 39iuI39lJE aLl L FIELDS 7 1 gtgt Fir j r 1 HIE r 1quot j V HHth A Blind H L MHFIAI L L11 homgn rmus humanepita Vl i rEi H ifquot time to lemon or prwure a x on g l apt tract A I rr quot a gt L L5 5 L ill Total lim ma oil rigm the r true it mumFrate region or n A j Flam ii it nerve mlc mm A D ti eh asm 7 7 39 c 4 i licmct v 2 HI hntnagal hrmlangpm m r Eru lesion involving Eight 439 5 1 F i hl L m area m A 4H A Erma EP39 1 7 L 39 5 r V I 5an A a Ali 2 Emil radial 39u 3 B ilp laar hem a epla ne 1 Y mi line thiasrml lesion i glar n A Eh 5 Lil hismt nz rmoiua i fEilii39iilxr gue rantano a no 1 involvement as lower rim p39iiE radialinn E Lli h mgonyrneus a grim quadrantanEFEE dual invivem o nl iii upper right Iiimu mdia tms due t lemon of mint momital ima Know what glaucoma is and know the defect you would have Know what macure degeneration vs retinious pigmentosa Left visual field right occipital cortex Right visual field left occipital cortex Wernicke s area receptive aphasia can t understand what people are saying Broca s area expressive aphasia can t really speak frustrated Know what cochlea contains and the structures Know what the utricle and the saccule are Otolith organs Know the ossicles are What conducive deafness is caused by What is Otoslorosis what causes it What is sensory neural deafness Know about the eye and the diseases 4 things and changes in the eye Know what the thalamus does know why it serves as the relay center Olfaction is the primitive sense that we have smell Know what referred pain is and explain why it occurs Know what the gate control theory is and why it makes it feel better Look at CLINCAL CASES in each chapters Chapter 9 HYPOGLYCEMIA AND THE BRAIN Neurons are picky about their food Under most circumstances the only biomolecule that neurons use for energy is glucose Surprisingly this can present a problem for diabetic patients whose problem is too much glucose in the blood In the face of sustained hyperglycemia elevated blood glucose the cells of the bloodbrain barrier downregulate p 194 their glucose transporters Then if the patients blood glucose level falls below normal because of excess insulin or failing to eat the neurons of the brain may not be able to take up glucose fast enough to sustain their electrical activity Neighboring astrocytes have small amounts of glycogen that can be converted to glucose but once glycogen stores are exhausted neuronal function begins to fail The individual may exhibit confusion irritability and slurred speech and unless the neurons are provided with glucose promptly they can sustain permanent damage In extreme cases hypoglycemia can cause coma or even death Chapter 10 NATURAL PAINKILLERS Many drugs we use today for pain relief are derivatives of plant or animal molecules One of the newest painkillers in this group is Ziconotide a synthetic compound related to the poison used by South Paci c cone snails to kill fish This drug works by blocking calcium channels on nociceptive neurons Ziconotide approved in 2004 for the treatment of severe chronic pain is highly toxic To minimize systemic side effects it must be injected directly into the cerebrospinal uid surrounding the spinal cord Ziconotide relieves pain but may also cause hallucinations and other psychiatric symptoms so it is a lastresort treatment Other painkilling drugs from biological sources include aspirin derived from the bark of willow trees genus Salix and opiate drugs such as morphine and codeine that come from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum These drugs have been used in Western and Chinese medicine for centuries and even today you can purchase willow bark as an herbal remedy GLAUCOMA The eye disease glaucoma characterized by degeneration of the optic nerve is the leading cause of blindness worldwide Many people associate glaucoma with increased intraocular within the eyeball pressure but scientists have discovered that increased pressure is only one risk factor for the disease A signi cant number of people with glaucoma have normal intraocular pressure and not everyone with elevated pressure develops glaucoma Many cases of elevated eye pressure are associated with excess aqueous humor a uid that is secreted by the ciliary epithelium near the lens Normally the uid drains out through the canal of Schlemm in the anterior chamber of the eye but if out ow is blocked the aqueous humor accumulates causing pressure to build up inside the eye Treatments to decrease intraocular pressure include drugs that inhibit aqueous humor production and surgery to reopen the canal of Schlemm Research suggests that the optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma may be due to nitric oxide or apoptosisinducing factors and studies in these areas are underway Chapter 11 AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY Primary disorders of the autonomic division are rare but the secondary condition known as diabetic autonomic neuropathy is quite common This complication of diabetes often begins as a sensory neuropathy with tingling and loss of sensation in the hands and feet In some patients pain is the primary symptom p 348 About 30 of diabetic patients go on to develop autonomic neuropathies manifested by dysfunction of the cardiovascular gastrointestinal urinary and reproductive systems abnormal heart rate constipation incontinence impotence The cause of diabetic neuropathies is controversial Patients who have chronically elevated blood glucose levels are more likely to develop neuropathies but the underlying metabolic pathway has not been identi ed Other contributing factors for neuropathy include oxidative stress p 24 and autoimmune reactions Currently there is no prevention for diabetic neuropathies other than controlling blood glucose levels and no cure The only recourse for patients is taking drugs that treat the symptoms Chapter 13 REFLEXES AND MUSCLE TONE Clinicians use reflexes to investigate the condition of the nervous system and the muscles For a re ex to be normal there must be normal conduction through all neurons in the pathway normal synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and normal muscle contraction A re ex that is absent abnormally slow or greater than normal hyperactive suggests the presence of pathology Interestingly not all abnormal re exes are caused by neuromuscular disorders For example slowed relaxation of the ankle exion re ex suggests hypothyroidism The cellular mechanism linking low thyroid to slow reflexes is not known Besides testing re exes clinicians assess muscle tone Even when relaxed and at rest muscles have a certain resistance to stretch that is the result of continuous tonic output by alpha motor neurons The absence of muscle tone or a muscle s resistance to being passively stretched by the examiner increased tone indicates a problem with the pathways that control muscle contraction Be able to describe what happens when u look at something in the eye First hits the cornea then hits the aqueous humor through the pupil through the lens through the vetrous humor Hits the retina in the retina it passes through the bipolar cells the ganglia cells then to the photo receptors Know where the highest concentrations of rods and cones are found What are the 3 types of cones red blue green Autonomic systems know the neurotransmitters that are present in the ganglia and the target tissues Sympatheic pu39lnwuys Parasympathetic pathways use acotyfchdim and use acetylcholine nanpingshr nu Muaczm39nic ruceptor Know what atropin does blocks acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors also cause pupil dilation in sympathetic Know what succinylcholine does it s a blocking agent for anesthesia neuromuscular junctions is where acetylcholine binds to nicotinic receptors that can be blocked by Know what nicotine and muscoline what receptors bind to Parasympathetic 9Acetylchoine binds to muscarinic receptor on target tissue Sympathetic 9Norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptor on target tissue Varicosity in smooth muscle 9 neurotransmitter 9 parasympathetic system 9 acetylcholine The adrenal cortex is a modified sympathetic ganglia and what does that mean The adrenal medulla which forms the small core of the gland develops from the same embryonic tissue as sympathetic neurons and s a neurosecretory structure Cromaffin cells are cels that release norepinephrine and epinephrine and they have nicotinic receptors FIGURE 1111 all different receptors and neurotransmitters 0M ATIC MOTOR AUTON OMI C PATH WAYS PATH WAY Pansympathe c Sympathetic Adrenal sympathetic pathway pathways pathway CNS CNS CNS CNS 16 is ACh Ganglion Autonomic effectors Smooth and carrier musdes Some endocrine and exocrine glands I Some adpose tissue KEY 0 Ann aoeryldtoline A E epinephrine 0 NE norepinephrine A FIGURE QUESTION Muscles The maintenance for homeostasis requires regulation internal environment control autonomic control endocrine control and behavioral responses ANATOMY SUMMARY SKELETAI MUSCLES Skeletal muscle Nerve and blood vessels Connective tissue Muscle fascicle bundle of bers Connecti ve tissue Muscle ber r a I39T Sik i i u df I Is composed of I quot SKELETAL MUSCLE l is composed of l t l l Nerves l Connective tissue Muscle fascicles Blood vessels I are composed of individual I muscle bers cells which contain l l l l Sarcolemma T tubules Sarcoplasm Multiple nuclei 1 are a l functionally continuation of linked to l l l l Sarcoplasmic Glycogen reticulum Myo bnls Mitochondria granules I composed of I l l l l Troponln Actin Tropomyosin l Myosin Tutin Nebulin 7 IH 39ml39h39 laments Thick laments organized into Sarcomere Know the difference between the smooth cardiac and skeletal TABLE 123 Appearance under Iigl39lt minrescepae Filber arrangement Lecatien Tissue menphel egg Internal structure Filber pre teins Central Een ac en speed Een39ir ac en fierce ef single fiber Ini39 aj en ef cen larrcti en Neural centlei ef centraclien Hermmal influence en centac etn Cemparisen ef the Three Muscle ees EKELE TM 5111i ated Eercern eres tterdied 1e ben es 3 few sphincters dese eff hellew ergans Mul tinu cleate large cylin drical bers T tubule and sarceplasmic reticulum ctirt myesirl Wepenin and th39epemyesin I Ilia2 and lrepenirl Fibers independent ef ene enether Fastest Net graded Requires eel frem meter neuren Elem eti c m eter neu ren Nene Sllu39l Tlll 5m eeth Oblique bundles Ferms the walls e f helle w ergans and tubes seme sphincters Unin u cleete sm all spin dle shaped bers Ne 1 111 bules sarceplasn39iic reticulum reduced er absent m myesin repemyesin Ca1 and celmedlulirl Fibers electrically linked via gap juncliens Ellnewest Graded 1Jrellrll39E daemical signals Can be auterhy tmic utenemic neurens M ultipl e herrn en es CARDIAC Etri ated Earcern eres Heart mu sdle Llnin udeete sh erter b ran dsing fibers T mbule and sarcepllasn39lic reti mlur n c n myesin ttrepenirl and bepemyesin Eel2 and trepenin Fibers electrically linked via gap iunc ens Intern edia ite Graded Mterh whmic Autenemic neurens Epinephrine Property Striations sarcomeres Actin and myosin Level of control Neural input Neuroeffector junction Hormonal control Source of calcium Regulatory protein that binds calcium Gapjunc ons Pacemaker activity Myosin ATPase activity Recruitment Skeletal Yes Yes Voluntary Somatic Neuromuscular junction specific None SR Troponin No No Fastest Yes Smooth singleunit No Yes Involuntary Autonomic Varicosities diffuse Several depending onloca on SR and ECF Calmodulin Yes Yes Slowest No Smooth multiunit No Yes Involuntary Autonomic Varicosities diffuse Several depending onloca on SR and ECF Calmodulin No or few No Slowest Yes Cardiac Yes Yes Involuntary Autonomic Va ricosities diffuse Epinephrine SR and ECF Troponin Yes Yes Intermediate ULTRASTRUC I39URE OF MU SCLE That last figure it will have 8 mutlitple choices Know what a sarcromere know all the bands what bands change 1 Z disks One sarcomere is composed of two Z disks and the laments found between them Z disks are zigzag protein structures that serve as the attachment site for thin filaments The abbreviation Z comes from zwischen the German word for between 2 l band These are the lightest color bands of the sarcomere and represent a region occupied only by thin laments The abbreviation comes from isotropic a description from early microscopists meaning that this region reflects light uniformly under a polarizing microscope A Z disk runs through the middle of every I band so each half of an I band belongs to a different sarcomere 3 A band This is the darkest of the sarcomere 5 bands and encompasses the entire length of a thick lament At the outer edges of the A band the thick and thin laments overlap The center of the A band is occupied by thick filaments only The abbreviation A comes from anisotropic an not meaning that the protein bers in this region scatter light unevenly 4 H zone This central region of the A band is lighter than the outer edges of the A band because the H zone is occupied by thick laments only The H comes from helles the German word for clear 5 M line This band represents proteins that form the attachment site for thick laments equivalent to the Z disk for the thin laments Each M line divides an A band in half M is the abbreviation for mittel the German word for middle Know which only contains actin myosin or both Sarcoplasmic reticulum like endoplasmic reticulum but in addition of making proteins and a a storage place for calcium BIG BAG OF Ca Each myofibril is composed of several types of proteins The contractile proteins myosin actin The regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin Giant accessory proteins titin and nebulin Myosin is a motor protein with the ability to create movement Also thick filament fiber Actin is a protein that makes up thin filaments of the muscle fiber Titan elasticity Nebulin stabilizes actin Troponin Ca binding protiens Tropomyosin blocks the binding site Crossbridges form when the myosin heads of thick filaments bind to actin in the thin fliaments IH39al39l lmt H Li II maul chili Elmid ili i li Irtu mien1 iE Iil l tinquotIla m1 pr EquotIa u i Ii FIELIHE 115 IIIE and thee dimm mnaf ill39yE39 lF El39 39 IIIEF a Ef mmena The Edidr Emu11 inn pail haimrygjf b n IiiEli link IJ39IE lJI39En ll amen l 39taage ba similar 14 lhe m arywn b ns Ear M quotin Know why ATP is necessary for muscles contraction sodium potassium ATPase to keep the concentration of Na and K inside the muscles cell normalize once it was depoarlize need it to pump ca back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum need ATP for myosin head H1 IIL39H39JI iElj l i l ATP arm r l zlli51i Hrl riEP sil11amp 1 liirle n I I Filmesp 3 11m El nl39iij39F39 a cah Jrn39lle Err HiaS 39iEl EEiflIrIEIIEEiEljl El ii 11 c E C awnII dintIr quotEl arEmrl T t FIIii lu Iii it Eligi 1W 39 39ru 39d 5 EIEUHE I i HIDEEFEFEEEIIIE39 EEEE g mangle Elmas Ef39l ergy 39mn in Hue phm hamh m Iiiiquot a E Whining runde lhEn um that ElgarEH energy Myosin ATPase In the power stroke what causes the myosin crossbridges to swivel The answer is that myosin converts the chemical bond energy of ATP into the mechanical energy of crossbridge motion Myosin is an ATPase myosin ATPase so it hydrolyzes ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi The energy released by ATP hydrolysis is trapped by myosin and stored as potential energy in the angle between the myosin head and the long axis of the myosin lament Myosin heads in this position are said to be cocked or ready to rotate The potential energy of the cocked heads becomes kinetic M yosln releases actin 1 blade to myosin V MW M Tight binding in the rigor state 39 quot quotquot I C 1 Y t m r v 39 quot39x NAVIGATOR I I f O l ADP 45gtquot 39 H A xiiquot391 39 39 1 l Myosin teases up i 1 Myosin hydrolyaas ATP Myosin Co v a head rotates and binds to actin n ac on relaxation 4 Actin lament moves toward M lineI Sliding lament Power stroke 0 FIGURE 1210 ATP provides energy for crossbridge tting and the power stroke To review actin and myosin structure see Figure 123df energy in the power stroke that moves actin calcuim ATPase back into its lumen using a Ca2ATPase As the free cytosolic Ca2 concentration decreases the equilibrium between bound and unbound Ca2 is disturbed Calcium releases from troponin which allows tropomyosin to slide back and block actin s myosinbinding site As crossbridges release the muscle fiber relaxes sodium potassium ATPase restores ions that cross cell membrane during action potential to their original compartments Relaxed state with myosin heads cocked Where is calmodulin used what type of muscle uses calmodulin Which is the regulatory protein that uses troponin Rigor mortis In the condition known as rigor mortis the muscles freeze owing to immovable crossbridges The tight binding of actin and myosin persists for a day or so after death until enzymes within the decaying fiber begin to break down the muscle proteins Smooplasmic robcnlum o Intracdlulm 0112 cmoontra ons incraaso when Caz enters call and is ahead tom mimic reticulum Ca gt C3 7 I o 03quot Inactive 0 Caz wnoduin activates MLCK 0 myoa39n light dia39n image 01ch l o 031quot binds to caimodutn C84 o MLCK phosphor atoa light 1 39l 3 0 chain in myosin hands and innoases myosin ATPaso ac vit Inactive myosin Active myosin Amuse ojW made 39 1mg musda tension ham Ac vo myosin cmadxidgo 3 0 side along actin and create 3 Smooth muscle contraction Bait y iemp uza ml 1 the ed EIin i m ILI rEL l u liiifltl39 I h t can weir i i rn j w mmraba minim mid1 rl w hiya r 7 midweek MamIrina in smooth i39I39IEFSLI39E What is tetanus what causes it If action potentials continue to stimulate the muscle fiber repeatedly at short intervals high frequency relaxation between contractions diminishes until the muscle fiber achieves a state of maximal contraction known as tetanus There are two types of tetanus In incomplete or unfused tetanus the stimulation rate of the muscle ber is not at a maximum value and consequently the ber relaxes slightly between stimuli Fig 1217c In complete or fused tetanus the stimulation rate is fast enough that the muscle ber does not have time to relax Instead it reaches maximum tension and remains there Fig 1217d Cardiac does NOT go under tenie Skeletal does go under tenine and have contractions Which area on the retina has the acute vision Know where the proteins found in skeletal muscle Know where actin and myosin cells are found Where gap junctions are found Matching gamma motor neruons apha motor neurons interfusa extrafusal golgi tendon organ musce spindle apha gamma co activation inhibitory interneurons sensory neurons Cross extensory reflex BE ABLE TO IDENTFY THESE Extrafusel musde fbors are normd oontmctile ToCNS Tonicelly ectiw smsory nwrons send information In CNS Gamma motor neurons from CNS Golgi tendon Organ links thequotqu md 10 Mdm lnlrehsd ber are found in muscle spindles mainse ber b Muscle sphvde sends information snout muscle shelch ho lhe CNS a Musde spindles are buried emmg me exlrn sd fbors ol the musde FIGURE QUESTIONS 1 When the muscle shear in a is relaxed Mid neurons so r ng e musde spindle gamma motor neuron to musde sshdle sensory neuon c Golgi tendon organ smsory neuron d none of the above 2 Which neuron res to came contraction of the ethsd muscle bers a muscle who motor neuron in muscle sp ndle gamma motor neuron c muscle spindle sensory nmron d Golgi tendon organ sensory neuron e none of lhe abow o W lendon organ consists of sensory none mifan inlamom snong colegen bers 0 FIGURE 133 Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs are sensory receptors in muscle Gemme motor nwrons fan CNS innervaleintal usel ibn Know what the knee jerk is and cross extensory reflex are and be able to describe them Know the functions of the hypothalamus regulatory functions Know what batulisium tensis toxin Acquired disorders that affect the skeletal muscle system include infectious diseases such as in uenza that lead to weakness and achiness and poisoning by toxins such as those produced in botulism Clostridium botulinus and tetanus Clostridium tetani Botulinum toxin acts by decreasing the release of acetylcholine from the somatic motor neuron Clinical investigators have successfully used injections of botulinum toxin as a treatment for writer 5 cramp a disabling cramp of the hand that apparently arises as a result of hyperexcitability in the distal portion of the somatic motor neuron Botox injections are now widely used for cosmetic wrinkle reduction Botulinum toxin injected under the skin temporarily paralyzes facial muscles that pull the skin into wrinkles ttubules move the action potential from the cell surface to the interior of the fiber Without Ttubules the action potential could reach the center of the fiber only by the diffusion of positive charge through the cytosol a slower process that would delay the response time of the muscle fiber
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'