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PENN STATE / Russian / RUS 423 / ribosomes contain what?

ribosomes contain what?

ribosomes contain what?

Description

School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Russian
Course: Animal physiology
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: animal, Physiology, and exam
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 study guide
Description: These contain information that may be on our next exam, minus the muscle section.
Uploaded: 02/12/2017
11 Pages 17 Views 2 Unlocks
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ANSC 423 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE


ribosomes contain what?



Quiz 1:

Organelles

Nucleus

Contains a network of chromatin fibers (Histones and DNA)- Nucleoplasm

 (RNA and proteins)-Nucleolus

Function

Contains the genetic code

Director of cell processes

Regulator of protein expression

Mitochondrion (power house of the cell)

Contains  

Outer membrane

Inner membrane

Function

Enzymes for the citric acid ccle

Fatty acid oxidation

Electron transport  

Intermembrane space

Functional

enzymes for nucleotide metabolism We also discuss several other topics like What forces laws and destroys capitalism?

DNA molecules (circular)  


What are the types of cytoplasmic vesicles?



Code for synthesis of NADH dehydrogenase subunits,  

cytochrome c oxidase, sysnthesis of ATP, tRNA, and rRna.

Crista  If you want to learn more check out How did salutary neglect affect the colonies?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Rough (contains ribosomes)

Protein Synthesis

 Protein post-translational modficiations

Smooth (no ribosomes)

Calcium (Ca 2+) storage

Lipid (fat) synthesis

Biotransformation of drugs

Golgi Apparatus

Contains  

flattened vesicles

Function  

Protein processing

Synthesis of secretory vesicles

Ribosomes

Contains

Ribosomal RNA


Golgi apparatus contains what?



Synthesis of proteins

Cytoplasmic Vesicles

Different types

Secretory- proteins are packaged in to be secreated later.  

Storage- store lipid droplets

Lysosome- contains enzymes used to degrade waste materials in cell.

Cell Membrane (fluid mosaic model aka. A non-static always moving surface) Composition:

lipid-phospholipid

Protein

Carbohydrate

Cholesterol

Function:  

Compartmentalization

Selective transported

Transmission and information processing We also discuss several other topics like What is output in computer?

Organization of biochemical reactions

Transcription  

make RNA copies of genes

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA and microRNA are products

5' cap is added, and 3' poly A tail is added

Happens in the nucleus of the cell

Initiated by RNA polymerase protein binding to promoter. Don't forget about the age old question of How do you practice transcribing?

Translation

synthesize proteins

uses mRNA as template, rRNA for assembly and tRNA as translator to produce protein Produces proteins

post-translational modifications occur (phosphorylation, disulfide bridges

Happens in the cytoplasm  

ribosome subunits initiation factors, and tRNA bind to mRNA near start codon

Transport Processes

Bulk Transport  

Exocytosis- transport outside of cell, uses membrane as a vesicle for transport.  Endoctosis- transport of larger molecules into the cell (receptor independent)

-transport of lipoprotein into cell (receptor-mediated)

Pinocytosis- ingestion of small globules into the cell

Phagocytosis- ingestion of large particles, bacteria, cells, degenerating tissues. Simple Diffusion We also discuss several other topics like What is electric charge and electric field?

diffusion of lipid-soluble/ hydrophobic molecules. Ex: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, steroids, and alcohols.

Concentration-dependent direction and rate of flow

Facilitated Diffusion

Aided by integral membrane protein

Concentration-dependent direction and rate of flow

Carrier protein changes conformation during transport because of changes in the  electrical potential (voltage gating or Chemical/Ligand gating) Ex: glucose,  

amino acids, charged molecules/ions

Water diffuses through lipid bilayer via protein channels

Active Transport

Primary

Against concentration gradient (low to high)

Requires: carrier protein in cell membrane, and energy (ATP) Ex: Sodium (Na+)  Potassium (K+) Pump

Secondary

Against the concentration gradient

Requires: carrier protein, energy, and an additional molecule to attach to. Ex:  

glucose transport via sodium ions.  

Co-transport

Symproters- transport two different solutes at the same time in the same direction Ex: sodium/glucose transport We also discuss several other topics like What challenges exist that can make your analysis inadmissible in court?

Antiporters- transport two different solutes at the same time in opposite  

directions

Ex: sodium potassium

Uniporters- only transports one type of solute

Proteins

Functions:

Catalysis (increase rate of chemical reaction)

Reaction Coupling (transfer energy from a spontaneous to a non-spontaneous reaction) Transport (transport molecules in and out of the cell)

Structure (of cells and tissues)

Signaling (information transmission into receptor-mediated signal transduction) Shape determine function  

Proteins can bind to other specific molecules

They can then change shape and provide 'lock' sites

Ligand (key) can then fit into the lock

Therefore the changes in shape alter the binding of ligands

Signal Transduction

Activation Mediate

Receptor activation signal transduction Second messanger mecanisms  intracellular signaling Third Messaenger (Nuclear transcription factors)  RESPONSE  

Changes in cAMP or cGMP

Changes in IP3(inositol triphosphate)

Changes in calcium w/in cytoplasm

Quiz 2:

IP3 (inositol triphospate)

Production:

Requires

Activation of: transmembrane receptor, G=protein, and phosphlipidase C

IPSP- Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential: these decrease the probability that the cell will create another  action potential.  

Inhibitory synapses depolarize the neruotransmitters. This happens because the binding of  certain neurotransmitters cause an increase in the negative ion flow into the cell, this  raises it's membrane potential and inhibits the cell from creating an action potential, by  counteracting the excitory signals.

Example: GABA neruotransmitters

EPSP- Excitory Post-Synaptic Potential: these increase the probability that a cell will create another  action potential.  

Excitroy synapses create positive action potentials. This occurs when the polarization of the  postsynaptic membrane goes beyond it's threshold limit, because it is allowing an inflow of too many positive ions.  

Example: glutamate neurotransmitters

Blood-brain Barrier

Permitted to pass: small, uncharged, lipid soluble, and unbound to plasma proteins. Ex. Nicotine Glucose and some amino acids have to be carried through by specific transport  mechanisms.

Neuravascular unit- pericyces, glail 'end-feet' and neurons  

Important for development, maintenance and capillary endothelial BBB which helps maintain  homeostasis of the brain.  

Glial Cells

another type of nervous system cell, that supports neuron function. Oligodendrocytes produce  myelin proteins, but does not generate action potentials.  

Brain

Spinal Cord

Contents:  

-Cells bodies and dendrites of motor neurons ( the axons exit through the ventral roots to the skeletal muscles or toward the smooth muscle.)

-Tracts of axons carrying sensory info to the brain and motor commands from the brain  to the motor commands.

Functions:

-Carry action potentials to the cord that were generated by the sensory receptors in the  skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and visceral organs.  

-Control simple reflexes (muscle stretch reflexes and limb withdrawal from painful  stimuli)

Medulla

Contents: cranial nerve nuclei (the cell bodies organized into aggregates that receive the  sensory input and send out the motor output.)

Functions: receives information from the body's external and internal sensory receptors and  then sends out commands to the skeletal and smooth muscles. Important for life support functions (respiratory and cardiovascular systems, vocalizations, and  

feeding)

Pons

Contents: large number of neurons in one two-neuron chain the relays information from the  cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain to the cerebellum.  

Functions: receive sensory information from facial touch and in motor control for chewing.

Midbrain

Contents: superior and inferior colliculi

Functions: Process and relay visual and auditory information

Cranial nerve nuclei

Functions: control eye movement and induce pupillary constriction of the pupil Reticular formation

is a netlike complex contain clusters of cell bodies (nuclei) and axonal  

projections.

Functions: modulates consciousness and arousal, pain perception, spinal reflexes, and movement.

Diencephalon

Contents: thalamus and hypothalamus

Functions:  

1. Thalamus- relay and modulator station for information moving from sensory systems and  other parts of the brain to cerebral cortex.  

2. Hypothalamus- regulates autonomic nervous system, hormone secretion by the pituitary  gland, and aids in physiological and behavioral aspects of homeostasis.  

Telencephalon

Contents: cerebral cortex and a few subcortical structures ( basal ganglia and hippocampus) 3. cerebral cortex

Functions: sensory integration, conscious sensory perception, and voluntary movement 4. basal ganglia

Functions: motor functions of cerebral cortex

5. hippocampus (only place where new neurons are formed)

Functions: memory and spatial learning

Cerebellum 

-Important for smooth, accurate, coordinated movement for motor learning. Not for  sensation or starting motion but for fine-tuning the motion. The cerebellum receives the signals for  movement, and then it compares those signals with the actual movement that can happen from the body and makes the proper allowances for the motion to happen as close to the intended as possible for the  body to execute.  

Corebrocerebellum: signals the coritcospinal pathways and descending brain-stem to execute  movement.

Spinocerebellum: signals motor functions to plan the coordinated and timed sequences of movement. Vestibulocerebellum: signals to vestibular nuclei which then coordinates eye movements and balance.  

cAMP

Produces sympathetic effects

From ATP via adenylate cyclase

mediates: insulin secretion and CFTR channel

cGMP

Produces parasympathetic effects

From GTP via quanylate cyclase

Nitrates increases synthesis

Cerebrospinal fluid

Functions: cushions brain, transport hormones, and metabolites and acts as waste control for the brain.

Origin: Produced by choroid plexus inside ventricles.

Uses: Can be used to diagnose disease via a spinal tap.  

Myelonated vs. Non-mylonated axons Action Potenitals travel faster Action Potentials travel slower

Neurotransmitters

Synthesized in the soma Transported through axon as vesicles Stored in the presynaptic  terminal Released to the sypnase Metabolized within the synapse or reabsorbed in the presynaptic terminal.  

Acetylcholine

Synthesis: Acetyl coA and Choline form Acetylcholine via  

cholineacetyltransferase then after the signals are transmitted  

Acetylcholine is degraded by acetylcholineesterase which breaks it down  

into Acetate and choline. The choline is recycled and via a high affinaty  

tranporter protein is transported back to the presynaptic terminal to be  

made into Acetylcholine again.  

Storage: presynaptic terminal

Release: triggered by the presence of an action potential on a motor neuron.  

These are called Cholinegic.

Catecholamine

Synthesis: Tyrosine is converted into Dopa by Tyrosine hydroxylase. Dopa is  

converted Dopamine by L-aromatic acid decarboxylase. Dopamine is  

converted to Norepinephrine by Dopamine hydroxylase. Norepinephrine  

is then converted to Epinephrine by Phenylethanolamine N

methyltransferase.  

Storage: floating within cytosol  

Release: triggered by the body experiencing SHOCK and it is released from the  adrenal medulla of the brain.  

Metabolism: Catecholomine is then broken down by Monoamine oxidase and  Catechol-O-methyl transferase.  

Corticospinal tract (Pyramidal Tract)

Contains: large number of neurons/axons that travel toward then brain-steam  

The majority or the neurons leave the motor cortex and then cross to the opposite side of the body before traveling down the spinal cord and to the limbs on the opposite side. Ex. The motor controls for your left hand are on the right side of your brain, and vise versa  for the right hand.  

However there are about 10% of the neurons that do not cross over to the other side but  instead stay on the same side and travel to the neck and upper throasic region of the  body.

The motor cortex can be divided into two parts:

Lateral corticospinal tract: travels to the spinal cord and affects the lateral white

matter and the lateral gray matter. This results in movement of the distal  

musculature of the periphery nervous system.  

Ventral corticospinal tract: travels to the spinal cord and affects the medial white  matter and the medial gray matter. This results in movement of the axial  

and proximal musculature of the periphery nervous system.  

Descending Motor Pathways (Extrapyramidal tract)

Maintains posture by constantly stimulating the postural muscles of the spinal cord.  Organization:

The motor cortices start in the telencephalon and travel to the brainstem entering  the red nucleus or the reticular formation. If it travels to the red nucleus  

the neurons go through the rubrospinal tract and onto affecting the lateral  

white matter and lateral gray matter of the spinal cord, and finally  

affecting the distal musculature of the periphery nervous system.  

If the neurons travel through the reticular formation they continue down the  

reticulospinal tract and affect the medial white matter and the medial gray

matter, and finally affect the axial and proximal musculature of the  

periphery nervous system. But there are also signals coming from the  

sensory organs of the head which travel through the superior colliculus  

then to the tecospinal tract and affect the medial white matter and medial  

gray matter and finally the axial and proximal musculature of the  

periphery. Or the signals from the head travel through the vestibular  

nuclei and the vestibulospinal tract, and then affect the medial white  

matter and the medial gar matter and finally the axial and proximal  

musculature of the periphery nervous system.  

Quiz 3 and New Material:

CNS Part 3

Visual System

Lacrimal gland-gland that secretes tears and is located at the corner of the eye. The  lacrimal duct runs from the corner of the eye to the nose via the nasolacrmal duct for drainage of the eye.  

Eye Anatomy

Sclera- outside of eyeball

Cornea- epithelial layer that is clear/transparent in the front of the eye.

Choroid- is the next layer toward the inside of the eyeball and has a vascular and  pigmented layer.

Retina- located in the back of the eye, and is where the photo-receptors are  

located.

Aqueous Humor- fills the anterior (between the cornea and the pupil) and the  posterior chamber ( between the pupil and the lens)

Iris- contains dilator and constrictor smooth muscle and separates the anterior  and posterior chambers of the eye.

Pupil- is an opening in the eye created by the iris where light passes through.

Lens- a transparent structure suspended by ligaments

Vitreous humor- a gelatinous fluid that fills the eyeball behind the lens

Tapetum Lucidium- a light reflecting pigment located in the rear of the eye in  nocturnal animals.

Eye Accommodation

The shape of the lens changes by the contraction and dilation of ciliary muscles  to focus on images.

Retinal Cells

Photoreceptors

Rods

Contains Rhodopsin ( cannot discriminate wavelength) light  

sensitive pigment

Longer than cones

More sensitive to light, used during night vision

Low acuity (detail)

Cones

Used for color vision

Shorter than rods

Less sensitive to light, used for day vision

High acuity (detail)

Connective structures:

Bipolar cells- connects rods/cones to ganglion cells

Horizontal cells- connect rods, cones, and bipolar cells to each  

other.

Amacrine cells- connect bipolar and ganglion cells

Visual pathway

Ganglion cells transmit visual signal through the optic nerve

these signals/impulses then reach the lateral geniculate nucleus in the  

brain and the images are finally recreated within he visual cortex.

Auditory System

Three parts

External-used to funnel the sound waves into the ear.

Middle-made up of three bones called the ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes)  also used to funnel the sound to the cochlea

Inner- contains the boney labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth.

Boney labyrinth

• contians cochlea and vestibular organ  

• filled with perilymph (fluid)

• Scala vestibuli (dorsal)

• Scala tympani (ventral)

Cochlea

– Contains membranous labyrinth

– filled with endolymph

– Scala media

Organ of Corti (hair cell receptor)

transduces the sound waves into action potentials which are then carried  to the brain by the auditory nerve.

 Transduction of Sound to Neuronal Signal

Hair Cell Spiral ganglion (Peripory) Cochlear Nuclei (Medulla)  Cranial Nerve VII Trapezoid Body 

Superior Olivary complex (Medulla-Pons) Inferior colliculus (Mesencephalon)  

Lateral LemniscusBrancium of Inferior 

 Colliculus

Medial Genculate Nucelus (Diencephalon) Auditory Cortex (Telencephalon)  Auditory Radiations

Vestibular System (bilateral system located in the inner ear)

Provides sensory information mainly equilibrium and balance for the spinal motor neurons,  cerebellum, and extra-ocular muscles reflexes.  

These reflexes coordinate the head and eye movements to obtain optimal visual  acuity (detail).

The Utricle and Saccule parts of the inner ear detect linear motion and head tilt when the head is still.  

The Semicircular ducts detect rotary motioning of acceleration and declaration of the head.  The membranous labyrinth contains a region of specialized epithelial cells that act as secondary  receptor cells.  

Autonomic Nervous System

Self-governing and independently functioning

Contributes to peripheral motor and sensory system functions with smooth, cardiac muscles and glands.  

Regulates: blood pressure, heart rate, intestinal motility, pupil size, secretion of glands, and  vasoconstriction/dilation

Essential for homeostasis

Axons from CNS go to ganglin site then to a post-ganglionic nerve and finally to the target  organ.

Ganglion: collection of neuronal soma outside the CNS

Nucleus: Collection of neuronal soma inside the CNS

Regulation

Autonomic Reflex arc at the spinal cord level via mechanoreceptors and pain nocicptive  signals

Autonomic control centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus, within the Hypothalmus  there is the Paraventricular nucleus (PUN) the Endocrine system (para), the ANS  (ventricular), and the Solitary nucleus (Vagus)

Sympathetic system  

starts at spinal cord goes to the autonomic ganglion then to the post ganglionic fiber and  finally to the target organ.

Functions:  

Increase heart rate Production of thick viscous saliva Pupil dilation Relaxes Uterine smooth muscle

Dilation of bronchial smooth muscle Penis ejaculation

Inhibit bronchial secretion

Inhibit intestinal motility and secretion

Acetylcholine receptor  

Nicotinic receptor (Ion-channel protein)

found in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla

Stimulated by acetylcholine and nicotine

No effect by muscarine

Tubocurarine- powerful nicotinic receptor blocker

Noradrenaline receptors

α Receptor  

α1- Smooth muscle  

α2- Pancreatic Islets

Functional difference from parasympathetic stimulation

effects are widespread througout body

effects are in discrete organs too

effects last longer, because of norepinephrine/Epinehrine circulation

Ex: Fight vs Flight response

Localized to visceral organs and eyes

Overall effect expends energy

Increases basal metabolic rate, burns energy, and stress response

Parasympathetic system  

starts at the spinal cord and then goes to the parasympathetic or peripheral ganglion and  finally tot he target organ.

Functions:

Decrease heart rate Production or watery saliva

Pupil constriction May relax or flex Uterine muscle Constriction of bronchial smooth muscle Penis erection

Stimulate bronchial secretion

Increase intestinal motility and secretion

Acetylcholine receptor  

muscarinic receptor (cell membrane receptro- coupled to G-protein)

Found in parasympathetic effector organs

Stimulated by acetycholine and muscarine

No effect by nicotine

Atropine-pupil dilator, blocks muscarinic receptor in iris. (deritropa  

belladonna plant)

Noradrenaline receptors

β receptors

β1- heart, kidneys

β2- Smooth muscle

β3- Adipose tissue

Functional difference from sympathetic stimulation

effects are seen in discrete organs

Does complete opposite from the sympathetic system

Ex: anabolic or vegetative functions of daily living

Cranial Nerves

1. Olfactory nerve

2. Optic nerve

3. Oculmotor nerve (parasympathetic) 4. Trochlear nerve

5. Abducens nerve

6. Facial nerve

7. Vestibula-Auditory nerve  (parasympathetic)

8. Glossopharyngeal nerve 9. Vagus nerve (parasympathetic) 10. Spinal Accessory nerve 11. Hypoglossal nerve

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