Chapters 1 & part of 3 (Professionalism) ∙ What is PR? Official definition? o a link or communication bridge between an organization and its publics o Communication with consumers, investors, mass media, community members, nonprofit donors, organization’s members, information seekers, elected officials and policy makers o Protecting reputation o Official definition: Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics (taken from PRSA 2012) ∙ What is a public? Three ways to identify it? Difference in internal & external o Public: a group of people who affect or are affected by an organization o Three ways to identify it: demographics, psychographics (values, beliefs, interests), name o Internal: those employed by the organization. Example for Ole Miss: teachers, students, coaches, administrators o External: example for Ole Miss: fans of Ole Miss sports, seniors in high school, Oxford residents ∙ Target public?MAPs o Markets, Audiences, Public ∙ Categories of PR work such as research, counseling, media relations o Media relations, publicity, social media, employee/member relations, community relations, public and government affairs, counseling, issues management, financial relations, industry relations, development/fundraising, minority/multicultural relations, special events and public participation, marketing communication ∙ What a PR professional’s daily tasks might be o Write organization materials, research public opinion, manage philanthropy, write all types of communications like speeches, brochures, website materials, news releases. You might help journalists get info and story ideas. Posting and monitoring social media for your organization. Meet with the publics like scheduling meetings with the publics that might be upset. Counseling boss/client on what to do in situations. Planning/conducting special events. Handle crisis. o On average PR people spend 75% of their time writing o Plan o Prevent o Promote o Publicize o Persuade o Problem solve ∙ Traits and skills needed in PRo Have to be creative and organized unusual combination of skills o Most valuable skill of PR is writing you need to be able to write well and in a clear, concise manner. o You have to be able to make and follow todo lists o Good problem solving skills o Have to be ethical and honest o Must be able to juggle multiple steps o Good at researching o Positive person o Good at researching o Expertise in social media o Good listener ∙ How like/unlike marketing, advertising, journalism, publicist
Builds relationships with all publics
Focuses mainly on customer public
Focuses on building reputation
Focuses on building sales
Main point is to enhance reputation
Main point is to make money for organization
∙ What are objectives?
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Tells one side of story. Not objective
Tells all sides of story, is objective
Communicates with target public
Communicates with mass public
Uses multiple ways to communicate
Uses mass media such as newspapers
Not paid for. Can be in media, or social media, special events, brochures, etc.
Paid for time/space in media
Can be external or internal (employees, students, members)
Goes to external audiences
Purpose is to enhance reputation
Purpose is to sell product
Is broader in scope
Is specialized type
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Press agents or Publicists deal only with eeping up with publicity about their client PR is much broader. ∙ Importance of journalism skills o PR people spend ~75% of their time writing o PR people write news releases o Write all types of communications such as speeches, brochures, website materials o Help journalists get information and story ideas o Answer reporters’ questions o Edit publications o Take photos/shoot videos ∙ RACE & RPIE o RACE Research Action Communication Evaluation o o RPIE Research Plan (actions and communications) Implement (actions and communications) Evaluate ∙ What are objectives? o Specifically what you want to achieve Increase awareness Influence attitude Obtain action ∙ PR work is usually done in these steps o Research set objectives plan strategy and tactics implement actions and communications evaluate results ∙ Where do PR people work? o PR people can work at corporations, nonprofits, government/military, entertainment, sports, organizations (civic, business, professional, religious), colleges, school systems (communications coordinator), healthcare, PR agency ∙ Harold Burson/BursonMarsteller o One of the leading PR agencies in the world o Founded by Harold Burson (he went to Ole Miss) he’s 94 and still goes to work everyday o His son teaches at Ole Miss ∙ Stress levels in PR o Gets a “D” for stress from Money Magazine o Especially stressful working at an agency Dealing with the media and deadlines Publics are so unpredictable Have to be careful about what you say ∙ Percent of women in PR o 70% ∙ PRSA and PRAM o PRSA: Public Relations Society of America 110 local chapters, ~220,000 members nationally has chapters in every state but Mississippi and North Dakota national competition ∙ called the Silver Anvil for programs∙ bronze anvil for individual tactics like best speech, press release, etc. student component= PRSSA o PRAM: Public Relations Association of Mississippi 11 chapters around the state Prism award If youre a member of PRAM youre automatically member of SPRF ∙ APR o PR pros realized they had no source of accreditation so people came up with an accreditation process and so if you are accredited you can put APR after your name ∙ PR jobs in the future o 23% increase in PR jobs predicted by 2020. Jobs in journalism are going down so that might be a reason that PR jobs are increasing. Companies now need their own communicators Chapter two: Evolution of PR of Profession ∙ The four models of PR o Press Agentry/Publicity Barnum o Public Information Lee o Twoway Assymmetric Bernays o Twoway symmetric Today, influenced by Harold Burson ∙ Who were P.T. Barnum, Amos Kendall, Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays, Doris Fleischman, Betsy Plank, Inez Kaiser, Rex Harlow, Harold Burson o P.T. Barnum: Phineas T Barnum Master manipulator of media Marriage of Fat Lady and Thin Man Press agentry 1800s “Swedish Nightingale” opera singer that no one knew of but when she got to USA there was a crowd of 30,000 people all the work of Barnum o Amos Kendal: First equivalent to press secretary Wrote articles (news releases) he sent to newspapers Former NP editor Wrote Andrew Jackson’s speeches Sampled public opinion o Ivy Lee: The first PR professional Helped industry owners deal with reporters Former reporter Opened his firm in 1904 to help companies dal with the muckrakers Issued declaration of principles: ∙ Give truthful, accurate information ∙ Not an ad agency ∙ “Tell the truth, because sooner or later the public will find out anyway. And if the public doesn't like what you are doing, change your policies and bring them into line with what people want.” When advising Standard Oil hired by Pennsylvania railroad ∙ persuaded them to be open and transparent with press ∙ later helped change opinion about their rate hike worked for John D. Rockefeller ∙ called in after the “Ludlow Massacre” of striking workers at coal and iron plant ∙ miners were talking to reporters, but company was not He did 4 important things: ∙ Advanced idea that business should care about public interest ∙ Dealt with top executives ∙ Maintained open communication with media ∙ Emphasized how important it is for business to care about community, employees and public o Edward Bernays: “Father of Modern PR” wrote first PR Book Crystallizing Public Opinion Taught first college class Uncle was Sigmund Freud Ivory Soap: sponsored kids’ soap carving contests Smoking in public was taboo for women: set out to change attitude and actions, had fashion models strut in Easter Parade with “torches of freedom” o Doris Fleischman: First woman PR pro, wife of Edward Bernays First married woman to be issued a US passport (1925) in her maiden name o Betsy Plank: First VP of PR for Illinois Bell and first woman to direct a department there First woman president of PRSA o Inez Kaiser: First African American woman to head a PR firm with national clients First African American woman to join PRSA o Rex Harlow: Harlow endeavored to make public relations an accredited profession. He advocated social responsibility, including a code of ethics, and promoted the use of sociological and psychological research Founded PR department at Stanford Cofounded PRSA Father of PR research o Harold Burson CoFounded Burson Marsteller, one of the top PR firms worldwide 94 Ole Miss alum ∙ How PR evolved from beginnings to today o 1800s there was press agentry (most famous was PT Barnum) o Amos Kendall was the first press secretary wrote press releases and speeches. Sampled public opinion o Henry Ford was first industry to use PR concepts raced his cars for publicity o Women’s Christian Temperance Union used door to door, pamphlets, giving fact sheets to press to persuade voters to outlaw alcohol o Early 1900s Ivy Lee opened his firm to help companies deal with reporters o George Creel organized PR effort to get americans to support WWI o Bernays set out to change public opinion about women smoking in public o Rex Harlow was the first full time PR educator and founded PRSA o In the 2nd half of the 20th century, rapid growth in PR o TVs in 1950s added challenges o By 1950, ~17,000 men and 2,000 women working in PR o By 1960, 23,870 men and 7,271 women o 1960s were a huge time a change in America. Beginning of: Civil rights, women’s rights, environmental rights, gay and lesbian rights o 1960’s: PR tried to generate public goodwill and understanding. Issues management, o 1970’s: reform in stock market led to investor relations boom o 1980’s: PR accepted as management function o 1990’s: Reputation management; Corporate Social Responsibility ∙ Trends PR is facing today o 24/7 news cycle o social media o transparency o multicultural world o diversity not enough minority members o PR pros are 90% white o Expanded roles for PR o Increased emphasis on measurement ∙ Role PR should have in an organization & place on corporate ladder Departments and Firms Chapter 4 ∙ New names for PR Dept. & why o Corporate Communications, Communications, Public Information, Public Affairs,Marketing communications, Corporate Relations o Why: expanded responsibilities, more integrated services, PR may have a negative connotation o BEFORE: primary objectives were promotion and publicity o NOW: complex and dynamic process of negotiation and compromise with a number of key publics ∙ What is a PR agency? What services do they provide clients? o Clients ask them “What should we DO?” o Counsel clients o Range from 1 person to multinational o Most don’t use PR in name o Bring expertise and resources that cannot be found internally o Provide: marketing communications, executive speech training, research and evaluation, crisis communication, media analysis, community relations, events management, public affairs, branding and corporate reputation, financial relations ∙ Job levels at a PR agency o Account supervisor o Account executive o Entryasst. account executive ∙ What are RFP’s? o Request for Proposal how you (PR agency) get business ∙ Names of some top agencies, especially BursonMarsteller o Ketchum o Weber Shandwick o Edelman o FleishmanHillard o Hill & Knowlton o Ogilvy o MSL group o GolinHarris o Porter Novelli ∙ Methods agencies use to bill clients o Billable hours + expenses Bill at 3x person’s salary when divided into hourly wage o Retainer fee (certain #hours guaranteed) o Project fee o Pay for placement ∙ Pros and cons of using an agency o Pros: Objectivity Variety of skills and expertise Extensive resources Special problem solving skills National and international offices Credibility and national reputations o Cons: Lack of full time commitment Lack of knowledge of your business Need for prolonged briefing period Internal staff may resent Upper management must devote time to helping Expensive Must disclose confidential info ∙ Duties in a large company’s PR Dept. o Media relations, investor relations, crisis management, internal relations, community relations, social media ∙ other depts. the PR dept. would work with in a corporation o Human recourses: who communicated with employees? o Legal: what effect will public statements have on legal liability o Advertising: both communicate externally o Marketing: concentrates on customers, PR on all publics ∙ differences in firms and corporations
Fast paced but may never see results
Normal paced and see results
Pressure on billing hours
Less pressure on billing hours
Possibility of rapid promotion
Slower promotion because fewer leeway
Entry level salary low
Higher entry and other salaries
∙ What is a PR agency?
∙ Where do PR people work?
We also discuss several other topics like umass chemistry
Don't forget about the age old question of as distinct from product market transactions, labor market transactions are unique in that
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Don't forget about the age old question of o What comes to mind when you hear the word “bureaucracy?
Ethics Chapter 3 Know the 12 values and principles & what they mean. You may be given a situation and asked to choose which, if any, area of ethics is involved. ∙ Ethics: values that guide a person or organization or society; standards of behavior; guidelines ∙ Goal of PR is to enhance public trust of the organization ∙ 6 Values: o advocacy o honesty o expertise o independence o loyalty o fairness ∙ 6 Principles: o free flow of informationo healthy, fair competition o disclosure of information o safeguarding confidences o conflict of interest (financial, professional, personal, prejudicial) disclose promptly if exist o enhancing the profession