This is my addition to Dr. Hart’s study guide that he provided the class. It shouldn’t be the only thing you use to study, but it might help.
Some of the bolded words at the bottom are not filled in, mainly because Dr. Hart hasn’t gone over it in class yet and I don’t want to give you guys wrong information.
∙ Random sampling (connection to external validity) – Drawing a sample such that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being included in the study. This contributes to external validity in that the fact that the sampling is random means that it can be generalized to the population of interest.
∙ Random assignment (connection to internal validity) – this is assigning roles in an experiment randomly to the participants. It connects to internal validity or how well the experiment is representative of what it was trying to test by working to eliminate/ account for the bias of the experimenter and the participants
∙ Psychology vs. common sense – Common sense doesn’t provide enough of a framework for understanding behavior
Tendency to accept information as true
Information stated generally is typically considered insightful ex. Horoscopes
Motivation obscures reality – people chose what they want to We also discuss several other topics like What makes introspectionism troublesome?
Sometimes outright wrong
∙ Understand the definitions for the terms we used in connection to research methods. If you aren’t sure what they are, they can be found in the textbook, Chapter 1.
o construct validity
o demand characteristics.
o dependent variables
o independent variables
∙ Goals of science (be able to distinguish examples of research designated to describe, predict, and understand) as well as the methods that may be used in
service of these goals (e.g., naturalistic observation). – The way I would answer this is know how different types of experimentation are used for experimentation. o Self report survey – this is used to understand how a population of people
feel about a subject. The problem with this is that not everyone will be truthful or even self aware enough to be able to answer questions
o In this case, you would use naturalistic observation – which is, as it sounds, observing the natural reactions of someone to a situation without them knowing they are being observed. We also discuss several other topics like What happens during cip or contact inhibition of proliferation?
∙ What can we learn from a correlation? – determine whether or how 2 preexisting variables are related
Physical attractiveness and happiness
Belief in soul mates and your number of divorces
∙ Benefits and disadvantages of experimental, correlational, and descriptive research – Don't forget about the age old question of Which interaction between earth and the atmosphere scatter energy back to space?
o Experimental – not often like the “real world”; practical and ethical issues associated with manipulating variables.
o Correlational – Correlation does not equal causation – it doesn’t explain why two things are linked
Ex. Ice cream and crime have a positive correlation, but only
because they both occur in the summer
o Descriptive research – people aren’t always truthful
Fundamental attribution error and the actorobserver bias – Tendency for you to underestimate dispositional (internal) influences on others behavior, and therefore don’t account for their situation
∙ Heuristic – mental shortcuts that often produce good decisions – reduce the need for though but are prone to error
∙ Availability heuristic – if an event comes to mind easily, then theses events probably occur frequently – this isn’t always true though, ex – Crime – Americans tend to overestimate crime, falsely believing that current times are the scariest in history
Hindsight bias – This is the “knew it all along effect” – an event occurs, and we are more likely to assume that the outcome was predictable
Confirmation bias – tendency to search for information that confirms our ideas and neglect information that disproves it. If you want to learn more check out Are there gender differences when it comes to bipolar disorder?
If you want to learn more check out What is a level 5 leadership?
Base rate fallacy (tendency to ignore baserate information [usually presented as a statistic]) – Tendency to ignore statistical summaries for personal accounts. Ex. Smoking and justifying it by the fact that they knew someone who smoked and was fine, despite scientific studies proving its health risks
Optimistic bias – This is the cognitive belief that we are less at risk for experiencing a negative event than those around us
Representativeness heuristic – Things placed into categories based on their resemblance to typical category members
Ex. Everyone from Kansas is a farmer; Most successful bank robber to date dresses like an old man because no one suspects him to fit the stereotype of a bank robber
False consensus effect – this is the tendency to overestimate how normal one’s beliefs, thoughts and feelings are compared to the general population.
False uniqueness effect – This is the tendency to underestimate how normal one’s beliefs, thoughts and feelings are compared to the general population. They think that less people agree with them than they do.
Illusion of transparency – The idea that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others. This contributes to nerves because people assume the audience can see how nervous they are.
Spotlight effect – The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are.
Theories of purpose for Selfesteem –
1. Terror management – argues that selfesteem striving is a byproduct of a desire to feel impermanent. Symbolic impermanence. Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate the accounting rate of return?
a. Culture is not going anywhere – contribute to it significantly and you will achieve “symbolic immortality” or be immortal.
2. Sociometer Theory: Evolutionary purpose, protects against isolation – self esteem is a measure of how well we are fitting in
3. Selfaffirmation theory – self esteem is a buffer against daily stress. Self esteem acts as a resource in dealing with the obstacles of life and keeps us progressing towards our goals
Lewin’s equation – B = f ( P, E)
Behavior is a function of the person and the environment. Social Psych puts more emphasis on “E”
Rosenthal’s study of expectancy effects (selffulfilling prophecy) – a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
Robert Rosenthal (1985,2006) tested this through experimental bias – found that research participants live up to what they believe experimenters expect of them. Read more p 110 in textbook
Dependent variable what is measured in an experiment
Independent variable – what is manipulated in an experiment
Kelley’s attribution theory – How people go about explaining other’s behavior. People make casual references to explain why others or themselves act a certain way. External attribution – causes are external or situation to the person Internal – casues are internal to the person, ei attitudes, personality, or abilities
Demand characteristics – Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected. This would be something like the script read to the participants to give instructions on what they are suppose to be doing. All that needs to be consistent as to not affect results
Regression toward the mean – misunderstanding the tendency for extreme behavior to return towards one’s average – ex. If you do well on a test, there is more room to go down than up, but if you do worse on the next test, you will blame something other than regression toward the mean.
Illusory correlation – seeing relationship between 2 things when none exists
Selfserving biases (e.g., attributing more responsibility to the self for positive behaviors than negative behaviors. We are not so kind to others, however) – tendency to attribute success to internal factors (skill), while attributing failure to external factors like bad luck
Selfpresentation – need to maintain a desired selfimage
Selffulfilling prophecy a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
Confirmation bias – tendency to serach for information that confirms our ideas and neglect information that disproves it
Belief perseverance – Persistence of one’s initial beliefs, even in the face of discrediting evidence
Learned helplessness – feeling of being powerless, normally stemming from a traumatic event
Bracing for the worst – tendency to get pessimistic right before learning about an important outcome
Langer and Rodin’s famous nursing home study
Upward and downward social comparison Social comparison is the act of comparing our traits and abilities with the traits and abilities of others
Upward – you compare to someone better than you ex. Mother Theresa you are going to feel worse about yourself if yours standard is to be as good as Mother Theresa – could also be motivation though.
Downward – compare to someone worse than you ex. The devil – you are going to feel better about yourself if your standard is to be better than the devil. Four qualities of automaticity
1. Unintentional – you don’t intend to do it
2. Uncontrollable – inability to alter it once it started
3. Lace of awareness – you don’t know its happening
4. Efficiency – you don’t have to think consciously to do it
Theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen) – 2 predictors of behavior 1. Personal attitudes toward behavior
2. Subjective norms and wanting to make a subjectively good impression – both of these results in behavioral intention to do to not do something, in which is the best predictor of behavior.
When will an attitude predict behavior and, conversely, when will a behavior cause an attitude?
Cognitive dissonance (Festinger) – people have a need to avoid inconsistency in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors – dissonance is unsettling
Selfperception theory (Bem)
Selfaffirmation theory the need to assert our own selfadequacy
Lowball technique – tendency to comply with a large, unexpected request after having committed to an earlier, lesser request.
Footinthedoor technique – tendency for people who have complied with a small request to be more willing to comply with a larger request later.
Doorintheface technique –
ABC’s of attitudes
Asch’s conformity research
Sherif’s work on establishing group norms – 1936 – autokenetic effect – negotiating reality with others on how much a light moves or doesn’t move, people tend to gravitate towards a middle ground.
When will people conform?
Distinguish between conformity, compliance, and obedience
conformity – change in behavior or beliefs to agree with others compliance – yielding to a request for certain behaviors
obedience – change in heavier or beliefs as a results of a commands of others in authority – no request
Understand the Milgram studies on obedience
Zimbardo’s simulated prison experiment – what did this famous study suggest about human behavior?